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First Wave, WWII – 1970s France accepted post-colonial migrants from the Maghreb (North Africa) – Algeria, Morocco.

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Presentation on theme: "First Wave, WWII – 1970s France accepted post-colonial migrants from the Maghreb (North Africa) – Algeria, Morocco."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Wave, WWII – 1970s France accepted post-colonial migrants from the Maghreb (North Africa) – Algeria, Morocco

2 First Wave, WWII – 1970s Netherlands accepted post-colonial migrants from Asia – Indonesia independent in 1949 – Suriname independent in 1975 – High rates of intermarriage in the Dutch former colonies

3 Second Waves, 1990s – Today 1990s Post-Soviet exiles & Refugees from the Balkan Wars

4 Second Waves, 1990s – Today 1990s – Now. Refugees and asylum- seekers fleeing war, violence, poverty in Asia and Africa

5 Third Wave, 2004 – Today E.U. Schengen Agreement (1985) – Free movement is fundamental right in E.U. – Internal border controls abolished 2004 Result? – New labor migrants – Countries that once SENT labor migrants now RECEIVED labor migrants

6 Third Wave, 2004 – Today E.U. Schengen Agreement (1985) – Free movement is fundamental right in E.U. – Internal border controls abolished 2004 Central and Eastern European Countries – 650,000+ job-seekers from new Member States – From poorer CEE states to richer CEE states – From East to West

7 Central & East European Migration

8 Third Wave, 2004 – Today E.U. Schengen Agreement (1985) – Free movement is fundamental right in E.U. – Internal border controls abolished 2004 “New Immigrant” Countries – Spain – Italy – Ireland – Portugal – Greece

9 From Emigrant to Immigrant t

10 Overview Who are the Minorities in Europe today? Who are the Minorities in Europe today? Three waves of International Migrants Three waves of International Migrants Refugees and Asylum-Seekers Today Refugees and Asylum-Seekers Today

11 Refugees & Asylum-Seekers Today Yugoslav Wars and Minorities in Europe Yugoslav Wars and Minorities in Europe Waves of refugees and asylum-seekers Waves of refugees and asylum-seekers Refugees and Diversity in Europe Refugees and Diversity in Europe

12 Yugoslav Wars & Minorities in Europe Cold War ends with ethnic resurgence Cold War ends with ethnic resurgence Yugoslav (Balkan) Wars1990s Yugoslav (Balkan) Wars1990s Croatian War of Independence ( ) Croatian War of Independence ( ) Bosnian War ( ) Bosnian War ( ) Kosovo War ( ) Kosovo War ( )

13 Yugoslav Wars & Minorities in Europe

14 How have mass displacements & refugees shaped racial, ethnic, religious diversity? How have mass displacements & refugees shaped racial, ethnic, religious diversity? Yugoslav Wars diaspora 1990s Yugoslav Wars diaspora 1990s  Bosniaks (ethnic Bosnians, Muslim)  Serbs (ethnic Serb, Orthodox Christian)  Croats (ethnic Croat, Roman Catholic)  Kosovo (90% ethnic Albanian, Muslim)  Albania (ethnic Albanian, 60% Muslim) Southeastern European Refugees flooded into Western Europe => ethnic & religious diversity Southeastern European Refugees flooded into Western Europe => ethnic & religious diversity Yugoslav Wars & Minorities in Europe

15 Waves of Refugees & Asylum-Seekers How have other mass displacements shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? How have other mass displacements shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan War / unrest in Chechnya, Russia War / unrest in Chechnya, Russia War & Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa War & Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa  Somalia, Sudan (Darfur), Eritrea, DR Congo… War & Conflict in North Africa (Maghreb) War & Conflict in North Africa (Maghreb)  Arab Spring 2011: Tunisia, Yemen, Bahrain  Civil War in Syria

16 Top Origins of World’s Refugees

17 Applications for Asylum in Europe

18 How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? 70% of world’s refugees from Muslim countries 70% of world’s refugees from Muslim countries The vast majority of refugees are from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East The vast majority of refugees are from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East Refugees in Europe bring racial, ethnic, and religious diversity Refugees in Europe bring racial, ethnic, and religious diversity Refugees and Diversity in Europe

19 How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? Most applications for asylum are DENIED Most applications for asylum are DENIED Most refugees in Europe are TEMPORARY Most refugees in Europe are TEMPORARY Refugees and Diversity in Europe

20 EU Asylum Decisions by Origins

21 How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? How have mass displacements & refugees shaped ethnicity & religion in Europe? Repatriation can take years Repatriation can take years Permanent asylum may allow family unification Permanent asylum may allow family unification Refugees in Europe bring racial, ethnic, and religious diversity Refugees in Europe bring racial, ethnic, and religious diversity Refugees and Diversity in Europe

22 Overview Who are the minorities in Europe today? Who are the minorities in Europe today? Three waves of international migrants Three waves of international migrants Refugees and asylum-seekers today Refugees and asylum-seekers today Europe’s Muslim minorities Europe’s Muslim minorities

23 Europe’s Muslim Minorities Muslims constitute < 1% of U.S. population Muslims constitute < 1% of U.S. population Muslims in the US are diverse and dispersed Muslims in the US are diverse and dispersed Two small cities have large Muslim populations Two small cities have large Muslim populations Dearborn, MI 30% Patterson, NJ 15-20% Muslims constitute ~ 6% of Europe Muslims constitute ~ 6% of Europe Many cities have large Muslim populations Many cities have large Muslim populations Amsterdam (14%), Antwerp (17%), Berlin (9%) London (10%), Stockholm (20%), Paris (10-15%), Marseille (20-30%) Amsterdam (14%), Antwerp (17%), Berlin (9%) London (10%), Stockholm (20%), Paris (10-15%), Marseille (20-30%)

