2Some not-so-fun facts about WWII Largest war in human history.Involved countries, colonies, and territories around the entire world.By the end, over 70 million soldiers and civilians were dead.It lasted from 1939 until 1945.
3W WI and the Treaty of Versailles Appeasement Rise of Totalitarianism CausesW WI and the Treaty of VersaillesAppeasementRise of Totalitarianism
6Aggression Goes Unchecked During 1930s, the policy that France and Britain pursued against aggressive nations known as appeasement.Policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peaceAppeasement only spurred the fascist leaders to become more bold, adventurous, and aggressive.France and Britain appeased fascist powers for several reasonsDidn’t want a repeat of the horrors of WWIBelieved the Soviet Union posed greater threat than Nazi Germany: believed strong Germany would provide buffer against the Soviet menaceLeaders questioned the resolve of their own people and their allies: particularly the U.S.
7Causes of World War II As you watch the video, take notes on: The rise to power of the dictators in Germany, Soviet Union, Italy, Japan, and Spain.The response of the Western powers to this rise and their justification for their actionsCauses of World War II Documentary
8What is Fascism?Political belief that says the individual is less important than the nation.Glorifies violence, believes it is needed to “prove” strength of a people.Uses nationalism and racism.Dictatorships.Italy and then Germany became fascist.
11Dictators Turn to Aggression Hitler and Mussolini threaten the peaceMid-1930s, Hitler moved toward his goal of reunifying all German people into one state (Reich).He felt Germany needed to expand to gain Lebensraum, or living space, for its people1935: reclaimed the Saar region from French control1936: sent German troops to the Rhineland-direct challenge to the League of Nations yet they did nothingMussolini commenced his own imperial plans1935: Italy invades Ethiopia (independent country in east Africa)-emperor appealed to the League of Nations for help but they did nothingJapan starts aggressive military expansion1931: attacked Manchuria (NE China) & established puppet state1937: Japan moved against China, in the then-capital of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers murdered more than 200,000 residents and burned most of the cityBecame known as “Rape of Nanjing”Map
12Weakness of the League of Nations League never fully recovered from America’s refusal to joinNo standing armyNo power to force its decreesOnly as strong as its members’ resolve and during depression of the 1930s, members lacked thisWhen aggressive nations tested the league, they found that league was long on words and short on actions
13Aggression Goes Unchecked During 1930s, the policy that France and Britain pursued against aggressive nations known as appeasement.Policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peaceAppeasement only spurred the fascist leaders to become more bold, adventurous, and aggressive.France and Britain appeased fascist powers for several reasonsDidn’t want a repeat of the horrors of WWIBelieved the Soviet Union posed greater threat than Nazi Germany: believed strong Germany would provide buffer against the Soviet menaceLeaders questioned the resolve of their own people and their allies: particularly the U.S.
14Who’s Going to Stop Him??In the 1930s, FDR embraced policy of isolationism: concerned itself with its own economic troubles and did not do anything to prevent German aggressionSpring 1938: Hitler brings Austria into his “Reich”: this union called the AnschlussFall 1938: Hitler turned toward Sudetenland: portion of western Czechoslovakia largely populated by ethnic GermansPeople thought this conflict would lead to general war but Britain and France appeased Germany again to preserve the peace: Munich PactOnly postponed the war for 11 months
15War Erupts in Europe Appeasement could only go so far Spring 1939: Hitler violates Munich pact by absorbing remainder of Czechoslovakia into his German ReichBritain and France vowed not to let Hitler take over another country without consequences: signed alliance with Poland guaranteeing aid if Germany attackedHitler more concerned with war with Soviet Union: signed Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact with Soviets on August 23, 1939 to prevent war on 2 fronts.Vowed not to attack each other and secretly agreed to invade and divide PolandWar came in early hours of September 1, 1939 when massive German blitzkrieg hit Poland from 3 directions
16Blitzkrieg!! Blitzkrieg Video Blitzkrieg: “sudden attack, lightning war” new style of warfare emphasized the use of speed and firepower to penetrate deep into enemy’s territoryUsing coordinated assault by tanks and planes, followed by motorized vehicles and infantry, Germany broke through Poland’s defenses and destroyed its air forceSeptember 17: Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east.France and Britain declared war on Germany but did nothing to help PolandBy end of the month, Poland fell in defeatBlitzkrieg VideoEurope was now at war, just as it had been 21 years earlier.
