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Post WWII era. End of colonial domination  Second world war paved the way for the end of colonial domination in many parts of the Middle East.  Emergence.

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Presentation on theme: "Post WWII era. End of colonial domination  Second world war paved the way for the end of colonial domination in many parts of the Middle East.  Emergence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Post WWII era

2 End of colonial domination  Second world war paved the way for the end of colonial domination in many parts of the Middle East.  Emergence of the US and Soviet Russia as world superpowers.  Damaged prestige of the old imperial countries  Syria and Lebanon independent in 1943.  Israel emerged in 1948.

3  There was a brief interval, while Britain and France try to renegotiate their position in Egypt and Iraq and in North Africa   Coup d’état in Egypt in 1952, final withdrawal of the British forces in 1954, independence of Sudan in 1956  France:  Tunisia and Morocco free in 1956

4 Problems with the transfer of power  Patterns of transfer of power differed enormously  In some cases, a year or so of preparation, capped by an election to decide which political group was to form the first post-independence government   Even messier route in Palestine, where the British made no serious effort to hand over power to anyone; leaving everybody in confusion

5  Several problems in postindependence period  Creating and nationalist coalition against retreating imperial power is not the same with obtaining the allegiance of all of its new citizens  A great deal of financial instability leading, in a number of cases to military coups.

6 The growth of state power in the Middle East

7 The creation of centralized state systems in Turkey and Iran  Both based on the ruins of dynastic empires  Both became the site for statist development projects in which reforms were imposed on society with very little discussion or debate

8 Arab world: single party regimes  A huge expansion in the power and pervasiveness of the state of apparatus  The failure of the private sector to meet the challenge of development  The drive for Arab unity  Oil wealth, financed the development in many  Small desert states: Libya, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Shaikhdoms  Result: one-party regimes and dedicated to state-led development under the banner of some form of Arab socialism.

9 Socialism and Authoritarianism in the Middle East  Expending state involvement in the economy can be justified by the need for rapid development and for a more equivocal distribution of a rising national income.  Which in turn provides an important source of legitimation for the new machines.  In a Middle Eastern context socialism had nothing to do with the notion of social division and class struggle  This in turn gave a small numbers of individuals at the top of each wishing enormous power: authoritarianism

10  Authoritarian systems lack the powerful institutions that would be needed to control or to transform society by means of bureaucratic methods alone  As a result, people have to be mobilized, different groups integrated, opposition complained, by a variety of methods

11 How Authoritarian Rulers Maintain Power: A Short List #1- Make Socio-political Alliances #2- #3- When necessary, wage war with an external or imagined enemy #4- #5-Invent tradition and Use Spectacle #6-

12 Egypt and Tunisia  Relatively homogeneous and bureaucratic structures were already well developed  Existing unions and associations were banned, or driven to reorganize themselves according to new sets of rules and regulations  Control over educational and legal systems as well as religious establishment  Establish a national curriculum, forbid students political activity, replace the judges  Control over the press  Establish an ideological hegemony

13 Arab World: Monarchical/family Rule  Morocco, Jordan, and most of the Arabian Peninsula (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman)  Oil revenues as an encouragement to bureaucratic expansion  An unusual form of palace politics characterized by.  Great concentration of highly personalized power.  Limited social mobilization  The basic commitment to private economic enterprise

14 Theories on Authoritarianism: the Rentier State  Rentier State: a state that derives all or a substantial portion of its national revenue from the rent/income of indigenous resources to external clients  Rentier states are characterized by the relative absence of revenue from domestic taxation, as their naturally-occurring wealth precludes the need to extract income from their citizenry

15 ME “Rentier” states, with % of government revenue or GDP from oil or nat. gas  Saudi Arabia: 75% of govt revenue; 40% of GDP  Kuwait: 40% of GDP  UAE: 30% of GDP  Qatar: 60% of govt. revenue  Iraq: 95%; 70 % of GDP  Iran: 45% govt revenue  Oman: 40% of GDP  Libya: 70% of govt. revenue

16 Why might rentier states be less democratic than others?  such states fail to develop politically because, in the absence of taxes, citizens have less incentive to place pressure on the government to become responsive to their needs  Rewards of income and wealth for the rentier do not come as the result of work but rather are the result of chance or situation.  Economic growth not accompanied by social impacts of conventional industrialization

17 1970’s to 1990’s

18 Seven new patterns emerged  1. The growth of the US power and the end of cold War  2. Growing Arab-Israeli conflict  Increased settlements in West Bank  3. The revolution of petroleum prices  1973 OPEC

