Presentation on theme: "Yalta Conference In February 1945 (before V-E or V-J Days), Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt meet in Yalta, USSR to decide on the fate of Germany and the."— Presentation transcript:
Yalta Conference In February 1945 (before V-E or V-J Days), Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt meet in Yalta, USSR to decide on the fate of Germany and the post- war world.
The Argument Stalin wanted Germany divided up so they could never again threaten the Soviet Union Churchill completely disagreed Roosevelt stepped up as mediator, jockeying for support from Stalin for the US’s campaign against Japan, as well as support for his world peace keeping organization – the United Nations
The Compromises Roosevelt and Churchill agree to a temporary division of Germany to pacify Stalin Stalin promises free elections in Poland and other Soviet-occupied eastern European nations Stalin also agrees to aid the US against Japan
Roosevelt’s Death Unfortunately, before he could see the end of the war, Roosevelt passed away in April from a stroke. His vice-President, Harry S. Truman took the reigns, and set his sights on ending the war as quickly as possible. How could he do that?
The A-Bomb Should we or shouldn’t we?
Creation of OSRD In 1941 Roosevelt created the Office of Scientific Research and Development to bring scientists into the war effort.
Scientific Developments OSRD improved radar and sonar, which helped locate submarines underwater OSRD encouraged use of pesticides to fight insects, making soldiers nearly free of body lice OSRD pushed development of miracle drugs like penicillin, which saved lives OSRD also secretly developed a new weapon
When Germans figure out how to split Uranium atoms which creates enormous energy, Albert Einstein warns that Germans could build a hugely destructive weapon. Roosevelt sets up a team to develop a weapon with the new technology as quickly as possible Research is done mostly in Manhattan, dubbing the atom bomb development as the “Manhattan Project”
The Manhattan Project team of Scientists
Project Director General Leslie Groves with lead scientific developer J. Robert Oppenheimer. At it’s peak, more than 600,000 Americans were involved with the project.
The first bomb was tested at Trinity Site in Alamogordo, NM. It was dropped from this tower.
This Army Tank was Lined with 12 Tons of Lead Shielding - Enrico Fermi Used it to Gather Samples from Ground Zero - July 1945
July 25, 1945 President Truman orders the military to make plans for dropping two atomic bombs on Japanese targets. He said, “The final decision of where and when to use the atomic bomb was up to me. Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used.
The Enola Gay Colonel Paul W. Tibbits pilots the plane, the Enola Gay, that holds the first atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima Japan – The bomb is nicknamed Little Boy
Map of Hiroshima
The Bombing of Hiroshima On August 6, 1945, the world's first atomic bomb “Little Boy”, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. 78,000 were killed and another 70,000 were wounded while another 37,000 just disappeared – vaporized. The bomb destroyed everything within five square miles.
“Little Boy” The bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy”, was fueled by Oak Ridge uranium and produced an explosion equal to 15,000 tons of TNT. The 9,700 pound uranium bomb created a blinding flash of light and a fireball that reached one million degrees Fahrenheit.
Map of Nagasaki
The Bombing of Nagasaki The second atomic bomb ever used in combat was dropped over Nagasaki on August 9, It’s nickname was “Fat Man”. In a city of about 173,000, 45,000 people were killed instantly.
“Fat Man” The world's second and last atomic bomb was nicknamed "Fat Man" and fueled by Hanford plutonium. It was a 10,000 pound plutonium bomb. 73,884 people were killed and 74,909 were injured.
Destruction of Cities The city of Hiroshima, as it appeared after the atomic bomb was dropped in The city was laid to rubble in a matter of seconds. Three days after the bombing of Hiroshima, Nagasaki was also laid to ruin.
Destruction of Cities (continued) About 80% of the houses between one and two kilometers from the hypocenter collapsed and burned. In total, 12,900 houses were completely burned or destroyed and another 5,509 were partially burned or destroyed.