24 Snapshot: Europe’s Muslim Minorities Country % Muslim (Pew 2010)How They Arrived Bulgaria13.7Ethnic Turks France7.5Post-colonials & Refugees Netherlands6.0 Guestworkers, Post-colonials & Refugees Belgium5.9Guestworkers & Refugees Germany5.8Guestworkers & Refugees Austria5.4Guestworkers Greece5.3Refugees from the Balkans Sweden4.6Turkey & Refugees: Iraq, Iran, Bosnia U.K.4.4Post-colonials & Refugees Denmark4.1Guestworkers & Refugees Italy3.7Refugees from Somalia, Maghreb

25 Europe’s Muslim Minorities Diversity of Muslim experiences & beliefs Diversity of Muslim experiences & beliefs Muslims in Europe, especially Western Europe, largely arrived as postcolonials & guestworkers Muslims in Europe, especially Western Europe, largely arrived as postcolonials & guestworkers Muslim refugees are much smaller group but: Muslim refugees are much smaller group but: Many suffered trauma / deprivation Many suffered trauma / deprivation Many from Global South experience culture shock Many from Global South experience culture shock Many lack basic education / skills Many lack basic education / skills Many cling to primacy of religious identity Many cling to primacy of religious identity Secularism and Religious identity as Muslims varies Secularism and Religious identity as Muslims varies

26 Overview Who are the Minorities in Europe today? Who are the Minorities in Europe today? Three waves of International Migrants Three waves of International Migrants Refugees and Asylum-Seekers Today Refugees and Asylum-Seekers Today Europe’s Muslim Minorities Europe’s Muslim Minorities Challenges for European Societies Challenges for European Societies Conclusions Conclusions

27 Challenges for European Societies Country-specific challenges Country-specific challenges France France Netherlands Netherlands Sweden Sweden Germany Germany United Kingdom United Kingdom

28 France: Muslim Minorities Five Million Muslims in France Five Million Muslims in France France is secular, does not recognize “minorities” France is secular, does not recognize “minorities” Legislation progressively restricts public religion: Legislation progressively restricts public religion: 2004 Ban on headscarves in state schools 2011 Ban on niqab and burka 2011 Ban on public prayer Segregation, disadvantage, and Segregation, disadvantage, and deprivation, youth violence and unrest and unrest

29 Rapid immigration led to social problems Rapid immigration led to social problems Muslims Poorly Integrated Muslims Poorly Integrated Low levels of Dutch national identity Low levels of Dutch national identity Residential and school segregation Residential and school segregation Assassinations & Policy Reversal Assassinations & Policy Reversal Pym Fortuyn and Theo Van Gogh murdered Pym Fortuyn and Theo Van Gogh murdered Anti-Muslim sentiments soared Anti-Muslim sentiments soared Today among most restrictive countries Today among most restrictive countries Netherlands : Muslim Minorities

30 EU Study “Best Incorporation Practices” EU Study “Best Incorporation Practices” Sweden ranked highest in EU Sweden ranked highest in EU Study of policy - work, family, ant-discrimination Study of policy - work, family, ant-discrimination But…Study did not evaluate migrant outcomes But…Study did not evaluate migrant outcomes Outcomes for Sweden’s Muslims ? Outcomes for Sweden’s Muslims ? First and second generation well behind First and second generation well behind Residential segregation Residential segregation Low employment, Low Income, Low Education Low employment, Low Income, Low Education Low rates of political participation Low rates of political participation Sweden: Muslim Minorities

31 From “Guests” to “Foreigners” From “Guests” to “Foreigners” Little effort to incorporate guestworkers before 2000 Little effort to incorporate guestworkers before 2000 Even 3 rd generation little access to citizenship pre-2000 Even 3 rd generation little access to citizenship pre-2000 Official policy “We are not an immigrant nation” Official policy “We are not an immigrant nation” From “Foreigners” to slow incorporation From “Foreigners” to slow incorporation Turkish guestworkers in segregated communities Turkish guestworkers in segregated communities Many Turkish children grew up with poor language skills Many Turkish children grew up with poor language skills Turkish children have high dropout rate Turkish children have high dropout rate Turkish unemployment twice German unemployment. Turkish unemployment twice German unemployment. Germany : Turkish Minorities

32 UK : Multiple Minorities UK is Diverse: 80.5% White British and : UK is Diverse: 80.5% White British and :

33 UK : Multiple Minorities The UK is Diverse in Religion The UK is Diverse in Religion

34 UK : Multiple Minorities Different experiences across groups Different experiences across groups Indian minority does well overall Indian minority does well overall Afro-Caribbean minorities assimilated into working class – “Mixed Race” identity fastest growing group Afro-Caribbean minorities assimilated into working class – “Mixed Race” identity fastest growing group Pakistani and Bangladeshi minorities are most disadvantaged Pakistani and Bangladeshi minorities are most disadvantaged Ambivalent attitudes Ambivalent attitudes 70% British approve of diversity - but high anti- immigrant sentiment 70% British approve of diversity - but high anti- immigrant sentiment

35 Conclusion Europe’s minorities are diverse Europe’s minorities are diverse Most minority groups are disadvantaged Most minority groups are disadvantaged Challenges for European Societies Challenges for European Societies Incorporation of immigrants and minorities Incorporation of immigrants and minorities Cultural integration Cultural integration Economic integration Economic integration Civic integration Civic integration Rethinking national identity Rethinking national identity Ethnic, racial, religious identity Ethnic, racial, religious identity Multiculturalism and discrimination Multiculturalism and discrimination


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