Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II GPS #19 SSUSH19 The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR II GPS #19 SSUSH19 The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. a. Explain A. Philip Randolph’s proposed march on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response. b.Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese-Americans, German- Americans, and Italian-Americans. c.Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin.
WORLD WAR II GPS #19, CONTINUED d.Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries. e.Describe the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, include the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb. f.Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons, food, and medical supplies to troops.
WORLD WAR II 1939-1945 WORLD WAR II, 1939-1945 The modern world is still living with the consequences of World War II, the most titanic conflict in history. Just under 69 years ago on September 1st 1939, Germany invaded Poland without warning sparking the start of World War Two. By the evening of September 3rd, Britain and France were at war with Germany and within a week, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa had also joined the war. The world had been plunged into its second world war in 25 years. Six long and bloody years of total war, fought over many thousand of square miles, followed. From the Hedgerows of Normandy to the streets of Stalingrad, the icy mountains of Norway to the sweltering deserts of Libya, the insect infested jungles of Burma to the coral reefed islands of the pacific. On land, sea and in the air, Poles fought Germans, Italians fought Americans and Japanese fought Australians in a conflict which was finally settled with the use of nuclear weapons. World War II involved every major world power in a war for global domination, and at its end, more than 60 million people had lost their lives, and most of Europe and large parts of Asia lay in ruins.
WORLD WAR II World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII or WW2) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The war involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history.majority of the world's nationsgreat powersAlliesAxis
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II M I N T R A OR M A R T I N M M I A N R T T R I A N MILITARISM IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM TOTALITARIANISM RESENTMENT AGRESSION ACTS
WORLD WAR II, MILITARISM 1.GROWTH OF MILITARIES, ESP. IN GERMANY, ITALY, AND JAPAN, 1920S-1930S
WORLD WAR II, IMPERIALISM 1.MAINTAINING AND COMPETITION FOR COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA
WORLD WAR II, NATIONALISM 1.LOYALTY TO ONE’S NATION ABOVE ALL ELSE, ESPECIALLY IN GERMANY, ITALY, AND JAPAN 2.EXPANSIONISM
WORLD WAR II, TOTALITARIANISM 1. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe political systems where a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life.political systemsstate
WORLD WAR II, FORMS OF TOTALITARIANISM AND NATION FORM COMMUNISM FASCISM NAZISM NATION USSR (UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, AKA SOVIET UNION) ITALY GERMANY
WORLD WAR II, RESENTMENT 1.GER, IT, JAP, RESENTED AND EVENTUALLY DISREGARDED PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES.
WORLD WAR II, AGGRESSION ACTS GER, IT, AND JAP INVADED NATIONS AND COLONIES IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND EUROPE TO EXTEND TOTALITARIANISM.
ACTS OF AGGRESSION 1.JAPAN INVADED NE CHINA, MANCHURIA, 1931. 2.ITALY INVADES ETHIOPIA, 1935. 3.GERMANY INVADES RHINELAND, 1936. 4.JAPAN INVADES THE REST OF CHINA, 1937. 5.GERMANY TAKES AUSTRIA, 1938. 6.GERMANY INVADES SUDETENLAND, W. CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1938. 7.GERMANY INVADES REST OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1938. 8.GERMAN-SOVIET NONAGGRESSION PACT, 1939 9.GERMANY INVADES POLAND, SEPT. 1, 1939!!!
WORLD WAR II ALLIANCES ALLIED POWERS CHINA FRANCE UK USA USSR AXIS POWERS GERMANY ITALY JAPAN
WORLD WAR II, ALLIED LEADERS NATION CHINA FRANCE UK USA USSR LEADER CHIANG KAI-SHEK CHARLES DE GAULLE WINSTON CHURCHILL FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT AND HARRY TRUMAN JOSEF STALIN
WORLD WAR II, AXIS LEADERS NATION GERMANY ITALY JAPAN LEADER ADOLF HITLER BENITO MUSSOLINI HIDEKI TOJO (FOR EMPEROR HIROHITO)
BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE GERMANY INVADED POLAND. SEPTEMBER 1, 1939
WORLD REACTION TO BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE 1.CONTINUATION OF ISOLATIONISM IN USA, 1920S-1941 2.PASSAGE OF NEUTRALITY ACTS IN USA, 1930S 3.PROTEST ABOUT DISCRIMINATION IN MILITARY AND INDUSTRY IN USA
WORLD REACTION, CONTINUED a.JULY 1, 1941, A. PHILIP RANDOLPH PROPOSED A MARCH ON WASHINGTON D.C. b.FOUNDER OF A UNION, BROTHERHOOD OF SLLEEPING CAR PORTERS c.CALLED FOR BLACKS TO PROTEST DISCRIMINATION d.FDR FEARED UREST BY WHITES e.FDR BACKED DOWN ISSUING EXECUTIVE ORDER FOR UNIONS/EMPLOYERS TO CEASE DISCRIMINATION IN HIRING PRACTICES f.MARCH CANCELLED.
