2Foreign Policy Aims:Fought in WWI, blinded by a gas attack, admitted in hospital when he heard of Germany’s surrender. He decided to go into politics.Germany’s victory over Russia- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk German domination of Eastern Europe.Germany left in a dominant position after peace treaties- as Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires had fallen.Nazi foreign policy shaped by the Treaty of Versailles
3Foreign Policy Aims:1919- Hitler became a member of a new political party- DAP-German Worker’s Party, later renamed NSDAP- National Socialist German Workers’ party1921- became party leader1923- Hitler and his nazis attempted to seize power in a coup d’etat in Munich- known as Munich Beer Hall PutschThis attempt failed- Hitler was sent to prison for 9 months where he wrote Mein Kampf
4Mein Kampf a work on political theory Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's twin evils: Communism and Judaism. The new territory that Germany needed to obtain would properly nurture the "historic destiny" of the German people; this goal, which Hitler referred to as Lebensraum (living space), explains why Hitler aggressively expanded Germany Eastward, specifically the invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland, before he launched his attack against Russia. In Mein Kampf Hitler openly states that the future of Germany "has to lie in the acquisition of land in the East at the expense of Russia". Hitler's invasion of France was not motivated by that part of his ideology, as he had previously claimed that Lebensraum should be found eastward, but as a retaliation and strategic occupation after the war declaration against Nazi Germany by the Allies (including Great Britain and France). The invasions of Denmark and Norway were similarly not motivated by ideology, but by a strategic need to fortify all coastlines in Europe in preparation for the Allied invasion of Europe.
5LebensraumLebensraum (German for "habitat" or literally "living room") was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. It served as the motivation for the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany. In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
6Plans in Mein Kampf1st Stage- termination of Treaty of Versailles, formation of an alliance with Britain and Italy.2nd Stage- war against France and her Eastern European allies3rd stage- war with USSR
7Hitler’s rise to power Impact of global economic crisis Mass unemployment and despairTherefore President General von Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor of Germany in 1933.Germans and Nazis believed that Hitler would be successful in crushing the Treaty and restoring international prestige for the country.
8Hitler’s rise to power 1933-34 Consolidated his control in Germany Gained cooperation of the army and the industrialistMilitary conscription and rearmament
9Hitler and the Short-term causes of WWI 1 Hitler and the Short-term causes of WWI 1. Revising the Treaty of Versailles1933- announced that Nazis would not resume payments.1933- Germany’s withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference- military spending grew five-fold1933- withdrew Germany from the League of Nations1934- Non- Aggression Pact (for ten years) with Ploand to secure his eastern border, undermine the French Alliance system(the Little Entente) in Eastern Europe,gave international community the impression of Hitler’s peaceful intentions.
101. Revising the Treaty of Versailles To unify Austria with Germany1934- pro Nazi groups in Austria murdered the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss – attempted to seize power in a coupHitler saw this coup as an opportunity to obtain his goal of Anschluss
11AnschlussA union of Germany and Austria to create a 'Greater Germany', any attempt at an Anschluss was banned by the Treaty of Versailles, but Hitler drove it through anyway on March
121935-Saar Plebiscit- 9-1 in favour of reuniting with Germany. Announced compulsory military training and increase in armaments.
13The European ResponseBritain, France and Italy signed the Stresa Front.1935- Anglo-German Naval Agreement- Britain and Germany- allowed for a much larger German Navy than permitted by the Treaty of Versailles.
14Stresa FrontThe Stresa Front was triggered by Germany's declaration of its intention to build up an air force, to increase the size of its army to 36 divisions (750,000 men - many times the amount prescribed by the Treaty of Versailles, the original figure set was 100, 000 men) and to introduce conscription, in March 1935.Mussolini believed that the signing of the Stresa Front would mean Britain and France would not interfere in the Abysinian crisisits aim was to reaffirm the Locarno Treaties and to declare that the independence of Austria "would continue to inspire their common policy". The signatories also agreed to resist any future attempt by the Germans to change the Treaty of Versailles
15German remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936- Hitler turned his attention to the western borders1936-sent 10,000 troops, 23,000 armed policeinto Rhineland.
