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The Consequences of WWII Decolonization and Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "The Consequences of WWII Decolonization and Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Consequences of WWII Decolonization and Cold War

2 Consequences of WWII Staggering casualties – over 20 million in the Soviet Union alone Decline of European power and the rise of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. as Superpowers=Cold War Decolonization Discrediting of “scientific racism” – the Holocaust revealed

3 Creation of the United Nations League of Nations never really worked. Belief in need for international body Had military power Worked together to solve problems Permanent council members who have veto powers – U.S., U.S.S.R., France, Great Britain and China Currently 192 member nation-states

4 Origins of the Cold War Yalta Conference 1945 Division of Eastern & Western Europe Division of Germany and Berlin Stalinist elections: Poland (1945), Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia ( )

5 Yalta Conference

6 Containment of Communism Iron Curtain speech by Winston Churchill Iron Curtain speech by Winston Churchill (1946) Truman Doctrine (1947) Marshall Plan (1947) Berlin Airlift ( ) NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Warsaw Pact (1955)

7 Truman Doctrine Triggered by the communist insurrections in Greece and Turkey Promised U.S. aid to any nation fighting communism "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes."

8 Marshall Plan Between , U.S. provide $9.4B to rebuild after WWII Stalin refused for all East to take part

9 Berlin Airlift Germany and Berlin were divided at Potsdam into four zone 1948 – Three zones united in West Germany Stalin blockaded West Berlin 321 day airlift Stalin withdrew blockade in 1949 Result was two Germanys – East and West

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11 NATO and Warsaw Pact

12 1950s to early 1960s Increasing tensions 1949 Chinese Revolution 1949 Soviets get atomic bomb Korean War 1950s - “Red Scare” - McCarthyism 1957 Sputnik 1960 U-2 incident – U.S. Spy plane shot down in USSR 1961 Bay of Pigs 1961 Berlin Wall was built 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

13 Sputnik

14 Eastern European Revolts 1953 Khrushchev succeeded Stalin 1956 Poland strikers had a limited success 1956 ambitious Hungarian revolt under Imre Nagy crushed by Soviet troops

15 The Berlin Wall Built in 1961 Built to stop the flow of refugees to the West Most visible symbol of the Cold War “Checkpoint Charlie”

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17 Checkpoint Charlie

18 “Battles of the Cold War”

19 The Korean War “Battle” of the Cold War “limited war” Former Japanese colony – then divided into North and South USSR withdraws from UN Security Council June 1950 Northern invasion along the Pusan Perimeter U.N.-led counter-invasion – Inchon Chinese invasion – Yalu River - MacArthur’s firing Stalemate 38 th Parallel DMZ – demilitarized zone – “the most dangerous place on earth”

20 South Korean troops inspect fence in 1975

21 Vietnam Conflict – Domino Theory Viet Minh under Ho Chi Minh France – France had always wanted Vietnam as a colony U.S. entered Leaders – Ho Chi Minh in the North and Ngo Dinh Diem in the South Johnson and Nixon war plans – US participation Guerilla warfare Expansion and Vietnamization – war ending in 1975 with US withdrawal

22 Napalm

23 Cuban Revolution 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batiste Early support for Castro because he instituted national education and medical reforms Nationalized large-scale landholdings, appealed to Soviets for aid Castro also preached revolution to other Latin American nations

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25 Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis Bay of Pigs was planned by Eisenhower and carried out in 1961 by JFK This damaged Kennedy politically and scared Castro into the arms of the Soviets Cuban Missile Crisis, October The closest US and USSR came to nuclear war. 13 day standoff

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27 Latin America in the Cold War Latin American countries were generally economically dependant on U.S., gross economic inequalities, authoritarian governments 1960s – military dictators seized Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Other stayed ruled by junta. True democracies are rare.

28 Latin America s Marxist revolts throughout Latin America. Generally crushed by right-wing governments, backed by U.S CIA intervened covertly in Guatemala 1965 & 1983 U.S. directly intervened in the Dominican Republic and Grenada s - Nicaragua – Contras (US supplied) vs. Sandinistas (Marxist) – the largest conflict outside of Cuba – big mistake for U.S. By the late 1980s the U.S. is criticized for overstepping its bounds in international affairs

29 Soviet-Afghanistan War s Client state toppled by internal rebellion in 1978 Soviets sent in 5000 advisors rebellion against Soviet control Resistance was led by the mujahidin – Islamic freedom fighters backed by the U.S. Soviets withdrew 1989, but the civil war lasted into the 1990s Taliban (from the mujahidin) imposed a government in late 1990s

30 Society during the Cold War Eastern bloc countries (2 nd World): low production and industry Losing propaganda war with the West Economic troubles after arms race of 80s Western bloc countries (1 st World): Prosperous But politically tumultuous Non-aligned, non-industrialized nations (3 rd World) Society will begin to change by the 1970s & 80s

31 Social Movements during the Cold War Peace Movement European Anti-Nuclear Movement Civil Rights Movements in the U.S. Feminist Movements Sexual Revolution Gay Rights Movement These movements grew out of the social and population changes as well as unhappiness with Vietnam

32 Gorbachev - Russia Reforms of the 1980s Soviet Union was weakened by Afghanistan Chernobyl accident Arms race Glasnost and perestroika He tried to work within Communist party until an attempted coup in 1991 Gorbachev placed under house arrest but the Russian president Yeltsin led massive protests

33 Gorbachev

34 Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster

35 1989 Collapse of the Soviet Bloc – Poland’s Solidarity Party – Catholics and workers – Pope John Paul II 1989 – Poland gained right to multiparty elections – Elected Lech Walesa and threw out the communists Revolts in Hungary Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany and Romania

36 Lech Walesa

37 Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 – Access was opened, main gate opened. Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east and west through Hungary Wall actually came down in 1990 Germany began the reunification process

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39 Break-up of the Soviet Union 1991 USSR dissolved by December Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all left the USSR in 1991 Commonwealth of Independent States led by Yeltsin 1992 – 17 more republics had left Economic, religious and crime problems

40 Problems after the break-up Economic dislocation Resurgence of ethnic tension Anti-Semitism Limited experience with democracy Shaky governments with widespread corruption and crime The legacy of terror from the worst dictatorships left scars

41 Chechnya With the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, a number of regions managed to break away and gain independence. Late Chechnya's drive for independence. Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, refused Chechnya's declaration of independence, Sent in troops instead, only to withdraw when confronted by armed Chechens Russia invades again. Massive casualties ,000 Russian troops sent in 2003 Separatist referendum – leaders killed 2004 – School children killed in Chechen rebel bombing 2005 March Separatist president killed

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43 Yugoslavia The former Yugoslavia broke apart in 1990 Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia- Herzegovina 1991 Civil war between 3 main groups Croats (Roman Catholic) Serbs (Greek Orthodox) Bosnians (Muslim)

44 Serb President Slobodan Milsevic Ethnic cleansing Practiced against Bosnians and Croats Over 200,000 civilians killed Ended only with 1995 U.N. intervention

45 Review


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