Presentation on theme: "Post WWII era. End of colonial domination Second world war paved the way for the end of colonial domination in many parts of the Middle East. Emergence."— Presentation transcript:
Post WWII era
End of colonial domination Second world war paved the way for the end of colonial domination in many parts of the Middle East. Emergence of the US and Soviet Russia as world superpowers. Damaged prestige of the old imperial countries Syria and Lebanon independent in Israel emerged in 1948.
There was a brief interval, while Britain and France try to renegotiate their position in Egypt and Iraq and in North Africa Coup d’état in Egypt in 1952, final withdrawal of the British forces in 1954, independence of Sudan in 1956 France: Tunisia and Morocco free in 1956
Problems with the transfer of power Patterns of transfer of power differed enormously In some cases, a year or so of preparation, capped by an election to decide which political group was to form the first post-independence government Even messier route in Palestine, where the British made no serious effort to hand over power to anyone; leaving everybody in confusion
Several problems in postindependence period Creating and nationalist coalition against retreating imperial power is not the same with obtaining the allegiance of all of its new citizens A great deal of financial instability leading, in a number of cases to military coups.
The growth of state power in the Middle East
The creation of centralized state systems in Turkey and Iran Both based on the ruins of dynastic empires Both became the site for statist development projects in which reforms were imposed on society with very little discussion or debate
Arab world: single party regimes A huge expansion in the power and pervasiveness of the state of apparatus The failure of the private sector to meet the challenge of development The drive for Arab unity Oil wealth, financed the development in many Small desert states: Libya, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Shaikhdoms Result: one-party regimes and dedicated to state-led development under the banner of some form of Arab socialism.
Socialism and Authoritarianism in the Middle East Expending state involvement in the economy can be justified by the need for rapid development and for a more equivocal distribution of a rising national income. Which in turn provides an important source of legitimation for the new machines. In a Middle Eastern context socialism had nothing to do with the notion of social division and class struggle This in turn gave a small numbers of individuals at the top of each wishing enormous power: authoritarianism
Authoritarian systems lack the powerful institutions that would be needed to control or to transform society by means of bureaucratic methods alone As a result, people have to be mobilized, different groups integrated, opposition complained, by a variety of methods
How Authoritarian Rulers Maintain Power: A Short List #1- Make Socio-political Alliances #2- #3- When necessary, wage war with an external or imagined enemy #4- #5-Invent tradition and Use Spectacle #6-
Egypt and Tunisia Relatively homogeneous and bureaucratic structures were already well developed Existing unions and associations were banned, or driven to reorganize themselves according to new sets of rules and regulations Control over educational and legal systems as well as religious establishment Establish a national curriculum, forbid students political activity, replace the judges Control over the press Establish an ideological hegemony
Arab World: Monarchical/family Rule Morocco, Jordan, and most of the Arabian Peninsula (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman) Oil revenues as an encouragement to bureaucratic expansion An unusual form of palace politics characterized by. Great concentration of highly personalized power. Limited social mobilization The basic commitment to private economic enterprise
Theories on Authoritarianism: the Rentier State Rentier State: a state that derives all or a substantial portion of its national revenue from the rent/income of indigenous resources to external clients Rentier states are characterized by the relative absence of revenue from domestic taxation, as their naturally-occurring wealth precludes the need to extract income from their citizenry
ME “Rentier” states, with % of government revenue or GDP from oil or nat. gas Saudi Arabia: 75% of govt revenue; 40% of GDP Kuwait: 40% of GDP UAE: 30% of GDP Qatar: 60% of govt. revenue Iraq: 95%; 70 % of GDP Iran: 45% govt revenue Oman: 40% of GDP Libya: 70% of govt. revenue
Why might rentier states be less democratic than others? such states fail to develop politically because, in the absence of taxes, citizens have less incentive to place pressure on the government to become responsive to their needs Rewards of income and wealth for the rentier do not come as the result of work but rather are the result of chance or situation. Economic growth not accompanied by social impacts of conventional industrialization