17Who was on each side? Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan Allied Powers Great BritainSoviet UnionUnited StatesChinaFranceSurrendered to Germany in 1940 after 6 weeks
18France Falls to the Axis Powers April 9, 1940: Germany attacked Denmark and Norway, both fell immediatelyMay 10: Hitler sends blitzkrieg forces into the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, all nations fellThen turned to Paris, and France fell to the Axis powers after only 6 weeksJune 10, 1940: Italy declares war on France and Britain
19That only leaves Great Britain… July 10-October 31, 1940: Battle of BritainAir campaign waged by the German air force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom.Britain’s Air Force = Royal Air Force (RAF)Name derived from famous speech by Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the House of Commons: "... the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.”First major campaign to be fought entirely in the airGermany’s objective was to destroy Britain’s air defences and force Great Britain to sign an armistice or surrenderConsidered first major German defeat in war and a turning point in the warVideo Clip 1Video Clip 2
20June, 1941: Hitler violates German-Soviet non-agression pact and invades the Soviet Union If war was going to be prolonged, he needed oil and wheat from the Soviet UnionSoviet troops were completely caught off guard and so by the fall of 1941, German troops had advanced deep into Soviet territory
22U.S. Response3 weeks after German invasion of Poland, Congress changed neutrality act that did not allow the export of military suppliesAllowed any nation to buy military supplies from U.S. but required that the goods be shipped on foreign vesselsWhen Great Britain ran out of cash to pay for the war materials, Congress passed the Lend-Lease ActAppropriated $7 billion for ships, planes, tanks, and other supplies to non-Axis countriesAs German attacks increased, so did U.S. aid to the alliesBy spring of 1941, German submarines turning North Atlantic into graveyard of submarinesAugust, 1941: Roosevelt met with Winston Churchill (prime minister of GB) secretly off coast of NewfoundlandAgreed to Atlantic Charter: joint pledge to not pursue territorial expansion; agreed that every nation has the right to choose its own form of government, called for freedom of international trade and equal access for all countries to raw materials. Charter declared that once war was over, aggressor states should be disarmed, and all nations should work together to rid world of fear and poverty
23What about the Pacific War? As war raged in Europe, Japan continued expansion in AsiaJuly, 1941: Japanese troops occupied French IndochinaRoosevelt freezes all Japanese assets in U.S. and approves embargo on shipments of gasoline, machine tools, scrap iron, and steel to JapanJapan responds by freezing American assets in areas under its controlJapan secretly planned attack on US, but sent peace mission to Washington.By this time US had broken secret code used to send messages between Tokyo and Japanese embassy in Washington so they knew that Japanese planned a strike, but they did not know where.
