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H.Grand Alliance – U.S. (FDR), U.K. (Winston Churchill), & U.S.S.R. (Joseph Stalin). 1.Unconditional Surrender – Allies fight until Axis surrender w/o.

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Presentation on theme: "H.Grand Alliance – U.S. (FDR), U.K. (Winston Churchill), & U.S.S.R. (Joseph Stalin). 1.Unconditional Surrender – Allies fight until Axis surrender w/o."— Presentation transcript:

1 H.Grand Alliance – U.S. (FDR), U.K. (Winston Churchill), & U.S.S.R. (Joseph Stalin). 1.Unconditional Surrender – Allies fight until Axis surrender w/o conditions. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the Allies were fighting for the "unconditional surrender" of Germany, Italy and Japan - a stand immediately endorsed by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. (L-R) French Gen. Henri Giraud, Roosevelt, Charles DeGaulle, Churchill. January 24, 1943.

2 Total War Concept of “total war” Mobilizing the economy Rationing Women in the work force Propaganda Military tactics Two women stand amidst the ruins of an almshouse in Berkshire, England.

3 Gasoline, coffee, sugar, meat, other goods are rationed. Gasoline, coffee, sugar, meat, other goods are rationed. “Victory Gardens” and other measures. “Victory Gardens” and other measures. Rationing and Victory Gardens

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5 Mobilizing the Economy A worker inspects 1000-pound bomb cases

6 Women in the Work Force “Rosie the Riveter”

7 A WASP (Women's Airforce Service Pilot) pilot during the war. Army Air Field, Texas. A female combat photographer.

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10 Allies vs. Axis Allies in green; Axis in orange; neutral in gray Allies in green; Axis in orange; neutral in gray

11  At the beginning of 1943, the Allies agreed to seek from the Axis Powers nothing short of “unconditional surrender.”

12 Allies enter Rome Italy Surrenders 1943

13 The bodies of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, center, his mistress, Clara Petacci, right, and Achille Starace, former secretary of the Fascist Party, hang by their heels in Milan, Italy, April 29, 1945, after they were executed by Italian partisans. AP Photo/U.S. Army Air Force

14 The D-Day Invasion June 6, 1944 Eisenhower speaks with U.S. paratroops of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944. Large landing craft convoy crosses the English Channel on June 6, 1944. “Operation Overlord”

15 Allied ships during D-Day invasion, 1944. I.D-Day Invasion (June 6, 1944) - Allies invade at Normandy to liberate France. 1.Largest naval invasion in history.

16 The Battle of Normandy (D-Day) was fought in 1944 between Nazi Germany in Western Europe and the invading Allied forces as part of the larger conflict of World War II. Over sixty years later, the Normandy invasion, codenamed Operation Overlord, still remains the largest seaborne invasion in history, involving almost three million troops crossing the English Channel from England to Normandy in then German-occupied France. It is most commonly known by the name D-Day. U.S. troops wade ashore at Normandy

17 D-Day Invasion The invasion was supposed to happen on June 5th, but was postponed due to bad weather and rough seas.

18 Utah Beach, Normandy. 82 nd Airborne dropped inland of Normandy beach (some off DZ).  Allied forces under U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower.  “Operation Overlord” 150,000 Allies, biggest military offensive in history.  Allies fought their way past underwater mines, barbed wire, and machine-gun fire.  Heavy resistance even though Germans thought it was a diversion for a larger invasion elsewhere.  Germ slow response allowed Allies to set up a beachhead.  Within three months, Allies had 2 million men and half mill vehicles.

19 The primary Allied formations that saw combat in Normandy came from the U.S., U.K., and Canada. Substantial Free French and Polish forces also participated in the battle after the assault phase, and there were also contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Norway.

20 2.Liberation of Paris – Aug 1944.

21 An American soldier guards German troops captured during the Battle of the Bulge U.S. troops advance through the snow toward the town of St. Vith, Belgium 3.Battle of the Bulge (1944) – Last effort by Germans to win.

22 German Tiger at Battle of the Bulge.

23 J.Tuskegee Airmen – The African- American pilots of WWII. Pilots of the "Tuskegee Airmen," the elite, all-African American 332nd Fighter Group at Ramitelli, Italy. P-51’s of the 332d Fighter Group; the "redtails" of the Tuskegee Airmen. The nearest aircraft depicted is that of Lt. Lee Archer, an Ace. Tuskegee Airmen in front of a P-40.

24  U.S. Air Commander Harris – strategic bombing of cities to crush will to fight.  Feb, 1942, 4-engine bombers available for action.  1943, B-17 Flying Fortress; allowed US to bomb Berlin/Germany, better technology with radar; used chaff to block ground radar.  1944, the B-29 Superfortress developed (able to bomb Japan) had 10 machine guns, pressurized to fly at 30K feet, 20K lbs of bombs (incindiaries), fly 1,900 miles. B-17’s on their way to German factories.

