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Chapter 26: World War II 1939-1945 26.1: Paths to War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26: World War II 1939-1945 26.1: Paths to War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26: World War II 26.1: Paths to War

2 The Road to War Japan Invaded Chinese territory of Manchuria to build an empire and gain raw materials Japan withdrew from League of Nations 1937, Japan expanded further into China into Nanjing Brutal invasion – 250,000 Chinese killed

3 Japan moves to Southeast Asia for natural resources
US threatens to apply economic sanctions (restrictions intended to enforce international law) if Japan didn’t leave SE Asia Japan launches surprise attack on US and European colonies in SE Asia

4 Italy Attacked Ethiopia to expand and gain natural resources
Italians win with superior military technology League of Nations agreed to stop the sale of weapons to Italy, but not all members abided

5 Germany Expansion driven by Hitler’s desire to build a Third Reich, restore national pride, establish Aryan race Aggression Hitler rebuilds German Army 1936, Germans move into the Rhineland (Germany’s border with France) 1938, Hitler takes over Austria and the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) Violations of Treaty of Versailles! League of Nations too weak!

6 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Munich Conference, 1938 Western democracies adopted policy of Appeasement Nations gave into aggressive demands to maintain peace Hitler continues expansion; takes over all of Czechoslovakia Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attack each other

7 War Begins Hitler’s invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939 Alliances
Poland – no natural barriers for protection Leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany Germany uses Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare (300 tanks and supplies), airplanes Alliances Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan Allied Powers – Great Britain, France (Soviet Union, China, US)

8 26.2 The Course of WWII

9 Europe at War Hitler’s Early Victories
April 1940 – Nazis overrun Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium June, 1940 – Nazis invade France French government forced into exile Germans occupy ¾ of France, including Paris


11 Turning Points Entry of the United States (1941)
US declared neutrality, but supplied arms, food, ships to the Allies To combat Japanese aggression, the US banned the sale of war materials to the Japanese Angered by this, Japan launched a surprise attack on American military bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7th, 1941. 2,400 people were killed, many ships and planes destroyed US declares war on Japan; this gives Allies added strength

12 Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
Germans invade the Soviet Union in 1941, and Hitler wants to takeover Stalingrad, an industrial center. Russians counter-attack; troops and a freezing winter cause Germans to surrender. The Red Army (Soviets) advance toward Germany This World War II cartoon is showing the relationship between climate and the a. inability of Nazi forces to defeat the Soviet Union b. success of Allied troops after D-day c. efforts by Allied troops to control Berlin d. casualties suffered by the Soviet Union

13 Invasion of Normandy Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944, aka D-Day
Allied troops were ferried across the English Channel, landing on the beaches of Normandy They broke through German defenses and freed Paris from German control Allies move from France into Germany, meeting up with the Soviets (two-front war for Germans)

14 The War Ends The Yalta Conference
February 1945, Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Division of Germany – British, French, American, Soviet forces would control a zone of Germany Agreed that Stalin would oversee the creation of new governments in Eastern Europe War in Europe ends with Germans’ surrender on May 7th, 1945


16 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Japanese refused to surrender, despite American bombings of Japanese cities On August 6th, 1945, Americans drop an atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima. It flattened 4 square miles and killed 70,000 people A few days later, another a-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 40,000 War in Pacific ends with Japanese surrender on August 10th, 1945

17 The Holocaust and Other Wartime Atrocities
26.3 The Holocaust and Other Wartime Atrocities

18 The Holocaust Hitler’s Final Solution
Plan to commit genocide (attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group) against the Jews throughout Nazi-Europe First, Hitler limited rights of and encouraged violence against Jews November 8, 1938 “Night of broken glass” – Jewish synagogues, businesses, cemeteries, schools and homes destroyed Day after, 30,000 Jews arrested for being Jewish and more restrictive laws enforced

19 6 million Jews die; starved, shot, gassed to death
Then, Hitler forced Jews into ghettos and transported them to over 300 concentration camps or death camps Auschwitz 6 million Jews die; starved, shot, gassed to death

20 Auschwitz

21 Bataan Death March In the Philippines, Japanese soldiers forced American and Filipino prisoners of war to march up the Bataan Peninsula. 65 miles Survivors were brought to concentration camps

22 Nanjing Massacre 1937, Japan’s brutal invasion of China
300,000 Chinese killed *All of these events are HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS!

23 Home Front and Aftermath
26.4 Home Front and Aftermath

24 Total War Democratic governments increase power Women enter workforce
Order military and industrial mobilization Women enter workforce Help produce planes, ships, ammunition Drove trucks and ambulances, decoded messages, served as nurses Bombing increases Many civilians killed

25 Impact of WWII 75 million people dead
Aerial bombardment left cities in ruins War Crime Trials/Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg, Germany 22 Nazis tried for “crimes against humanity” Some imprisoned, some given death penalty Leaders held accountable for actions during wartime

26 Coventry, England Nuremberg Trials Dresden, Germany Hiroshima, Japan

27 Occupied Nations Western nations occupied West Germany and Japan
To avoid future war and built new gov’ts with democratic constitutions Soviet forces occupied East Germany and most of eastern Europe Established communist gov’ts Europe divided – democracy in the west and communism in the east  Cold War!


29 The United Nations Created in 1945; A place to discuss world problems and develop solutions 2 Main bodies: General Assembly Includes representatives from all member nations; each has one vote Security Council 15 member nations; 5 which are permanent – US, Russia, France, Great Britain, China

30 Self-determination European colonialism declines throughout the world
Rise of independent nations in Asia and Africa

31 Compare/Contrast Essay
Using the chart, write a well-developed Essay comparing and contrasting WWI and WWII Compare: means to analyze the similarities Contrast: means to analyze the difference You are to choose four categories from the chart and analyze where both Wars are similar and different in those categories Example Category: Outcome Compare: Both Wars required an outcome of a peace keeping organization Contrast: Successful vs. Unsuccessful League of nations VS. United Nations

32 Things To Remember Essay should be 6 paragraphs
Intro and conclusion should be more than 2 sentences Label everything for the reader Categories Where you compare Where you contrast Labeling should be done NEATLY in the margin Not last minute You may type this essay You must study this essay Essay will count as a quiz

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