30Why are Americans Fighting? The Four Freedoms Speech –FDRDefined the reasons why Americans were fighting in World War II.Freedom of SpeechFreedom of WorshipFreedom from WantFreedom from Fear
31Mobilizing for WarMassive increase in production for war ended the Great DepressionUnemployment dropped from 14.6% in 1940 to 1.2% in 1944.During war years, farmers produced enough food to supply American people and Allied Powers overseasFederal government expanded1942: War Production Board (WPB): directed the conversion of factories to wartime production1943: Office of War Mobilization (OWM): coordinated all government agencies involved in the war effort and the production and distribution of consumer goodsExpanded control on the economy: sold war bonds and increased number of Americans who had to pay income tax in order to pay for the warSelective Training and Service Act: 1940, provided for first peacetime draft in U.S. HistoryRequired all men ages 21 to 35 (later 18-45) to register; local draft boards determined fitness and deferred men for family, religious, or health reasons2/3 of Americans who served were draftees and the rest volunteers, including more than 300,000 women
32Promoting the WarU.S. govt. tried to keep morale high, especially in beginning when Allied troops faced many setbacksOffice of War Information: controlled flow of war news at homeMovie-stars advertised war bonds and travelled overseas to entertain troopsHollywood studios produced hundreds of war moviesRadio stations broadcasted news about the war and entertainment
33Life During WartimeAmericans cut back consumption of luxuries and necessities to help war effortVictory gardens helped make more food available to U.S. and allied soldiersWest Coast cities practiced nighttime blackoutsAuthorities feared brightly-lit cities would make easy targets for Japanese bombersPractice air-raid drills across the country sent Americans scrambling for coverPeople worked longer hours and made many sacrifices, but daily life in US didn’t change radically during war
34Rosie the RiveterFor some Americans on home front, particularly women, daily life did change dramatically.During depression had been discouraged from working, now were urged to take jobs of departing soldiersFrom : number of women working increased by 6 millionRosie the Riveter: became symbol of patriotic female defense workers
35Discrimination During the War Racial tension did not disappear during war, but cooperation war effort required caused govt. to try to reduce discrimination in war industriesAfrican Americans: war brought continued discrimination and greater opportunitiesMoved into better paying industrial jobs, played key role in military effort1 million African American soldiers served in armed forces, however continued to serve in segregated units or were often assigned to low-level workFair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC): investigated companies in defense work to guarantee that all qualified applicants were considered regardless of raceMexican Americans: more than 300,000 Mexican Americans served in military, and also helped meet home-front labor needsPrejudice and discrimination endured by Hispanics in jobs, housing, and recreational facilities caused bitter resentmentZoot-suit riots: (zoot-suit=fad worn by Mexican American youths that included long, wide-shouldered jackets, trousers pegged at the ankle, and wide-brimmed hats) June, 1943, US sailors in Los Angeles roamed city attacking zoot-suit clad Mexican Americans.
36Navajo Code TalkersYoung American Indians served in several branches of US armed forces.Navajo language was extremely hard to memorize and understand; Navajos responsible for coding and sending classified military information. Code talkers often had to work in dangerous conditions behind enemy lines. The Navajo codes completely baffled the Japanese and were never broken.
37Japanese American Relocation Internment: forced relocation and imprisonment of Japanese Americans living on the Pacific coast.1941: 119,000 people of Japanese ancestry who showed no evidence of disloyalty were ordered to detention camps in Wyoming, Utah, and other states because of strong anti-Japanese feelings among Americans in the west. Camps were all barbed wire, guard towers, and searchlights. Many Japanese Americans remained imprisoned until 1945.Korematsu v. United States (1944):Supreme Court upheld decision to intern the Japanese, stating that in times of war the curbing of civil rights is justified
40Strengths and Weaknesses When US entered WWII, Axis powers had two big advantages:Germany and Japan already had firm control of areas they invaded so Allies faced long, drawn out fight on multiple frontsGermany and Japan better prepared for warAllied advantagesEnormous size of the Soviet Union’s militaryHuge production capacity of U.S.Axis forces spread out all over globe
41Fighting in Europe and the Mediterranean By time of attack on Pearl Harbor, Axis Powers controlled much of Europe and lands around the MediterraneanBulgaria, Hungary, and Romania had joinedYugoslavia and Greece had been occupiedGermans even advanced into North AfricaStalingrad: key city in the Soviet Union, Germany and Soviet Union fought through an entire winter for control, until finally Axis troops were forced to surrender b/c of few supplies and no food. Important b/c it broke momentum of the Axis advanceAllied forces able to gain back control of North Africa, which gave them gateway to Italian island of Sicily, where they then moved on to Rome: it took several years of fighting and small units of troops from over 25 countries. June, 1944 Allies marched into Rome, making it first Axis capital to fall.