1970’s to 1990’s
Seven new patterns emerged 1. The growth of the US power and the end of cold War 2. Growing Arab-Israeli conflict Increased settlements in West Bank 3. The revolution of petroleum prices 1973 OPEC
4. A Constant pattern :Authoritarian regimes Silencing of opposition, especially of the left rise of Islamic organizations 5. Unexpected emergence of Islamic-based political activity 6. Growing tension between Arab States fight for power between Syria and Iraq
7. Overall Rise of Violence Wars between states: Iraq and Iran Iraq and Kuwait US and Iraq Civil Wars: Lebanon, Turkey Israel and Palestine Israel and Lebanon Egyptian Islamists and the Government
Brief History of Iran The Persian Empire under the Cyrus the Great, B.C. The Sassanid Empire, A.D The Qajar Dynasty, at the end of 18 th century Post WWI-Divided by occupying Britain and Russia Limits on the central government renewal of tribalism and provincial political movements Pressure from Britain on the gvt to cooperate rise of a military leader, Reza Khan (a colonel in the army, lead 3,000 men into Tehran) 1926 Pahlavi Dynasty began
Reza Shah (in reign ) heavily influenced by Ataturk in Turkey Differences in both vision and application He was a reformer Yet reforms were limited in scope and very selective, arbitrary in application Built a strong army But no uniform national secular culture Urban reforms in place but rural populations suffered a great deal
Western Involvement Disputes with Britain over oil Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) Which led to its occupation in 1941 by Britain and Soviet Union Reza Khan left the country under British supervision, settling in South Africa (died in 1944) The Oil industry is nationalized under the leadership of Prime Minister Mossadegh, When the AIOC finally offered fifty-fifty profit-sharing in February 1951, sentiment for nationalization of the oil industry had become widespread. the Majlis voted to nationalize the oil industry. Oil production came to a virtual standstill as British technicians left the country, and Britain imposed a worldwide embargo on the purchase of Iranian oil. In September 1951, Britain froze Iran's sterling assets and banned export of goods to Iran.
CIA in Iran 1953-CIA first successful overthrow of a foreign gvt The CIA and British intelligence funded and led a coup d'etat to overthrow the democratically elected prime minister (Mossadegh)with the help of military forces loyal to the Shah through Operation Ajax
Shah and Modernization Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi back in power in 1953 Rule: 1941 – (1953) – 1979 Modernization, extravagance, repression lived very extravagantly Saddam-like projects Military 400,000 Secret police, arrests of opposition
Oil Boom in the 70’s OPEC quadrupled oil priced (Arab-Israeli war) Then tripled again until 1979 Massive transfer of wealth to Middle East Kuwait 50% more GDP per capita then US Rapid and uneven economic development Urbanization Tehran grew from mid 60’s to 70’s from 1.8 to 6 million Saudi Arabia proportion living in cities : 26 to 70 % from 1974 to 1984 Oil wealth directed to education Literacy rate doubled In Iran, massive expansion Shah in Iran committed in 70’s making Iran Japan of ME
Accelerated changes of 1960s and 1970s ->tensions within the society Different lifestyle within 10 years Oil-fuelled growth, subsidized many areas of economy, uncompetitive, unproductive economy; a large service sector and state aparatus
Opposition to the Shah regime The Broad Coalition of Opposition Forces Liberals and guerillas openly contesting the regime in 1976 and 1977 Cautious or reformist clergy Middle class people
Islamic Revolution, Khomeini Sent to exile by the shah in 60’s Shah: Reform then repression Shah had funded the expansion of the telephone system, allowed exile groups to get in contact with opp. Shah was out of touch-not even driven in a car in Tahran in years Protests and strikes Dec 10 th, 1 million people protested, 2 million next day 10% or more of the Iranian population participated in the demonstrations and the general strike Among the largest mass protest of the 20 th century Less than 2% in French Revolution, less than 1% in the Russian Revolution Because no secular opposition was permitted, language of opposition necessarily religious
Not clear who will take power-not predetermined Fundamentalism or Populism? Populism: a movement of the propertied middle class that mobilizes the lower classes, especially the urban poor, with radical rhetoric directed against imperialism, foreign capitalism, and the political establishment. (Abrahamian, p.17)