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was a labor union in the United States organized by the predominantly African-American Pullman Porters.labor unionUnited States African-AmericanPullman Porters It was, in 1935, the first labor organization led by African-Americans to receive a charter in the American Federation of Labor.American Federation of Labor
EVENTS LEADING TO USA ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR II 1.JAPAN INVADED THE REST OF CHINA. 2.JAPAN INVADED FRENCH COLONY OF INDOCHINA (VIETNAM, CAMBODIA, LAOS) AND DUTCH EAST INDIES (INDONESIA) IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. 3.TO PROTEST, USA STOPPED TRADE AND OIL SHIPMENTS TO JAPAN 4.RESULT: DEC. 7, 1941, JAPAN ATTACKED PEARL HARBOR, HAWAII, USA, IN THE PACIFIC. 5.FDR, “A DATE WHICH WILL LIVE IN INFAMY”
RESULTS OF USA ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR II 1.INTERNMENT OF 120,000 JAPANESE-AMERICANS INTO CAMPS, WHO LIVED MAINLY ON WEST COAST OF USA 2.Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. WHY INTERNMENT?
JAPANESE INTERNMENT AND OTHERS, WHY? a.FEARS OF SPIES, SABOTAGE LED TO VIOLENCE AND PREJUDICE b.FOR NATIONAL SECURITY, JAPANESE- AMERICANS FROM CA, WA, OR, AZ, PLACED INTO RURAL CAMPS c.SOME GERMAN, ITALIAN, AND NATIVE AMERICANS (IN ALASKA) WERE INTERRED.
PREPARATION FOR WORLD WAR II BY THE USA MOBILIZATION Mobilization is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.troopswar
EXAMPLES OF MOBILIZATION 1.RATIONING 2.WARTIME CONSERVATION 3.ROLE OF WOMEN IN WAR INDUSTRIES 4.EXPANSION OF DRAFT 5.OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 6.PROPAGANDA
1.RATIONING 1. Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services.scarce 2. Example of wartime conservation 1)Each household received a “C-Book” with coupons to be used when buying scarce items (meat, sugar, coffee) 2)Gas rationing
2. WARTIME CONSERVATION 1.Methods used by Americans to contribute and to conserve for the war effort 1)Rationing 2)Carpooling and riding bicycles 3)Nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, newspaper, cooking grease to recycle and use in war production
During 1943, U. S. officials imposed a short-lived ban on sliced bread as a wartime conservation measure. “I should like to let you know how important sliced bread is to the morale and saneness of a household. My husband and four children are all in a rush during and after breakfast. Without ready-sliced bread I must do the slicing for toast—two pieces for each one—that's ten. For their lunches I must cut by hand at least twenty slices, for two sandwiches apiece. Afterward I make my own toast. Twenty-two slices of bread to be cut in a hurry!”
3.ROLE OF WOMEN IN WAR INDUSTRIES 1.FEARED WOMEN HAD LACK OF STAMINA 2.6 MILLION WORKED IN FACTORIES AND SHIPYARDS 3.WOMEN FILLED VOID OF MEN FIGHTING OVERSEAS 4.WOMEN WERE PAID 60% OF MEN’S WAGES
4.EXPANSION OF THE DRAFT 1.SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM EXPANDED DRAFT 2.MILLIONS OF MEN VOLUTEERED AND WERE DRAFTED 3.1943, WOMEN’S ARMY CORPS, WOMEN FILLED POSITION OF NONCOMBAT NATURE TO FREE UP MEN FOR FRONTLINE DUTY.