42Sea and Air AssaultsGerman U-boats continued to take staggering toll on Allied ships, lives, and suppliesNot until 1943 did this Battle of the Atlantic (battle on the Atlantic ocean) turn in the Allies’ favor.Important factor was refinement of sonar equipment which allowed Allied ships to detect the U-boats while they were underwaterIn 1943 the Allies intensified their air campaign of strategic bombing aimed at destroying German military production and undermining the morale of German people
43Operation OverlordVictory in the Atlantic and air assaults on Germany paved way for Operation Overlord: Allied invasion of German occupied FranceAllies tricked Germans into thinking the invasion was taking place on English Channel but instead landed farther south, in Normandy.AKA D-Day, June 6, 1944: Nearly 5,000 troop transports, landing craft, and warships carried 150,000 U.S., British, and Canadian soldiers across Channel. Overhead, planes dropped close to 23,000 airborne troops and bombed roads, bridges, and German troop concentrations.Germans had fortified the Normandy beaches with concrete bunkers, tank traps, and mines. Beaches resembled giant fortress but Allied trick worked since Hitler refused to send reinforcements to Normandy because he still believed that the main invasion would occur elsewhere.Aided by French Resistance, they were able to liberate Paris on August 25, 1944.By early September more than 2 million Allied troops landed in western Europe, another Allied force drove northward through France from Mediterranean, and Soviet troops pressed Germany from east.
47Defeating GermanyBy September 1944 the Allies had crossed the German border. As they paused to bring in supplies and regroup, Germans launched their final counterattack.In heavy snow they drove against the Allies in northern France: pushed westward to create dangerous bulge in the Allied lines. Became known as Battle of the Bulge.Last major German offensive against Allies in WWIILast ditch attempt by Hitler to split Allies in two as they tried to invade Germany and destroy their ability to supply themselvesAllies were able to push the Germans back, and by January 1945 it was clear the offensive had failedYalta Conference: February, 1945, FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met to plan for postwar peace.Stalin pledged to declare war on Japan 3 months after Germany’s surrenderAgreed to divide and occupy Germany after the war and outlined plans for new international peace organizationDuring early months of 1945, Allied bombers continued bombing German cities. March, Allied troops crossed the Rhine River and drove into heart of Germany. By then, Soviet troops occupied much of eastern Europe.April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker deep under ruins of Berlin. Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7. May 8, known as V-E (Victory in Europe) Day, marked formal end of European war
48What was the Holocaust? Holocaust Slideshow Nazi plan to kill all Jews.Why?Hitler provided a solution to Germany’s problems6 million Jews murdered in camps in Europe.5 million others (gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals)Total of 11 million exterminatedWhat is genocide?Purposely trying to exterminate an entire group of people (ethnic, religious, racial). Holocaust Slideshow
50War in the PacificPearl Harbor only part of huge Japanese offensive in PacificDecember 8, 1941: planes bombed Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, destroyed U.S. airplanes needed to provide relief and air support for troops in the PhilippinesFollowing 2 weeks: attacked Burma, Borneo, Netherlands, East Indies, Wake Island, Hong Kong.30,000 US and 110,000 Filipino troops defended Philippines under command of General Douglas MacArthur, but had no relief supplies or air support and needed to retreat to the Bataan PeninsulaThey were outnumbered, outgunned, and inexperienced; forced to surrender in April 1492Bataan Death March: Japanese soldiers forced more than 70,000 survivors to march through jungle on their way to prison camp; more than 10,000 died because of harsh treatmentPrisoners prevented from drinking water, beaten, or shot. Killed by disease and malnutrition
52Halting the Japanese Advance By summer of 1942, Japanese were ready to strike Australia, India, Hawaii and on to Pacific coast of USPacific fleet recovered quickly and started fightingBattle of the Coral Sea: May 7, 1942: Japanese force on its way to attack New Guinea was intercepted by Allies. Planes from US aircraft carrier damaged Japanese 1 carrier and destroyed another and several aircraft. Important Allied victory b/c it stopped the Japanese advance on AustraliaBattle of Midway: June Japan launched 2 prong attack to crush US Pacific fleet (again). One unit seized 2 islands near Alaska hoping to lure part of the fleet away from Hawaii while the Japanese carried out their main attack against Midway (2 small islands northwest of Hawaii). US knew since they knew the Japanese code so they assembled US aircraft carriers and destroyers north of Midway to ambush the Japanese. Sunk 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and shot down many enemy planes. U.S. victory crucial b/c Japan lost ships, planes, and many skilled pilots.Guadalcanal: first major US offensive, August 1942, U.S. went ashore at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands and fought for 6 months to cling to area around the airport. U.S defeated the Japanese and tide of battle in Pacific had finally turned in Allies’ favor.“I have never heard or read of this kind of fighting. The Japanese refuse to surrender. The wounded will wait till men come up to examine them, and blow themselves and the other fellow to death with a hand grenade.”
