Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery 14.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery 14

2 Collapse of Taisho Democracy Late 1920s: Government by Assassination Liberals systematically eliminated Liberals systematically eliminated Military asserts great authority Military asserts great authority Withhold military cabinet ministers to topple cabinets Withhold military cabinet ministers to topple cabinets Work with Zaibatsu to boost military budgets and military hardware acquisition Work with Zaibatsu to boost military budgets and military hardware acquisition Build alliance with Bureaucrats to get favorable policies Build alliance with Bureaucrats to get favorable policies

3 Showa Emperor: Hirohito New Emperor New Emperor New policies: reemphasize national myth of Imperial Deity New policies: reemphasize national myth of Imperial Deity Military and Zaibatsu focus on Colonial Expansion Military and Zaibatsu focus on Colonial Expansion

4 Mukden Incident: 1931 Japan dominates in Manchuria (since 1905) Military wants complete control Military wants complete control Moderates in Diet prefer to leave some Manchurian autonomy Moderates in Diet prefer to leave some Manchurian autonomy Military Stages Mukden incident Military Stages Mukden incident Sabotage Japanese railroad Sabotage Japanese railroad Launch full-scale war to preserve order Launch full-scale war to preserve order Fiat accompli: Diet forced to ratify military aggression Fiat accompli: Diet forced to ratify military aggression Japan’s effective beginning of WWII Japan’s effective beginning of WWII Japan’s Diet Building

5 Marco Polo Bridge: 1937 Japan Joins Axis powers in WWII Military favors full-scale attack on China Military favors full-scale attack on China Moderates in Diet want to hold off and avoid war with US Moderates in Diet want to hold off and avoid war with US Military stages skirmish across Marco Polo Bridge Military stages skirmish across Marco Polo Bridge In Hot Pursuit – invade China In Hot Pursuit – invade China Capture Beijing Capture Beijing Present Diet with fiat accompli Present Diet with fiat accompli Official beginning of WWII for Japan and China Official beginning of WWII for Japan and China

6 WWII Rape of Nanjing (Nanking) Dec. 1937 – Jan 1938 Rape of Nanjing (Nanking) Dec. 1937 – Jan 1938 Japanese military atrocities Japanese military atrocities Bataan Death March Bataan Death March Experimentation Experimentation POW Torture, etc. POW Torture, etc. Undisciplined military?? Undisciplined military?? Shinto and situational ethics??? Shinto and situational ethics???

7 WWII Japan allied with Germany and Italy Japan allied with Germany and Italy Nazi sympathy? Japanese as Arian? Nazi sympathy? Japanese as Arian? Japan threatened by whom? What? Japan threatened by whom? What? US Oil and Scrap metal embargo: 1940 US Oil and Scrap metal embargo: 1940 Japan as “Liberators of Asia” Japan as “Liberators of Asia” “Greater East Asian Co Prosperity Sphere” “Greater East Asian Co Prosperity Sphere” Domestic War Sentiment? Domestic War Sentiment?

8 WW II Pearl Harbor Surprise Attack Surprise Attack Wipe out US Pacific Fleet in Harbor Wipe out US Pacific Fleet in Harbor Does Japan expect victory? Does Japan expect victory? “We have only wakened a sleeping giant” “We have only wakened a sleeping giant”

9 WW II Severe & fanatical fighters Japanese Cities devastated Japanese Cities devastated Firebombing of Tokyo Firebombing of Tokyo Defeat but not Surrender Defeat but not Surrender Kamikaze: Kamikaze: Divine Winds Reprise Divine Winds Reprise Act of Desperation Act of Desperation

10 WWII: Unconditional Surrender “We must endure the unendurable.” Emperor Hirohito US insists on Complete Surrender US insists on Complete Surrender Japanese cannot conceive of it Japanese cannot conceive of it Hiroshima … Nagasaki Hiroshima … Nagasaki

11 Postwar Occupation McArthur and SCAP: McArthur and SCAP: (Supreme Commander of Allied Powers) D emocratization D emocratization D emilitarization D emilitarization D ecentralization D ecentralization

12 Postwar Occupation 1945-47 3 D s : REALLY 3 D s : REALLY Break up of Zaibatsu Break up of Zaibatsu Decentralize education Decentralize education Introduce Socialists & Communists Introduce Socialists & Communists Support labor movements Support labor movements Dissolve military Dissolve military Impose Land Reform Impose Land Reform

13 Postwar Occupation Purges Purges Most Elected Officials Most Elected Officials All Military Leaders All Military Leaders Zaibatsu Leaders Zaibatsu Leaders War Crimes Trials for major officials War Crimes Trials for major officials Emperor NOT tried Emperor NOT tried War Crimes Trial of Premier Tojo Hideki

14 Postwar Occupation Bureaucrats Bureaucrats Survive Purges – US leadership is unaware of their major power Survive Purges – US leadership is unaware of their major power Bureaucracy stays largely intact Bureaucracy stays largely intact Bureaucrats play major postwar role Bureaucrats play major postwar role Example: Example: Yoshida Shigeru Yoshida Shigeru Ministry of Finance Ministry of Finance Good English Good English Runs for Diet Runs for Diet Eventually becomes PM Eventually becomes PM Prime Minister Yoshida @ UC Berkeley, 1951

