Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy Aims:1919-33 Fought in WWI, blinded by a gas attack, admitted in hospital when he heard of Germany’s surrender. He decided to go into politics."— Presentation transcript:
Foreign Policy Aims: Fought in WWI, blinded by a gas attack, admitted in hospital when he heard of Germany’s surrender. He decided to go into politics. Germany’s victory over Russia- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk German domination of Eastern Europe. Germany left in a dominant position after peace treaties- as Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires had fallen. Nazi foreign policy shaped by the Treaty of Versailles
1919- Hitler became a member of a new political party- DAP-German Worker’s Party, later renamed NSDAP- National Socialist German Workers’ party became party leader Hitler and his nazis attempted to seize power in a coup d’etat in Munich- known as Munich Beer Hall Putsch This attempt failed- Hitler was sent to prison for 9 months where he wrote Mein Kampf Foreign Policy Aims:
Mein Kampf a work on political theory Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's twin evils: Communism and Judaism. The new territory that Germany needed to obtain would properly nurture the "historic destiny" of the German people; this goal, which Hitler referred to as Lebensraum (living space), explains why Hitler aggressively expanded Germany Eastward, specifically the invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland, before he launched his attack against Russia. In Mein Kampf Hitler openly states that the future of Germany "has to lie in the acquisition of land in the East at the expense of Russia". Hitler's invasion of France was not motivated by that part of his ideology, as he had previously claimed that Lebensraum should be found eastward, but as a retaliation and strategic occupation after the war declaration against Nazi Germany by the Allies (including Great Britain and France). The invasions of Denmark and Norway were similarly not motivated by ideology, but by a strategic need to fortify all coastlines in Europe in preparation for the Allied invasion of Europe.
Lebensraum Lebensraum (German for "habitat" or literally "living room") was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. It served as the motivation for the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany. In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
Plans in Mein Kampf 1 st Stage- termination of Treaty of Versailles, formation of an alliance with Britain and Italy. 2 nd Stage- war against France and her Eastern European allies 3 rd stage- war with USSR
Hitler’s rise to power Impact of global economic crisis Mass unemployment and despair Therefore President General von Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor of Germany in Germans and Nazis believed that Hitler would be successful in crushing the Treaty and restoring international prestige for the country.
Hitler’s rise to power Consolidated his control in Germany Gained cooperation of the army and the industrialist Military conscription and rearmament
Hitler and the Short-term causes of WWI 1. Revising the Treaty of Versailles announced that Nazis would not resume payments Germany’s withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference- military spending grew five-fold withdrew Germany from the League of Nations Non- Aggression Pact (for ten years) with Ploand to secure his eastern border, undermine the French Alliance system(the Little Entente) in Eastern Europe,gave international community the impression of Hitler’s peaceful intentions.
1. Revising the Treaty of Versailles To unify Austria with Germany pro Nazi groups in Austria murdered the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss – attempted to seize power in a coup Hitler saw this coup as an opportunity to obtain his goal of Anschluss
Anschluss A union of Germany and Austria to create a 'Greater Germany', any attempt at an Anschluss was banned by the Treaty of Versailles, but Hitler drove it through anyway on March
1935-Saar Plebiscit- 9-1 in favour of reuniting with Germany. Announced compulsory military training and increase in armaments.
The European Response Britain, France and Italy signed the Stresa Front Anglo-German Naval Agreement- Britain and Germany- allowed for a much larger German Navy than permitted by the Treaty of Versailles.
Stresa Front The Stresa Front was triggered by Germany's declaration of its intention to build up an air force, to increase the size of its army to 36 divisions (750,000 men - many times the amount prescribed by the Treaty of Versailles, the original figure set was 100, 000 men) and to introduce conscription, in March Mussolini believed that the signing of the Stresa Front would mean Britain and France would not interfere in the Abysinian crisis its aim was to reaffirm the Locarno Treaties and to declare that the independence of Austria "would continue to inspire their common policy". The signatories also agreed to resist any future attempt by the Germans to change the Treaty of Versailles
German remilitarization of the Rhineland Hitler turned his attention to the western borders 1936-sent 10,000 troops, 23,000 armed policeinto Rhineland.