25 The Firebombing of Dresden Dresden at the time, “was a mass of munitions works, an intact Gov’t center, and a key transportation center. It is now none of those things.”

26 Dresden, Germany after bombings. 316 bombers of the US Eighth Air Force attacked Dresden’s marshaling yards outside the city center. Taking part were B-17 Flying Fortresses.

27 The Nazis last desperate bid to turn the course of WWII was by unleashing an arsenal of sinister weapons (Wernher von Braun) against the Allies. The Nazis last desperate bid to turn the course of WWII was by unleashing an arsenal of sinister weapons (Wernher von Braun) against the Allies. They were known as the V-1 (prototype cruise missile) and the V-2, the first ballistic missile. Both weapons caused immense civilian casualties in London and Antwerp (By March of 1945, 1,054 hit England). They were known as the V-1 (prototype cruise missile) and the V-2, the first ballistic missile. Both weapons caused immense civilian casualties in London and Antwerp (By March of 1945, 1,054 hit England). After WWII, Braun & his team came to White Sands, NM. After WWII, Braun & his team came to White Sands, NM. German V2 rocket being prepared for launch in the early 1940's. The “V” was for Vengeance.

28  By Jan 1945, Hitler moved into a bunker 55 ft below Berlin to direct the war.  March 1945, Allied moved into Germany.  In April 1945, Allies linked with Soviets in northern Germany.  Soviet forces began pushing west: Ukraine (end of 1943), Balkan states beginning of 1944), Warsaw (Jan 1945), Berlin (Apr 45); southern front swept through Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.  In 1945, Hitler Youth members (13-14 years old) were on the front lines.  Blamed the world’s Jews for the war.

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30 Germany Surrenders K. Hitler commits suicide – Apr 30, 1945. 1.V-E Day (Victory in Europe) – war in Europe ended on May 7, 1945. Cover of US newspaper, May 2, 1945.

31 “Hot Time In The Town Of Berlin” by Frank Sinatra There'll be a hot time In the town of Berlin When the Yanks go marchin' in I wanna be there boy, And spread some joy When they take old Berlin There'll be a hot time In the town of Berlin When the Brooklyn boys begin To take the joint apart And tear it down When they take old Berlin They're gonna start a row And show them how We paint the town back, in Kokomo They're gonna take a hike Through Hitler's Reich And change his 'Heil' to 'What ya know, Joe' There'll be a hot time In the town of Berlin When the Yanks go marchin' in You could never keep 'em happy down on the farm After they take Berlin I'm gonna grab a Frau And show her how We paint the town back, in Michigan I'm gonna take a hike Through Hitler's Reich And change that 'Heil' to 'Gimme some skin' There'll be a hot time In the town of Berlin When the Yanks go marchin' in You know that you could never keep 'em happy down on the farm After they take Berlin

32 V-E Day May 7, 1945

33 The Pacific War, 1944–1945 U.S. soldiers raise the American flag after capturing Iwo Jima.

34 The Navajo Code Talkers (400) have been credited with saving countless lives and hastening the end of the war. The Navajo Code Talkers (400) have been credited with saving countless lives and hastening the end of the war. The Code Talker's primary job was to talk and transmit information on tactics, troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield information via telegraphs and radios in their native dialect. A major advantage of the code talker system was its speed. The method of using Morse code often took hours where the Navajos handled a message in minutes. The Code Talker's primary job was to talk and transmit information on tactics, troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield information via telegraphs and radios in their native dialect. A major advantage of the code talker system was its speed. The method of using Morse code often took hours where the Navajos handled a message in minutes. The Navajo's unwritten language was understood by fewer than 30 non- Navajo's at the time of WWII. The size and complexity of the language made the code extremely difficult to comprehend, much less decipher. It was not until 1968 that the code became declassified by the US Government. The Navajo's unwritten language was understood by fewer than 30 non- Navajo's at the time of WWII. The size and complexity of the language made the code extremely difficult to comprehend, much less decipher. It was not until 1968 that the code became declassified by the US Government. Pfc. Preston Toledo and Pfc. Frank Toledo, Navajo cousins in a Marine artillery regiment in the South Pacific, relay orders over a field radio in their native tongue. Cpl. Henry Bake, Jr., and Pfc. George Kirk, Navajos serving in December 1943 with a Marine Corps signal unit, operate a portable radio set in a clearing behind the front lines. L. Navajo Code Talkers – Native Americans used their native language as code during WWII.

