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Chapter 26: World War II 1939-1945 26.1: Paths to War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26: World War II 1939-1945 26.1: Paths to War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26: World War II : Paths to War

2 The Road to War Japan Japan Invaded Chinese territory of Manchuria to build an empire and gain raw materials Invaded Chinese territory of Manchuria to build an empire and gain raw materials Japan withdrew from League of Nations Japan withdrew from League of Nations 1937, Japan expanded further into China into Nanjing 1937, Japan expanded further into China into Nanjing Brutal invasion – 250,000 Chinese killed Brutal invasion – 250,000 Chinese killed

3 Japan moves to Southeast Asia for natural resources Japan moves to Southeast Asia for natural resources US threatens to apply economic sanctions (restrictions intended to enforce international law) if Japan didn’t leave SE Asia US threatens to apply economic sanctions (restrictions intended to enforce international law) if Japan didn’t leave SE Asia Japan launches surprise attack on US and European colonies in SE Asia Japan launches surprise attack on US and European colonies in SE Asia

4 Italy Italy Attacked Ethiopia to expand and gain natural resources Attacked Ethiopia to expand and gain natural resources Italians win with superior military technology Italians win with superior military technology League of Nations agreed to stop the sale of weapons to Italy, but not all members abided League of Nations agreed to stop the sale of weapons to Italy, but not all members abided

5 Germany Germany Expansion driven by Hitler’s desire to build a Third Reich, restore national pride, establish Aryan race Expansion driven by Hitler’s desire to build a Third Reich, restore national pride, establish Aryan race Aggression Aggression Hitler rebuilds German Army Hitler rebuilds German Army 1936, Germans move into the Rhineland (Germany’s border with France) 1936, Germans move into the Rhineland (Germany’s border with France) 1938, Hitler takes over Austria and the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) 1938, Hitler takes over Austria and the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) Violations of Treaty of Versailles! League of Nations too weak! Violations of Treaty of Versailles! League of Nations too weak!

6 Munich Conference, 1938 Munich Conference, 1938 Western democracies adopted policy of Appeasement Western democracies adopted policy of Appeasement Nations gave into aggressive demands to maintain peace Nations gave into aggressive demands to maintain peace Hitler continues expansion; takes over all of Czechoslovakia Hitler continues expansion; takes over all of Czechoslovakia Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attack each other Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attack each other

7 War Begins Hitler’s invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939 Hitler’s invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939 Poland – no natural barriers for protection Poland – no natural barriers for protection Leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany Leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany Germany uses Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare Germany uses Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare (300 tanks and supplies), airplanes (300 tanks and supplies), airplanes Alliances Alliances Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers – Great Britain, France (Soviet Union, China, US) Allied Powers – Great Britain, France (Soviet Union, China, US)

8 The Course of WWII 26.2

9 Europe at War Hitler’s Early Victories Hitler’s Early Victories April 1940 – Nazis overrun Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium April 1940 – Nazis overrun Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium June, 1940 – Nazis invade France June, 1940 – Nazis invade France French government forced into exile French government forced into exile Germans occupy ¾ of France, including Paris Germans occupy ¾ of France, including Paris

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11 Turning Points Entry of the United States (1941) Entry of the United States (1941) US declared neutrality, but supplied arms, food, ships to the Allies US declared neutrality, but supplied arms, food, ships to the Allies To combat Japanese aggression, the US banned the sale of war materials to the Japanese To combat Japanese aggression, the US banned the sale of war materials to the Japanese Angered by this, Japan launched a surprise attack on American military bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7 th, Angered by this, Japan launched a surprise attack on American military bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7 th, ,400 people were killed, many ships and planes destroyed 2,400 people were killed, many ships and planes destroyed US declares war on Japan; this gives Allies added strength US declares war on Japan; this gives Allies added strength

12 Battle of Stalingrad ( ) Battle of Stalingrad ( ) Germans invade the Soviet Union in 1941, and Hitler wants to takeover Stalingrad, an industrial center. Germans invade the Soviet Union in 1941, and Hitler wants to takeover Stalingrad, an industrial center. Russians counter-attack; troops and a freezing winter cause Germans to surrender. Russians counter-attack; troops and a freezing winter cause Germans to surrender. The Red Army (Soviets) advance toward Germany The Red Army (Soviets) advance toward Germany This World War II cartoon is showing the relationship between climate and the a. inability of Nazi forces to defeat the Soviet Union b. success of Allied troops after D-day c. efforts by Allied troops to control Berlin d. casualties suffered by the Soviet Union

13 Invasion of Normandy Invasion of Normandy Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944, aka D-Day Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944, aka D-Day Allied troops were ferried across the English Channel, landing on the beaches of Normandy Allied troops were ferried across the English Channel, landing on the beaches of Normandy They broke through German defenses and freed Paris from German control They broke through German defenses and freed Paris from German control Allies move from France into Germany, meeting up with the Soviets (two-front war for Germans) Allies move from France into Germany, meeting up with the Soviets (two-front war for Germans)

14 The War Ends The Yalta Conference The Yalta Conference February 1945, Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill February 1945, Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Division of Germany – British, French, American, Soviet forces would control a zone of Germany Division of Germany – British, French, American, Soviet forces would control a zone of Germany Agreed that Stalin would oversee the creation of new governments in Eastern Europe Agreed that Stalin would oversee the creation of new governments in Eastern Europe War in Europe ends with Germans’ surrender on May 7 th, 1945 War in Europe ends with Germans’ surrender on May 7 th, 1945