16Hitler’s involvement in the Spanish Civil War. On the outbreak of Civil War in Spain Mussolini and Hitler sent support to Franco’s forces.Hitler’s motive to be involved in this war were-1. benefit from right-wing government in Europe2. To test Germany’s new armed forces3. preparing his forces for realities of war in Europe4. to test effectiveness of civilian aerial bombing- 26 April 1937
17Rome-Berlin Axis & anti-Comintern Pact Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in The term Axis Powers came to include Japan as well.
18Hossbach Memorandum Colonel Count Friedrich Hossbach The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership where Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined. The meeting marked a turning point in Hitler's foreign policies, which then began to radicalize. The memorandum was named for the keeper of the minutes of the meeting, Hitler's military adjutant, Colonel Count Friedrich HossbachColonel Count Friedrich Hossbach
19It outlined Hitler's plans for expansion in Europe . It outlined Hitler's plans for expansion in Europe. According to the Memorandum, Hitler did not want war in 1939 with Britain and France.What he wanted was small wars of plunder to help support Germany's struggling economy (although the Nazis never let on about their financial problems).Hitler wanted a full-scale European war with Britain and France between /5.Planned for autarky- self-sufficiency.
20Issue of space (Lebensraum) discussed- 1. demand for space2. Germany’s growing population3. narrow limits of habitable land in Europe4. to counter the decline of Germainism in Austria and Czechoslovakia and5. to overtake Austria and Germainism
22AnschlussMarch 1938-Anschluss, German: “Union”, political union of Austria with Germany, achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938.Hitler encountered no military resistance as italy was an ally and Britain felt treaty of Versailles was very harsh.Hitler sent troops into Austria to ensure peaceful voting.Result- Hitler was strengthened by the Austrian armed forces and its rich deposits of gold and iron ore.
24Takeover of Czechoslovakia Edvard Benes, leader of Czechoslovakia appealed for help from Britain and France.France agreed to help if attacked by Germany as it was bound by a treaty.Britain agreed to support France.Hitler declared he would fight for Sudetenland- a heavily fortified region containing key industries and railways.This resulted in tension in Europe.Chamberlain attempted to resolve the crisis by meeting Hitler.
25Compromise- Hitler asked for parts of Sudetenland whose plebiscite showed that the people wanted to be a part of Germany.Second meeting: Hitler wanted all the Sudetenland.Britain mobilised its navy.Third meeting: Britain, France and Italy agreed to Hitler’s demand and agreed to give Sudetenland- this came to be known as the Munich Agreement.Chamberlain authorized a massive increase in arms spending resulting in an arms race.
26Hitler occupies Czechoslovakia 15 march, Germany marched in and occupied rest of CzechoslovakiaBritain and France failed to respond to the occupation of Czecoslovkia but warned Germany that an attack on Poland would mean war.
28Invasion of Poland Reasons for Germany- 1. Independent Polish state created by the Allied and created a corridor to sea through German territories.2. Danzig- important German port would be a free city under the League of Nations.Poland was threatened by Soviet as it lay claims that Poland was given more territory than it had before the Peace Settlements Red Army had invaded Poland but was defeated by the Polish army.
291939- Hitler demanded return of Danzig, Poles decide d to meet Germany with force. 3 March, Chamberlain announced Britaina nd France would guarantee independence of Poland.24 August, Hitler secured a deal with Stalin1 September, Hitler invaded Poland.
30Appeasement as a cause of the war It was a policy followed by Brtain and France to settle international disputes by satisfying grievances through negotiations and compromise.It led Stalin to believe that this policy was aimed at allowing German expansion in the east thus promoting a conflict between the Nazis and the Soviet communists.Appeasement had encouraged Hitler to be increasingly aggressive and each victory had given him confidence and increased power.
31With each territorial acquisition, Germany was better defended, had more soldiers, raw materials, weapons and industries.This led to Nazi-soviet Pact- Hitler did not fear a two-front war and continued to provoke the West with his claims to Polish territory.
32Chamberlain and Appeasement Chamberlain believed that Germany had 3 key issues that need to be resolved-1. territorial grievances2. economic problems3. absence of raw materials
33Solutions1. to give territorial concessions2. economic credits3. colonial concessions
34Reasons to adopt appeasement To buy time for Britain to rearm as it had reduced its military forces.French followed this policy as they could not do anything independently and took their lead from the British.
35Questions1. To what extent has the policy of appeasement had a negative impact on international relations since 1930s?2. Do you think chamberlain’s Policy was right?
36Activity-DebateThe policy of appeasement was the right policy for Britain in the 1930s.