53Pacific OffensivesObjective of Allies was to come within striking distance of Japan itselfIsland-hoppingStrategy where Allied troops would attack and seize only certain strategic Japanese-held islands, rather than trying to recapture all of themFall of 1944, U.S. ready to invade PhilippinesBattle of Leyte Gulf: last, largest, and most decisive naval engagement in Pacific; from this point on Japanese fleet no longer a threatVictory in PacificUsed newly acquired bases to launch bombing attacks on Japan home islandsCaused Japanese civilian morale to sag, but country’s military leaders refused to surrender
54Victory in PacificIwo JimaLocated 750 miles from TokyoBattle began February, 1945 and lasted 6 weeksJapanese forces fought fiercelySeveral thousand marines, more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers killedOkinawaLocated 350 miles from JapanApril 1, 1945: largest landing force in Pacific history invaded island but met no resistance (Japs retreated to southern tip of island)Five days later, 700 Japanese planes attacked, 350 of these planes were kamikaze (suicide planes)Bloodiest battle of Pacific war49,000 U.S. troops killed/wounded, more than 100,000 Japanese died in fightingBy early April, Allied victory in Pacific was near, but President Roosevelt didn’t live to see itDied suddenly on April 12 and Harry S. Truman became president responsible for deciding whether to use the atomic bomb
55The Atomic Bomb Atomic bomb developed by top secret Manhattan project Effort of group of scientists who had been working to create atomic bomb since 1942U.S. warned by Albert Einstein that German scientists were conducting researchScientists successfully tested bomb in New Mexico on July 16, 1945Next day, Truman met with Allied leaders at Potsdam, south of BerlinJuly 26, Allies demanded Japan’s unconditional surrenderJapan refusedTruman gave order to use atomic weapons against Japan
56Why use the atomic bomb?Iwo Jima and Okinawa had shown that Japanese were still capable of inflicting heavy losses on U.S. forcesInvasion of Japan would be very costlyEstimates ran as high as 1 million U.S. casualties, with Japanese losses being even greaterUsing atomic bomb might end war quickly and save lives on both sidesPresident may also have wanted to demonstrate power of new weapon to Soviet Union
57Dropping the A-Bomb8:15 A.M. on August 6, U.S. B-29 Bomber Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on the city of HiroshimaExplosion flattened huge area of the city and killed estimated 75,000 peopleThree days later, August 9, U.S. dropped second atomic bomb on NagasakiExplosion vaporized people, melted stones, spontaneously ignited everything combustible within eight tenths of a mileTotal number of deaths caused by both bombs: 200,000War MovieSimulation of the Explosion
58End of War in PacificA day before the bombing of Nagasaki, the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan and begun invasion of ManchuriaStunned by destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese offered to surrenderFormal surrender was signed on September 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo BayWorld War II was finally over
60Quick Facts War Costs US Debt 1940 - $9 Billion WWII cost $330 billion – 10 times the cost of WWI & equivalent to all previous federal spending since 1776
61Losses of the Major Wartime Powers in WWII, 1939-1945 Germany4.5 million military2 million civilianJapan2 million military350,000 civiliansItaly400,000 military100,000 civilianChina2.5 million military7.4 million civiliansUSSR10 million military10 million civiliansGreat Britain300,000 military50,000 civiliansFrance250,000 military350,000 civilianUnited States274,000 military