Effect On The People The death toll of the annihilation had reached between 130,000 and 150,000 people by the end of that year. Those who survived the bombing are rapidly aging now after struggling for many years. Some of them lost all of their hair before their death. Five years later, as many as 340,000 people, or 54 percent of the original population, had died from the two explosions.
Effect On The People (continued) Here, the thermic rays from the explosion have burned the imprint of clothes upon a woman’s skin. On those two tragic days, thousands of Japanese were killed, vaporized, torn apart, and boiled in their own skins. Survivors tell of burns that did not heal for fifteen years. It was difficult for firefighters to move the injured because their skin peeled off as they were being picked up.
Effect On The People (continued) In particularly severe cases, the skin came off in sheets, revealing the subcutaneous tissues and bones. In the area near the hypo-center the heat instantly carbonized human bodies and vaporized their internal fluids.
Here is a girl two months after the bombing who is suffering from alopecia diarrhea and fever. Bones of a human hand were also found stuck to a clump of glass that melted due to the extreme heat. Effect On The People (continued)
A person who sat on the step evaporated, only leaving their shadow behind. Looking at all the deaths, the mortality rates by type of injury were 60% for burns, 44% for external injuries, and 18% for those without injuries. Effect On The People (continued)
This man, who was exposed within 1 km of the hypocenter, was burned over his entire body. The death toll within 1 km from the hypocenter was 96.7% of people who were burned, 96.9% of people who had external injuries, and 94.1% of people who had no apparent injuries. Effect On The People (continued)
Data shows that immediate deaths were due not only to burns and external injuries but also to severe radiation-induced injuries. The effects of atomic bomb exposure include "keloid" scars, atomic bomb cataracts, leukemia, and microcephaly (small head syndrome) due to intrauterine exposure.
Effect On Environment This bamboo has scars from the extreme heat rays given off from the blast. This bamboo was growing in a grove, about three kilometers from the hypocenter.
Effect On Surroundings In the area between three and four kilometers: Things black in color tended to catch fire and remaining wooden telephone poles were scorched on the side facing the hypocenter. In the area within 15 kilometers: The impact of the blast was felt clearly, windows, doors and paper screens were broken. Concrete buildings and iron poles remained intact.
Effect On Surroundings (continued) The thermic rays left shadows of the parapets imprinted on the road surface of the Yorozuyo Bridge in Hiroshima. Glass splinters hurled by the blast stuck in the wood of remaining buildings and structures.
Effect On Surroundings (continued) These six bottles were found melted together in the ruins of a store about 400 meters from the hypocenter. Ceramic roof tiles bubbled and rocks turned black. The rock’s exposed surfaces turned black and cracked.
Effect On Surroundings (continued) These coins were stacked together when exposed to the heat rays. Since the coins have different melting points, some of the coins fused together. This is just some evidence of the fierce, instantaneous heat released by the atomic bomb’s explosion.
Effect On Surroundings (continued) This wall clock was found in a house about one kilometer from the hypocenter. It was shattered by the blast, and its hands stopped at 11:02, the moment of the explosion. Bones of a human hand were found stuck to a clump of glass that melted as a result of exposure to the extreme heat.
Japanese Surrender Emperor Hirohito was horrified by the destruction of his people and his country, and ordered the papers for surrender be drawn up. September 2, 1945, Japanese sign surrender papers in a formal ceremony aboard the USS Missouri, with General MacArthur leading the ceremonies.
Japanese Surrender Party on the USS Missouri
Occupation of Japan General MacArthur commanded the occupation of defeated Japan 1100 Japanese, including General and former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo were arrested and put on trial. 7, including Tojo, were put to death
Japanese Democracy MacArthur introduced free-market practices to Japan, boosting Japanese economy. –He also called for a new constitution that gave more rights to women, and guaranteed basic freedoms –The constitution was so successful, it is still called the MacArthur Constitution
Nuremberg War Trials After the discovery of the atrocities committed by Hitler’s Third Reich, 24 surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes. 12 of 24 were sentenced to death, and more were arrested and found guilty of war crimes
I was only following orders… For the first time, individuals were held responsible for their own actions during war