Presentation on theme: "US and WWII. Gov. and Industry —ended the Depression (demand for labor due to war effort) War Bonds —asked America to put aside 10% of income to purchase."— Presentation transcript:
Gov. and Industry —ended the Depression (demand for labor due to war effort) War Bonds —asked America to put aside 10% of income to purchase in order to pay for war (Am. Bought $175 million) Factories —in 1941 19,000 planes are produced — in 1944—96,000 planes are produced –*War time agencies staffed by businessmen, not politicians –Rubber—lack due to Jap. Control of far east.
US and WWII Selective Service System *Armed forces — 5 mil. Volunteered after Pearl Harbor —15 mil. Served in war Created a peacetime draft —(1940) 1.8 mil. In uniform before war.
US and WWII Am. Workforce —Am workers eager for employment after— Depression. Women —6 million women (due to lack of men) made 65% of workforce (no child care) but glad to do their part ---250,000 served in Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)— women’s volunteered in army but paid less than men.
US and WWII African Am. —mass immigration from south to industrial cities like LA, Detroit, to fill in jobs. 1 million served, mostly in segregated battalions. i.e., Tuskegee Airmen. Mex. Am —500,000 served, –Per capita—won the most Medals of Honor
US and WWII *Minorities: “Why die for democracy for some foreign country when we don’t even have it here?” “Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.” Vs “…under Nazism we should have no rights at all, we should be used as slaves” “…we are also children of the United States. We will defend her.” * contributed to the war economically (war bonds), through labor, and as servicemen. African Am. —mass immigration from south to industrial cities like LA, Detroit, to fill in jobs. 1 million served, mostly in segregated battalions. Not permitted to fight until the last year of the war. i.e., Tuskegee Airmen, heroic unit. Mex. Am —500,000 served — all Latino units saw heavy action both in Europe and n Asia –Per capita—won the most Medals of Honor
US and WWII Effect on Civilian life —US economy and geography meant Am. Experience fewer hardships compared to Europe Hardships: Severe hardships Families often separates increases in marriages and birth rates (Baby boomers) *The Industrial Response: Factories converted to war production Production of cars changed to production of planes, tanks, boats, and jeeps, “liberty ships”
US and WWII Asians: 13,000 Chinese served 33,000 Japanese served—several served as spies Native Americans: 25,000 served Allow some N/A first time to leave reservations and also to practice their warrior culture. Navajo Code Talkers: transmitted radio and telephone messages in Navajo *Japanese could not understand the language *Airplane—Chicken Hawk Commander—war chief
US and WWII Manufacturing/Labor’s Contribution : 16 million people employed during wartime 2 million minorities Both men and women faced opposition from white males Philip Randolph: Af/Am Union leader, protested military and industry discrimination Forced FDR to pass an order to employ minorities w/out discrimination.
US and WWII Scientist: OSRD (Office of Scientific Research and Development) Scientist used skills to improve sonar and radar, create new medicines, “miracle drugs”, and nuclear bombs Entertainment: Amer. spending more Films: Used as propaganda i.e., Mission to Moscow Song of Russia Hitler, Beast of Berlin Growth of magazines and radio
US and WWII Japanese- Americans— “Nisei”— Loyalty questioned Newspapers published anti- Japanese stories FDR saw Japanese Americans as a threat to “national security” Ordered 110,000 to turn themselves into “internment camps” —barbed wired, crowded, barracks, community mess hall and restrooms
US and WWII Economic Controls: Page 575 NWLB, OPA, WPB, etc. Office of Price Administration: (OPA) fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods. Made sure people paid their taxes (reduced spending on scarce goods and buy bonds instead) War Production Board (WPB): Decided which co. would turn into war production Org. nationwide drives: collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and cooking oil, junk, etc. Rationing: equal distribution, ration books, Seen as a personal contribution to the war effort.