JUNE 28, 1914 Archduke Ferdinand, heir to Austria’s throne, and his wife Sophie led a parade through the streets of Sarajevo, Bosnia. Serbians resented Austria for taking the province of Bosnia from Serbia in 1908. An 18-year-old student from the Serbian Nationalist Society fired into Ferdinand’s open carriage, killing Ferdinand and Sophie.
JUNE 28, 1914 Austria immediately declared war on Serbia. What follows shows the sequence of events from that point.
Italy ignored the Alliance and supported the Entente; it fought poorly and won little; in 1922 Mussolini took over the country.
Fighting Begins 1914 Britain launched a naval blockade against Germany. Germany declared it would attack any ship (passenger or warship) if it entered the war zone around Britain. In 1915, the British passenger ship Lusitania was attacked (sunk in 18 minutes) by a German submarine. 1,200 people died, 128 Americans.
April 2, 1917 President Woodrow Wilson of the United States declared war on Germany after it sunk five American ships.
November 11, 1918 ARMISTICE (lay down weapons) was signed by warring countries as Germany was pushed back to its borders. President Wilson proposed that nations settle their disputes by negotiations in the future— never by war. Proposed the establishment of a League of Nations, which later became the United Nations after WWII. Germany was not allowed to join.
June 28, 1919 Europe declined Wilson’s plan as being too soft. The Triple Entente BLAMED GERMANY for ALL of the war damage—loss of life and property—throughout Europe, especially in France.
Germany Forced to Sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 Accept TOTAL BLAME for starting WW I (complete humiliation) Give up 13% of its land (overseas colonies in Asia and Africa were given to France, England, and others) Severely restrict its military (100,000 army soldiers, no submarines) Owe $25 billion in war reparations (pay for damages) to the Allied countries—132 thousand million gold marks
Results for Germany By 1921, Germany suffered from “hyper-inflation” where prices were rising five-fold in one week. Inflation was caused by printing money to finance the war debt and social welfare programs The middle classes suffered the most since inflation wiped out their savings. 1914 4 marks = $1 U.S. dollar 1919 65 marks = $1 U.S. dollar 1922 17,972 marks = $1 U.S. dollar
Results for Germany After America’s 1929 stock market crash, Germany fell into a Great Depression—people lost their jobs and the economy spiraled even more. 1929 Unemployment = 8.5% 1932 Unemployment = 29.9%
What does this have to do with Adolf Hitler and WWII? Corporal Hitler served in the German Army, fought on the Front Line, and received many medals for valor. When the 1918 Armistice was signed, the German Army was never forced to “surrender.” Some Germans, including Hitler, believed that the German Army could have fought on to victory. Hitler and other German soldiers felt betrayed by the German politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles, calling them the “November Criminals.”
Hitler Rises to Power 1918 - 1933 Hitler molded the German Workers’ Party into the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or NAZI Party, for short. It became a paramilitary group with the aim of bringing down the existing Weimar government with no respect for the democratic process
NSDAP Party Platform 1920 Dismantle Versailles Treaty Create a Greater Germany with its original borders Establish a “national community” without political parties or a parliament Allow only citizens of German blood to be members in the national community Hitler took over the NSDAP in 1921
Hitler Rises to Power 1923 In 1923, Hitler and the NSDAP tried to take power in a coup d’état by marching on Berlin He was arrested and sentenced five years; he served only one At his trial, he was portrayed as the “patriotic” victim who was fighting for Germany, gaining many supporters
Hitler Rises to Power 1920’s to 1933 The Nazi Party went the legitimate route; because of the social unrest and unstable government, the Party gained many supporters. Hitler was elected Chancellor in 1933 with the rise of the Nazi Party. Once in office, Germany became a dictatorship.
Hitler Rises to Power February 1933 In February 1933, Parliament (Reichstag) was burned down Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to sign a decree for the “protection of the people and the state”
Hitler Rises to Power February 1933 This decree suspended freedom of thought, the press, association, secrecy of written correspondence, inviolability of the home The death penalty was reintroduced Arrest for reasons of security was legalized, allowing political enemies to be held
Hitler Rises to Power June 30, 1933 Night of the Long Knives Ernst Rohm was head of the SA, the militia part of the NSDAP—street thugs that wanted revolution and violence Hitler needed the backing of the regular German army to solidify his power In one night, Rohm and 100 other SA members were murdered Violence and illegality had now been established as instruments of government
Hitler Rises to Power July 14, 1933 A law was passed sanctioning ONE PARTY and one alone—the NAZIS. Autonomy of all local and regional governments were abolished Parliament (Reichstag) would only meet a few times to bless Hitler’s decrees With President Hindenburg’s death, Hitler declared himself President of the Reich, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, and Chancellor.
Hitler Rises to Power 1933 Hitler took the title “Führer” (leader) and called his government the Third Reich (empire that would last 1000 years). Hitler promised to bring back German pride and rebuild their economy. Posters said “Hitler: Our Last Hope.”
Hitler Rises to Power 1918 - 1933 Hitler wrote the book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) in 1923, which described his life and political ideas. It became the manifesto of the Nazi movement. He was one of the first politicians to use radio to reach an audience of millions. He was also a brilliant speaker.
Official Nazi Program NSDAP platform base, PLUS: Hatred of the Jewish people became the focus of the Nazi program. Of its 25 points, 8 were about Jews. No Jew could be a German citizen. Jews were less than human. Jews started WWI. Jews must be driven away or completely destroyed.
Official Nazi Program Beginning in 1933, Hitler began to wage war against the Jews. He deprived them of their rights as citizens and drove them from their jobs. In 1938, during Kristallnacht, the “night of broken glass,” rampaging storm troopers smashed Jewish homes and shops, killing, beating, and terrorizing Jews across Germany.
Start of World War II Hitler began to defy the Treaty of Versailles by building back the German Army.
ALLIES vs. AXIS POWERS Allied Powers: Great Britain (Winston Churchill) France (Charles DeGaul) United States (Franklin D. Roosevelt) Russia (Joseph Stalin) Axis Powers: Germany (Adolf Hitler) Italy (Benito Mussolini) Japan (Emperor Hirohito)
U.S. ENTERS WWII December 7, 1941 “A day that will live in infamy.” Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, Hawaii U.S. declares war on Japan and Germany.
ANNE FRANK’S FAMILY Otto Frank moved his family out of Germany in 1933 after Hitler came to power. They moved to Holland. Holland was invaded by the Nazis in 1940.