5.OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 1.OSDR, 1941 2. The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.United StatesWorld War II 3.USA WAR PLANNING
1)DEFEAT JAPAN’S NAVY ALSO MEANT DEFEAT OF JAPAN’S ARMY AT HOME 2)RESULT: GREAT LOSS OF LIFE FOR JAPAN AND USA OVER TIME 3)TO AVOID INVASION OF JAP, USA DEVELOPED ATOMIC (NUCLEAR) BOMB 4.PROJECT CODE NAME: MANHATTAN PROJECT
MANHATTAN PROJECT 1.COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, MAHATTAN, NYC 2.RESEARCH LEADERS: GEN. LESLIE GROVES, J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER 3.USA DEVELOPED 2 BOMBS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY, LOS ALAMOS, NM 4.THE 2 BOMBS WERE USED ON JAPANESE CITIES OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI, RESPECTIVELY, IN EARLY AUGUST, 1945 5.RESULT: JAPAN SURRENDERED, SEPT. 2, 1945
6.PROPAGANDA 1.HOLLYWOOD MOTION PICTURES, WAR PROPAGANDA FILMS 2.HITLER, BEAST OF BERLIN 3.WHY WE FIGHT
IMPLICATIONS (RESULTS) OF DEVELOPING ATOMIC BOMB 1.MILITARY: USA HAD NUKES. USA WOULD USE. 1)USSR BEGAN TO DEVELOP NUKES 2)COLD WAR, 1945-1989-90, COMPETITION BETWEEN USA AND USSR TO INFLUENCE WORLD WITH NUKES 3)POWER SOURCE FOR SHIPS AND SUBS
2.SCIENTIFIC: MEDICAL USE TO STUDY HUMAN BODY, SUCH AS PET SCANS (POSITION EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY) TO STUDY BRAIN 3.ECONOMIC: NUCLEAR POWER FOR ELECTRICITY FOR HOME AND BUSINESS
MAJOR EVENTS OF WW II, LEND-LEASE PROGRAM 1.LEND-LEASE ACT, 1941 2.USA COULD LEND VITAL WAR MATERIALS TO ANY NATION FDR SAID WAS VITAL TO DEFENSE OF USA (TO UK, FR, USSR, CH)
MAJOR EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II, BATTLE OF NORMANDY 1.NAME: OPERATION OVERLORD, CODE NAME, D- DAY, JUNE 6, 1944 2.ALLIED INVASION OF GERMAN-NAZI OCCUPIED NORTHERN FRANCE 3.LARGEST SEA INVASION IN HISTORY, 156,000 MEN, 6939 VESSELS 4.SURPRISE FOR GERMANS WITH MANY ALLIED LOSSES 5.US, US, CA PUSH GERMANS E. TO GERMANY 6.RESULT: BEGINNING OF ALLIED VICTORY IN EUROPE
MAJOR EVENTS, WORLD WAR II, BATTLE AND FALL OF BERLIN 1. LAST OF BATTLES, BLOODIEST 2. 3 USSR MIL GROUPS ATTACKED GERMANS DEFENDING BERLIN, CAPITAL OF GERMANY 3. 81,116 USSR TROOPS DIED, 458,080 GERMANS DIED 4. HITLER AND FOLLOWERS COMMITTED SUICIDE 5.BERLIN SURRENDERED MAY 2, 1945 6.FIGHTING CONTINUED TO MAY 8 AS GERMANS MOVED WEST TO SURRENDER TO US AND UK RATHER THAN USSR
MAJOR EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II, BATTLE OF STALINGRAD 1.TURNING POINT, 1942, 1943 2.USSR LOST 1 MILLION SOLDIERS 3.USSR PUSHED WEST INTO GERMANY. 4.RUSSIAN-SOVIET WINTER AND COUNTERATTACKS 5.GERMAN REFUSAL TO RELENT
PACIFIC AND EUROPEAN THEATERS OF WORLD WAR II 1.PACIFIC THEATER 2.The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) was the World War II military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, a geographic scope that reflected the operational and administrative command structures of the period's American forces.Theater of OperationsWorld War IIPacific Ocean
3.EUROPEAN THEATER 4. The European Theatre of Operations (ETO) was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 until the end of the war with the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945 (V-E Day). The Allied forces fought the Axis powers in three sub-theatres: the Eastern Front, the Western Front, and the Mediterranean Theatre.World War IINazi Germany'sinvasion of Polandend of the warunconditional surrenderV-E DayAllied forces Axis powerssub-theatresEastern FrontWestern Front Mediterranean Theatre