Hitler’s involvement in the Spanish Civil War. On the outbreak of Civil War in Spain Mussolini and Hitler sent support to Franco’s forces. Hitler’s motive to be involved in this war were- 1. benefit from right-wing government in Europe 2. To test Germany’s new armed forces 3. preparing his forces for realities of war in Europe 4. to test effectiveness of civilian aerial bombing- 26 April 1937
Rome-Berlin Axis & anti- Comintern Pact Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, It was formalized by the Pact of Steel in The term Axis Powers came to include Japan as well.
Hossbach Memorandum The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership where Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined. The meeting marked a turning point in Hitler's foreign policies, which then began to radicalize. The memorandum was named for the keeper of the minutes of the meeting, Hitler's military adjutant, Colonel Count Friedrich Hossbach Colonel Count Friedrich Hossbach
. It outlined Hitler's plans for expansion in Europe. According to the Memorandum, Hitler did not want war in 1939 with Britain and France. What he wanted was small wars of plunder to help support Germany's struggling economy (although the Nazis never let on about their financial problems). Hitler wanted a full-scale European war with Britain and France between /5. Planned for autarky- self-sufficiency.
Issue of space (Lebensraum) discussed- 1. demand for space 2. Germany’s growing population 3. narrow limits of habitable land in Europe 4. to counter the decline of Germainism in Austria and Czechoslovakia and 5. to overtake Austria and Germainism
Anschluss March 1938-Anschluss, German: “Union”, political union of Austria with Germany, achieved through annexation by Adolf Hitler in 1938.Adolf Hitler Hitler encountered no military resistance as italy was an ally and Britain felt treaty of Versailles was very harsh. Hitler sent troops into Austria to ensure peaceful voting. Result- Hitler was strengthened by the Austrian armed forces and its rich deposits of gold and iron ore.
Takeover of Czechoslovakia Edvard Benes, leader of Czechoslovakia appealed for help from Britain and France. France agreed to help if attacked by Germany as it was bound by a treaty. Britain agreed to support France. Hitler declared he would fight for Sudetenland- a heavily fortified region containing key industries and railways. This resulted in tension in Europe. Chamberlain attempted to resolve the crisis by meeting Hitler.
Compromise- Hitler asked for parts of Sudetenland whose plebiscite showed that the people wanted to be a part of Germany. Second meeting: Hitler wanted all the Sudetenland. Britain mobilised its navy. Third meeting: Britain, France and Italy agreed to Hitler’s demand and agreed to give Sudetenland- this came to be known as the Munich Agreement. Chamberlain authorized a massive increase in arms spending resulting in an arms race.
Hitler occupies Czechoslovakia 15 march, Germany marched in and occupied rest of Czechoslovakia Britain and France failed to respond to the occupation of Czecoslovkia but warned Germany that an attack on Poland would mean war.
Nazi- Soviet Pact
Invasion of Poland Reasons for Germany- 1. Independent Polish state created by the Allied and created a corridor to sea through German territories. 2. Danzig- important German port would be a free city under the League of Nations. Poland was threatened by Soviet as it lay claims that Poland was given more territory than it had before the Peace Settlements Red Army had invaded Poland but was defeated by the Polish army.
1939- Hitler demanded return of Danzig, Poles decide d to meet Germany with force. 3 March, Chamberlain announced Britaina nd France would guarantee independence of Poland. 24 August, Hitler secured a deal with Stalin 1 September, Hitler invaded Poland.
Appeasement as a cause of the war It was a policy followed by Brtain and France to settle international disputes by satisfying grievances through negotiations and compromise. It led Stalin to believe that this policy was aimed at allowing German expansion in the east thus promoting a conflict between the Nazis and the Soviet communists. Appeasement had encouraged Hitler to be increasingly aggressive and each victory had given him confidence and increased power.
With each territorial acquisition, Germany was better defended, had more soldiers, raw materials, weapons and industries. This led to Nazi-soviet Pact- Hitler did not fear a two- front war and continued to provoke the West with his claims to Polish territory.
Chamberlain and Appeasement Chamberlain believed that Germany had 3 key issues that need to be resolved- 1. territorial grievances 2. economic problems 3. absence of raw materials
Solutions 1. to give territorial concessions 2. economic credits 3. colonial concessions
Reasons to adopt appeasement To buy time for Britain to rearm as it had reduced its military forces. French followed this policy as they could not do anything independently and took their lead from the British.
Questions 1. To what extent has the policy of appeasement had a negative impact on international relations since 1930s? 2. Do you think chamberlain’s Policy was right?
Activity-Debate The policy of appeasement was the right policy for Britain in the 1930s.