19  4. A Constant pattern :Authoritarian regimes  Silencing of opposition, especially of the left   rise of Islamic organizations  5. Unexpected emergence of Islamic-based political activity  6. Growing tension between Arab States   fight for power between Syria and Iraq

20  7. Overall Rise of Violence  Wars between states: Iraq and Iran  Iraq and Kuwait  US and Iraq  Civil Wars: Lebanon, Turkey  Israel and Palestine  Israel and Lebanon  Egyptian Islamists and the Government

21 Iranian Revolution S7i6g

22  Population: 65,180,000  Ethnic Makeup  51% Persian, 24% Azerbaijani, 7% Kurd  Religions  95% Shii Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim

23 Brief History of Iran  The Persian Empire under the Cyrus the Great, 531-331 B.C.  The Sassanid Empire, A.D.226-641  The Qajar Dynasty, at the end of 18 th century  Post WWI-Divided by occupying Britain and Russia  Limits on the central government  renewal of tribalism and provincial political movements  Pressure from Britain on the gvt to cooperate   rise of a military leader, Reza Khan (a colonel in the army, lead 3,000 men into Tehran)  1926 Pahlavi Dynasty began

24  Reza Shah (in reign 1926-1941) heavily influenced by Ataturk in Turkey   Differences in both vision and application  He was a reformer  Yet reforms were limited in scope and very selective, arbitrary in application  Built a strong army  But no uniform national secular culture  Urban reforms in place but rural populations suffered a great deal

25 Reza Shah

26 Western Involvement  Disputes with Britain over oil  Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC)  Which led to its occupation in 1941 by Britain and Soviet Union  Reza Khan left the country under British supervision, settling in South Africa (died in 1944)  The Oil industry is nationalized under the leadership of Prime Minister Mossadegh, 1951-1953  When the AIOC finally offered fifty-fifty profit-sharing in February 1951, sentiment for nationalization of the oil industry had become widespread.  the Majlis voted to nationalize the oil industry.  Oil production came to a virtual standstill as British technicians left the country, and Britain imposed a worldwide embargo on the purchase of Iranian oil. In September 1951, Britain froze Iran's sterling assets and banned export of goods to Iran.

27 CIA in Iran  1953-CIA first successful overthrow of a foreign gvt   The CIA and British intelligence funded and led a coup d'etat to overthrow the democratically elected prime minister (Mossadegh)with the help of military forces loyal to the Shah through Operation Ajax

28 Shah and Modernization  Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi back in power in 1953  Rule: 1941 – (1953) – 1979  Modernization, extravagance, repression  lived very extravagantly  Saddam-like projects  Military  400,000  Secret police, arrests of opposition

29 Oil Boom in the 70’s  1973-74 OPEC quadrupled oil priced (Arab-Israeli war)  Then tripled again until 1979  Massive transfer of wealth to Middle East  Kuwait 50% more GDP per capita then US  Rapid and uneven economic development  Urbanization  Tehran grew from mid 60’s to 70’s from 1.8 to 6 million  Saudi Arabia proportion living in cities : 26 to 70 % from 1974 to 1984  Oil wealth directed to education  Literacy rate doubled  In Iran, massive expansion  Shah in Iran committed in 70’s making Iran Japan of ME

30  Accelerated changes of 1960s and 1970s ->tensions within the society  Different lifestyle within 10 years  Oil-fuelled growth, subsidized many areas of economy, uncompetitive, unproductive economy; a large service sector and state aparatus

31 Opposition to the Shah regime  The Broad Coalition of Opposition Forces  Liberals and guerillas openly contesting the regime in 1976 and 1977  Cautious or reformist clergy  Middle class people

32 Islamic Revolution, 1978-79  Khomeini  Sent to exile by the shah in 60’s  Shah: Reform then repression  Shah had funded the expansion of the telephone system, allowed exile groups to get in contact with opp.  Shah was out of touch-not even driven in a car in Tahran in years  Protests and strikes  Dec 10 th, 1 million people protested, 2 million next day  10% or more of the Iranian population participated in the demonstrations and the general strike  Among the largest mass protest of the 20 th century  Less than 2% in French Revolution, less than 1% in the Russian Revolution  Because no secular opposition was permitted, language of opposition necessarily religious

33  Not clear who will take power-not predetermined  Fundamentalism or Populism?  Populism: a movement of the propertied middle class that mobilizes the lower classes, especially the urban poor, with radical rhetoric directed against imperialism, foreign capitalism, and the political establishment. (Abrahamian, p.17)


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