35 The Navajo Code NAMES OF PLANESNAVAJO WORDCODE DIVE BOMBER GINI CHICKEN HAWK TORPEDO PLANE TAS-CHIZZIE SWALLOW FIGHTER PLANE DA-HE-TIH-HI HUMMING BIRD BOMBER PLANE JAY-SHO BUZZARD NAMES OF SHIPS BATTLESHIP LO-TSO WHALE AIRCRAFT CARRIER TSIDI-MOFFA-YE-HI BIRD CARRIER SUBMARINE BESH-LO IRON FISH DESTROYER CA-LO SHARK

36 ► O utlawed by Geneva Convention, Japanese used mustard gas in China & New Guinea. ► Australia stockpiled tons of mustard gas for defensive purposes (uncovered in 2007).

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38 M.Japanese conquest of SE Asia. M.Japanese conquest of SE Asia. 1.Forced laborers – 800K Koreans sent to Japan. 1.Forced laborers – 800K Koreans sent to Japan. 2.Burma-Thailand Railway (1943) – 12K Allied & 90K natives died. 2.Burma-Thailand Railway (1943) – 12K Allied & 90K natives died. 3.French Indochina – Ho Chi Minh’s Communist Party provided info & rescued U.S. pilots. POW workers on the Burma-Thailand Railway (1943).

39 The Bataan Death March was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of 72K POW’s, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. Approximately 5-10K Filipino and 600-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell. The march occurred after the three-month Battle of Bataan, part of the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42). Generals Wainwright (left) and MacArthur. The Death March (1942).

40 N.Japanese Internment – Manzanar camp in CA during WWII.

41 Executive Order 9066: Resulting in the Relocation of Japanese (1942) Executive Order No. 9066 The President Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104); Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.

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43 Manzanar Camp, central California.

44 Japanese-Americans leaving from Los Angeles to Manzanar.

45 Doolittle Raid – Boost US morale; bombed Japan; small damage but huge boost in morale; crash landed in China; nearly 250K Chinese killed for revenge. The Doolittle Raid; April 18, 1942. A B-25 taking off from Hornet for the raid.

46 LtCol James H. Doolittle, USAAF (front), leader of the raiding force, wires a Japanese medal to a 500-pound bomb, during ceremonies on the flight deck of USS Hornet, shortly before his force of sixteen B-25B bombers took off for Japan. Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle (center) with members of his flight crew and Chinese officials in China after the attack.

47 O.Pacific Theater. 1.Battle of Midway (June 4, 1942) – turning point of war in Asia. a)U.S. planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers.  US cracked Japanese codes; knew they’re coming; runways intact and carriers safe.  Four Japanese carriers sunk; Navy never recovered.  US established superiority in the Pacific.  Now – war of attrition; war became bitter. Japanese aircraft carrier Hiryu burning, morning of 5 June 1942.

48 The Battle of Midway The USS Yorktown receives a direct hit during the battle of Midway

49 2. Guadalcanal (Aug 1942-Feb 1943) – first Japanese land taken. 3. Iwo Jima (Feb-Mar 1945) – flag; airstrip.  Invasion on Feb 19, 1945, faced 22,000 Japanese on volcanic island.  Jap used natural tunnels for static defense (in contrast to bonsai/ rushing attacks used before.  Code name for Mt. Sirabachi was “Mt Hot Rocks.”  Took 4-days to raise U.S. flag (photo), approx 40-days to take island. It has been said that if was not for the Navajo Code Talker's, the Marines would have never taken Iwo Jima.

50 Kamikaze - Means "divine wind“ in Japanese, and refers to the suicide attacks by Japanese military aviators, against Allied shipping in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of WWII. USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa and another kamikaze near May 11, 1945. 372 personnel were killed. A Mitsubishi Zero fly’s toward the USS White Plains on October 25, 1944. The aircraft exploded shortly after this picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.

51 The USS Hornet shooting at a Kamikaze near Japan. Kamikaze heading toward US carrier. A kamikaze (just left of center near the top border), a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri.

52 Preparing the “Little Boy” atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. Birth of the Atomic Bomb “The Manhattan Project”

53 P.U.S. President Harry S. Truman (after FDR died in Apr) – Drop atomic bombs on Japan. 1.Hiroshima (1st bomb - Aug 6, 1945), by The Enola Gay. 1.Hiroshima (1st bomb - Aug 6, 1945), by The Enola Gay. 2.Nagasaki (2nd bomb on Aug 9). 2.Nagasaki (2nd bomb on Aug 9).  Japan made extensive preparations to defend the homeland; many U.S. losses if Allies invaded.  Albert Einstein was a German Jew and helped start the Manhattan Project.  US only had two bombs; not sure how effective they would be.

