2The big idea: WWII came directly from the aftermath of WWI Germany devastated by terms of Treaty of VersaillesU.S. IsolationistLeague of Nations weakGreat Britain and France want to avoid another ruinous warSome WWI allies wanted more:Italy felt like it was left out of spoils of Treaty of Versailles - wanted territoryJapan still wanted China
3The march towards WWII German anger, Hitler, aggression Fascism in ItalySpanish Civil WarMilitarism in Japan
51. Germany Faces Economic Collapse Germany in debt $67 billion dollars after WWISo it prints more money which leads to enormous inflation1914 $1 = 4.2 marks, 1923 $1= 1billion marksThese economic problems led to a depression - widespread unemployment and povertyGermans were unhappy and blamed their problems on communists, Jews, and the new Wiemar Republic gov’t (b/c they signed the Treaty of Versailles)Germans want revenge
6U.S. Response to German Depression Isolation from European affairsDid send some relief/food to Germany immediately after WWIInsisted Germany pay back the debtWhen it was suggested they didn’t have any money to pay with, Pres. Coolidge said “They hired the money, didn’t they?”In 1924 created the Dawes Plan which gave new loans to Germany so they could pay back the old onesWorked briefly until the US couldn’t make the loans during the Great Depression
82. Rise of Adolph Hitler Served in WWI - became an extreme nationalist Thought Germany was sold out byWeimar gov’t b/c signed TofVJoined National Socialist GermanWorkers’ Party (Nazi Party) in 1921Became a popular speakerImprisoned 1923 for leading an uprisingWrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) in jailOutlined ideas of supreme Aryan raceBlamed Jews - said inferior, tooSaid USSR was an obstacle to German expansion
9Hitler Becomes a Dictator After prison, Hitler worked on increasing Nazi membership - gaining seats in the legislature (Reichstag)Nazis were largest political party - chose Hitler to head the gov’tHitler increases his powerReichstag fire blamed on communists, Hitler suspends constitutional rights1934 Hitler declares himself the “Fuhrer” (leader) and heads a fascist gov’t (authoritarian, nationalistic, conservative)
10Hitler’s Policies Deprived Jews of jobs, civil rights, made them wear starsfor easy ID (Nuremburg Laws)1938 Kristallnacht “night of the broken glass” in Germany/AustriaDestroyed 200 sysnagogues, 7,500 Jewish businesses, killed 100, arrested 30,000 and put in prison camps (115,000 emigrate from Germany)Preached a platform of German expansion and economic recovery based on supremacy of Aryan race
11U.S. ResponseUS focuses on domestic issues - dealing with the Great Depression$ was spent on New Deal programs, not US militaryin 1930s the US military was 15th largest in the world - same size as Sweden’s)US hopes that arms control and international peace agreements will work to stop war
133. Fascism in ItalyItaly poor and politically unstable after the war, wanted more land under TofVFascism gains groundRestore glory of RomeThought democracy destroyed unity and orderHated communists & socialistsAppealing b/c people wanted stability and improvementBenito Mussolini - WWI Vet, Fascist
14Benito Mussolini Takes Over 1922 “March on Rome” succeeds in scaring King into making Mussolini Prime MinisterMussolini increases his power - controls elections, censors mediaImproved economy - modernized agriculture, industry, educationImperialist foreign policyInvaded Ethiopia Oct. 1935
15US & Allied ResponseLeague of Nations did not help Ethiopia and did not punish ItalyUS continues to be isolationist1935: 90% Americans say they are isolationistFDR’s “moral embargo” against ItalyAsked US businesses not to sell anything that might help Italy’s aggressionUS businessmen do not comply.Dow, “We do not inquire about the uses of the products. We are interested in selling them.”US Neutrality Acts (1935-7)No sale of weapons to aggressive countriesNo traveling on ships of countries at warNo loaning money to countries at war
174. Spanish Civil War 1936-9, Francisco Franco leads the Nationalists in a civil war to defeat the Republicans (socialism & communism)Germany & Italy sent troops & air force to aid Franco & NationalistsNationalists win & set up a fascist stateGermany, Italy, Spain set up a military alliance “The Rome-Berlin Axis”(beginning of the Axis powers)
18US & Allied Response America continues to be neutral Does not supply weapons to the Republicans b/c feared it could then turn into a larger conflictFDR wanted to keep American isolationist voters happy3000 Americans go on their own to fight on side of RepublicansFrance, Britain do not do anything either
19What signal did that response send the Axis powers?