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16 Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japanese refused to surrender, despite American bombings of Japanese cities Japanese refused to surrender, despite American bombings of Japanese cities On August 6 th, 1945, Americans drop an atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima. It flattened 4 square miles and killed 70,000 people On August 6 th, 1945, Americans drop an atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima. It flattened 4 square miles and killed 70,000 people A few days later, another a-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 40,000 A few days later, another a-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 40,000 War in Pacific ends with Japanese surrender on August 10 th, 1945 War in Pacific ends with Japanese surrender on August 10 th, 1945

17 The Holocaust and Other Wartime Atrocities 26.3

18 The Holocaust Hitler’s Final Solution Hitler’s Final Solution Plan to commit genocide (attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group) against the Jews throughout Nazi-Europe Plan to commit genocide (attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group) against the Jews throughout Nazi-Europe First, Hitler limited rights of and encouraged violence against Jews First, Hitler limited rights of and encouraged violence against Jews November 8, 1938 “Night of broken glass” – Jewish synagogues, businesses, cemeteries, schools and homes destroyed “Night of broken glass” – Jewish synagogues, businesses, cemeteries, schools and homes destroyed Day after, 30,000 Jews arrested for being Jewish and more restrictive laws enforced Day after, 30,000 Jews arrested for being Jewish and more restrictive laws enforced

19 Then, Hitler forced Jews into ghettos and transported them to over 300 concentration camps or death camps Then, Hitler forced Jews into ghettos and transported them to over 300 concentration camps or death camps Auschwitz Auschwitz 6 million Jews die; starved, shot, gassed to death 6 million Jews die; starved, shot, gassed to death

20 Auschwitz

21 Bataan Death March In the Philippines, Japanese soldiers forced American and Filipino prisoners of war to march up the Bataan Peninsula. In the Philippines, Japanese soldiers forced American and Filipino prisoners of war to march up the Bataan Peninsula. 65 miles 65 miles Survivors were brought to concentration camps Survivors were brought to concentration camps

22 Nanjing Massacre 1937, Japan’s brutal invasion of China 1937, Japan’s brutal invasion of China 300,000 Chinese killed 300,000 Chinese killed *All of these events are *All of these events are HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS!

23 Home Front and Aftermath 26.4

24 Total War Democratic governments increase power Democratic governments increase power Order military and industrial mobilization Order military and industrial mobilization Women enter workforce Women enter workforce Help produce planes, ships, ammunition Help produce planes, ships, ammunition Drove trucks and ambulances, decoded messages, served as nurses Drove trucks and ambulances, decoded messages, served as nurses Bombing increases Bombing increases Many civilians killed Many civilians killed

25 Impact of WWII 75 million people dead 75 million people dead Aerial bombardment left cities in ruins Aerial bombardment left cities in ruins War Crime Trials/Nuremberg Trials War Crime Trials/Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg, Germany Nuremberg, Germany 22 Nazis tried for “crimes against humanity” 22 Nazis tried for “crimes against humanity” Some imprisoned, some given death penalty Some imprisoned, some given death penalty Leaders held accountable for actions during wartime Leaders held accountable for actions during wartime

26 Dresden, Germany Coventry, England Nuremberg Trials Hiroshima, Japan

27 Occupied Nations Occupied Nations Western nations occupied West Germany and Japan Western nations occupied West Germany and Japan To avoid future war and built new gov’ts with democratic constitutions To avoid future war and built new gov’ts with democratic constitutions Soviet forces occupied East Germany and most of eastern Europe Soviet forces occupied East Germany and most of eastern Europe Established communist gov’ts Established communist gov’ts Europe divided – democracy in the west and communism in the east  Cold War! Europe divided – democracy in the west and communism in the east  Cold War!

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29 The United Nations The United Nations Created in 1945; A place to discuss world problems and develop solutions Created in 1945; A place to discuss world problems and develop solutions 2 Main bodies: 2 Main bodies: General Assembly General Assembly Includes representatives from all member nations; each has one vote Includes representatives from all member nations; each has one vote Security Council Security Council 15 member nations; 5 which are permanent – US, Russia, France, Great Britain, China 15 member nations; 5 which are permanent – US, Russia, France, Great Britain, China

30 Self-determination Self-determination European colonialism declines throughout the world European colonialism declines throughout the world Rise of independent nations in Asia and Africa Rise of independent nations in Asia and Africa

31 Compare/Contrast Essay Using the chart, write a well- developed Essay comparing and contrasting WWI and WWII Using the chart, write a well- developed Essay comparing and contrasting WWI and WWII Compare: means to analyze the similarities Compare: means to analyze the similarities Contrast: means to analyze the difference Contrast: means to analyze the difference You are to choose four categories from the chart and analyze where both Wars are similar and different in those categories You are to choose four categories from the chart and analyze where both Wars are similar and different in those categories Example Category: Outcome Compare: Both Wars required an outcome of a peace keeping organization Contrast: Successful vs. Unsuccessful League of nations VS. United Nations

32 Things To Remember Essay should be 6 paragraphs Essay should be 6 paragraphs Intro and conclusion should be more than 2 sentences Intro and conclusion should be more than 2 sentences Label everything for the reader Label everything for the reader Categories Categories Where you compare Where you compare Where you contrast Where you contrast Labeling should be done NEATLY in the margin Not last minute You may type this essay You must study this essay Essay will count as a quiz


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