54 Hiroshima The blast destroyed 90% of the city. When the bomb exploded, the temperature at ground zero rose to 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The blast killed 70,000 people instantly; an additional 70,000 were dead by the new year from burns, radiation, or other injuries. Nearly all the victims were civilians.

55 Nagasaki before and after bombing. The upper-body of a boy exposed to the explosion.

56 3. Japan surrenders – V-J Day (Sep 2, 1945) Aboard the USS Missouri, ending WWII. Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.

57 Should We have Dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan? PROCON Saved U.S. Lives.Immoral. Better than Invasion.Militarily Refused to Surrender. Unnecessary. Shortened the War.Killed over Part of “Total War.” 210,000 Civilians. Made the U.S. a Started the Atomic Superpower! Weapons Race.

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59 Military Tactics Injured survivors of the Nagasaki blast Family in the wreckage of their Liverpool home

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61 United States War Involvement CharacteristicsWorld War IWorld War II Military Personnel4,744,00016,354,000 Army4,057,00011,260,000 Air Force(Part of Army)(Part of Army) Navy599,0004,183,000 Marines79,000669,000 Coast Guard9,000241,000 Killed116,516405,399 Wounded204,002670,846 Source: Historical Statistics of the United States.

62 Battle Deaths in World War II CountryBattle Deaths USSR7,500,000 Germany3,500,000 Yugoslavia410,000 Poland320,000 Romania300,000 United States292,000 United Kingdom245,000 France210,000 Hungary140,000 Finland82,000 Italy77,000 Greece74,000 Canada37,000

63 Germany lost the most soldiers in World War I, and the Soviet Union lost the most in World War II. The percentage of Soviet losses in World War II is more than twice the percentage of German losses in World War I. Germany lost a total of less than 2 million in WWI, while the Soviet Union lost a total of 7.5 million in World War II.

64 Q.The Nuremberg Trials – Convicted many for crimes against humanity after WWII. The Nuremberg Military Tribunal. War crimes trials Were also held In Italy and Japan.

65 WWII Words and Phrases Blockbuster – Refers to a bomb that could level an entire block. When the boys came home, the phrase caught on to represent anything that made a real impact. Blockbuster – Refers to a bomb that could level an entire block. When the boys came home, the phrase caught on to represent anything that made a real impact. “Gung Ho” – The origin goes back to the Chinese who worked on the Great Wall. Their foreman would yell “Gung Ho” and they’d all get busy in unison. The phrase caught on with the Marines in WWII when General Carlson began using it for enthusiastically working (together or single). “Gung Ho” – The origin goes back to the Chinese who worked on the Great Wall. Their foreman would yell “Gung Ho” and they’d all get busy in unison. The phrase caught on with the Marines in WWII when General Carlson began using it for enthusiastically working (together or single). “Panic Button” – B-17 and B-24 bomber planes had a button that when the pilot hit it, the alarm would be heard throughout the plane. It would warn the crew to jump out immediately. In civilian life, it is meant as a warning (written or verbal) for fast action. “Panic Button” – B-17 and B-24 bomber planes had a button that when the pilot hit it, the alarm would be heard throughout the plane. It would warn the crew to jump out immediately. In civilian life, it is meant as a warning (written or verbal) for fast action.

66 The “Big Three” at Yalta: Winston Churchill, FDR, and Josef Stalin. R.The Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) – The “Big Three” decided on post-war Europe. 1.Divide Germany; control Poland; and United Nations after WWII. "For the Russian people, the question of Poland is not only a question of honor but also a question of security. Throughout history, Poland has been the corridor through which the enemy has passed into Russia. Poland is a question of life and death for Russia.“ -- Josef Stalin Feb, 1945

67 Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam Conference, July 1945. S.Potsdam Conference (July 1945) – President Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe. “A freely elected gov’t in any of these East European countries would be anti-Soviet, and that we cannot allow.” -- Josef Stalin July, 1945

68 Soviet controlled areas in Red and Pink.

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70 Israel declared its independence in 1948. With a diverse population currently exceeding seven million citizens of primarily Jewish background and religion, it is the world's only Jewish state. Jerusalem is the capital city and seat of government. Israel is the only country in the Middle East considered to be a liberal democracy, having a broad array of political rights and civil liberties present.

71 Israel 1948, Arab League members Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq declared war and announced their rejection of the UN partition decision. 1948, Arab League members Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq declared war and announced their rejection of the UN partition decision. Yom Kippur War (aka 1973 Arab-Israeli War) a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism. The conflict led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers, the US and the Soviet Union. Yom Kippur War (aka 1973 Arab-Israeli War) a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism. The conflict led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers, the US and the Soviet Union. OPEC members declared an oil embargo against the US, causing the 1973 energy crisis. OPEC members declared an oil embargo against the US, causing the 1973 energy crisis. 1947


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