205. Rise of Militarism in Japan Japan endured the world’s depression, too. They also wanted to become more of a world power.This led to a group of military leaders controlling the gov’t in the 1930sDissent with the gov’t was seen as harmful to the country’s powerCensorship, arrested critics, secret police
21Japanese Imperialism 1931- invaded & occupied Manchuria (northern China) coal/iron“We are only seeking room that will let us breathe.” - Japanese politicianBrutal treatment of Chinese (denied today)1933 resigns from League of Nations1936 became part of the AxisHitler wanted Japan to attack Russia and British colonies in AsiaJapan wanted to gain territory & resources
22US ResponseStimson Doctrine denounced Japan, did not recognize new landUS stops trade with JapanFDR’s “Quarantine Speech”Argued to quarantine fascist aggressionMet with a lot of criticism - people thought it would lead to warDidn’t act on it
246. Violation & Appeasement Germany begins to expand - violating TofV1936, occupies Rhineland (had been given to France in TovV1938, occupies Austria, declares is part of Germany1938 Germany demands that the Germans in Czechoslovakia have self gov’tBritain tries to avoid war and appeases Germany, negotiating a deal to give them self gov’tHitler demands control of CzechoslovakiaMunich Pact - Britain is okay with letting Hitler have Sudetenland, Hitler promises to leave rest aloneBritish P.M. Neville Chamberlain declares “peace in our time”
26U.S. & Allied Response Appeasement (gave into demands of Hitler in order to avoid conflict)FDR sent telegram to Chamberlain urging him to reach a peaceful deal with HitlerFDR wrote to Hitler “The gov’t of the US has no political involvements in Europe, and will assume no obligations in the conduct of the present negotiations.”
27What signal did that send Hitler and the Axis Powers?
287. Germany Demands More Land March Germany invades Czech.No resistance b/c Czech leader feared widespread death, so did not resistGermany demands land in PolandAugust 1939 Nazi-Soviet PactUSSR/Stalin tried to form a military alliance with Britain & FranceThey didn’t want to b/c didn’t like communism, thought USSR was weakStalin negotiates pact with Hitler - Hitler happy b/c USSR would not interfere with Poland plansAgreed to split lands in Poland/Eastern Europe
30US & Allied ResponseNobody stopped Hitler’s invasion of CzechoslovakiaBritain and France sign alliances with Poland to protect it if invadedFDR sent letters to Hitler & Pres. of Poland urging them to negotiate a peaceIgnored, naive
31What signal did that send to Hitler & the Axis Powers?
328. WWII Begins in Europe Sept.1, 1939 Germany invades West Poland Sept. 17, 1939, Soviettroops invade Eastern PolandSept. 3, 1939 France & Britain give Germany two days to withdraw, then declare war on Germany but do not send troops to PolandPoland’s armies defeated in three weeksGermany regroups during the winter - no fighting, then invades Denmark spring 1940Meanwhile, USSR invades Finland Nov. 1939
33US & Allied ResponseBritain & France declare war on Germany but send no troopsFDR tries to end Neutrality Acts so he can send help to Britain & Francefaced large public resistance but prevailed b/c believed that if Britain & France lost, it would pose a direct threat to USCash & Carry - US sells arms, supplies to F & B as long as they pick them up hereAmericans are divided over whether to get involved or remain neutral
34What signal did this send to Hitler & the Axis Powers?
359. The War ContinuesLate Hitler controls Eastern Europe, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, & FranceJune 1941, Hitler invades Soviet UnionKnew he’d break earlier pact from the startWanted to expand into W. USSRBritain is the last hope
36US Response Spring 1941 - FDR proposes Lend-Lease Act US would lend, lease, or give supplies to any country whose defense was considered vital to protecting US from threat (mostly give)Needed b/c Britain had no $ for supplies, so couldn’t do “Cash & Carry” anymoreUS started to ship goods in armored convoys to ship goods as far as IcelandEnd of isolationismOct German subs sink two US destroyerssong Sinking of the Reuben James by Woody GuthrieUS population remained isolationistFDR has Congress agree to let US convoys to go all the way to British harbors
37What signal did this send to Hitler & Axis Powers?
3810. Japan Grabs LandJapan is gaining territory in Asia as war rages in EuropeThreatens US & British resourcesGen. Hideki Tojo becomes P.M. of Japan in 1941he’s anexpansionist
39Japan & US ClashNov 1941, Tojo sends messenger to US to try to negotiate a deal with US:Japan would withdraw from IndochinaUS would resume economic relations with JapanBut back in Tokyo, Tojo plans to attack USBelieved war with US was unavoidable b/c US was the naval power in the Pacific who might try to stop Japan from taking more land
40Attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese air attack of US military base at PearlHarbor, HawaiiGoal was to destroy US naval power in the PacificSank/damaged 8 battleships, 10 other ships, destroyed 188 planes, killed 2300 AmericansUS Aircraft carriers were safe (not in harbor)
41US ResponseEarly 1941 US moved Pacific Fleet from California to Hawaii to show power & readinessUS rejected Japan’s negotiations in Nov didn’t like appeasementDec. 8, 1941 FDR asks Congress to declare war on Japan following Pearl Harbor Attack“A day that will live in infamy.” -FDRRest of Axis declares war on US days later and US declares war back at themUS is now one of the Allied PowersAttack on Pearl Harbor ended isolationism
43FDR’s “Declaration of War” Speech - Dec. 8, 1941 Imagine you’re a member of Congress listening to his speech.What reasons does Roosevelt give for declaring war?How would you vote?How would you explain your vote to the constituents you represent?