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Pre WWII German Geopolitics And the Geopolitik. Origins of German Geopolitics I (all known from previous lectures) Rudolf Kjellén (Sweden, Gothenburg):

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Presentation on theme: "Pre WWII German Geopolitics And the Geopolitik. Origins of German Geopolitics I (all known from previous lectures) Rudolf Kjellén (Sweden, Gothenburg):"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre WWII German Geopolitics And the Geopolitik

2 Origins of German Geopolitics I (all known from previous lectures) Rudolf Kjellén (Sweden, Gothenburg): The State as a Living Form and inventor of new words like: Geopolitics And National Socialism Kjellén as political scientist and conservative politician (Geopolitic is conservative, realist, determinist)

3 Origins of G. G. II Biology Moritz Wagner (Superorganism) Darwin (Evolutionism) Germany as a new actor in International Relations Realpolitik Weltpolitik Problem of German borders and Germans as minorities abroad

4 Friedrich Ratzel biologist, geographer (importance of nature (determinist) Wounded in the French-Prusso War 1871 Founder of Ethnography Founder of Human Geography as separate subject within Geography

5 Ideas I State living creature State=people+land symbolic unity Biology: fight for resources, space States: changing control of territory Therefore changing borders as sign of changing power parity between neighbouring states

6 Ideas II. Final aim of a state: maximised territory with well secured natural borders German State aims: reach natural borders as sea or mountains Control natural resources Control agricultural territories Control stategigally important territories and transport routes

7 Ideas III. Also final aim for Germany: With the territorial expansion unite all Germans abroad Information gathering (Ethnography for political reason) Kulturprovinz Biogeography Demography-parity border change

8 Ideas IV. Similarity in Demography and International Relations in Pre WWI era: Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungary, Japan: densely populated states with lack of resources and arable land No colonies A later vision of alliance system (WWII) Lebensraum

9 Ratzel and Transport His Political Geography book 1897 subtitle: Geography of State, Transport and War Transportation have key role in international relations Connection, flow of people and ideas Transport systems and borders (eg. Trianon) Routes as Symbols: Berlin-Bagdad railway Amsterdam-Batavia first intercontinental flight Tirana-Beijing flight

10 Karl Haushofer and Nazi International Relation Theory After Midterm Exam


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