15 Constitution (1946, Ratified 1947) Japanese versions too much like Meiji Constitution Japanese versions too much like Meiji Constitution MacArthur commissions US Military staff to write a constitution MacArthur commissions US Military staff to write a constitution Borrows heavily from British Borrows heavily from British Popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty Diet (two-house parliament) expresses people’s sovereignty Diet (two-house parliament) expresses people’s sovereignty Emperor as the symbol of Japanese nation, NOT divine Emperor as the symbol of Japanese nation, NOT divine Judicial independence with power of Judicial Review Judicial independence with power of Judicial Review Universal adult suffrage Universal adult suffrage Equal Rights??? Women’s roles? Equal Rights??? Women’s roles?

16 Odd Electoral System Constitution creates a deliberately complex system for elections Constitution creates a deliberately complex system for elections Multi-member districts with single, non- transferable vote Multi-member districts with single, non- transferable vote Intent: to be sure no one party can win a majority Intent: to be sure no one party can win a majority Designed to prevent the Diet from being too effective or powerful Designed to prevent the Diet from being too effective or powerful

17 1947 Peace Constitution Peace Clause (Article IX) Peace Clause (Article IX) Proposed by PM Shidehara Kijuro Proposed by PM Shidehara Kijuro Initially rejected by MacArthur as unrealistic Initially rejected by MacArthur as unrealistic Finally accepted and incorporated into Japan’s Postwar Constitution Finally accepted and incorporated into Japan’s Postwar Constitution.

18 1947 Peace Constitution Peace Clause (Article IX) Peace Clause (Article IX) ARTICLE 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

19 Postwar Japan Cold War and “Containment” 1947 Cold War and “Containment” 1947 Reverse Course 1947 Reverse Course 1947 Reforms halted Reforms halted No more decentralization Stop breaking up Zaibatsu Dodge Line Dodge Line Detroit Banker leads in an anti-inflation campaign Leads initially to short term recession George Kennan: Mr. X in Daedalus Joseph Dodge

20 Yoshida Doctrine Japan must focus on economic growth Japan must focus on economic growth Japan must avoid international conflict Japan must avoid international conflict Rely on US for security Rely on US for security Follow US lead in international relations Follow US lead in international relations Focus all energy on economic development Focus all energy on economic development Yoshida Shigeru

21 Japan: Neo-mercantilism Yoshida Doctrine details: Focus on Growth Focus on Growth Grow through export, export, export Grow through export, export, export Protect domestic industry Protect domestic industry Focus on market share and growth, not consumer satisfaction Focus on market share and growth, not consumer satisfaction

22 Japan’s Economic Model Export-led Growth Protect domestic firms at first Protect domestic firms at first Demand that they export Demand that they export Provide government assistance to direct investment and to support export Provide government assistance to direct investment and to support export Brilliantly successful for Japan (& later Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, & now China) Brilliantly successful for Japan (& later Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, & now China) Standard (not Japanese) 1940s development model Import Substitution Import Substitution Protect domestic industries, produce for domestic market Protect domestic industries, produce for domestic market Import only raw materials and capital goods Import only raw materials and capital goods Fails miserably: leads to debt and weak domestic industries that never “grow up” Fails miserably: leads to debt and weak domestic industries that never “grow up”

23 Bureaucracy’s role in economic planning Administrative Guidance Administrative Guidance Control of import licenses Control of import licenses Control of capital allocation Control of capital allocation Encourage collaborative R&D Encourage collaborative R&D Amakudari (descent from heaven) Amakudari (descent from heaven) Chalmers Johnson’s Classic Study of bureaucracy in Japanese economic development

24 Japanese Business Model Post “Ford” industrial model Dr. W. Edwards Deming: Dr. W. Edwards Deming: Focus primarily on QUALITY Focus primarily on QUALITY Use statistical analysis to measure and improve quality Use statistical analysis to measure and improve quality Empower shop floor workers to control and guarantee quality First presented ideas to US Automakers but was rejected First presented ideas to US Automakers but was rejected Took his ideas to Japanese industrial leaders and they adopted them, leading them to become the world’s leaders in QUALITY Took his ideas to Japanese industrial leaders and they adopted them, leading them to become the world’s leaders in QUALITY Dr. W. Edwards Deming

25 Japan gets a Kick Start Chinese Revolution 1949 Stimulates US interest in supporting Japanese development and security Stimulates US interest in supporting Japanese development and security Solidifies US security relationship Solidifies US security relationship Korean War: 1950 McArthur requests Japanese troops to help UN effort in Korea McArthur requests Japanese troops to help UN effort in Korea Japan citing Article IX, declines to send troops Japan citing Article IX, declines to send troops Japan serves as Command center, R&R site, and local procurement center – reaps profits from the war Japan serves as Command center, R&R site, and local procurement center – reaps profits from the war

26 The LDP and Japan’s 1955 Political System 1955: Liberal Party and Democratic Party merge to form the Liberal Democratic Party -- LDP Both were actually conservative, pro-business parties Both were actually conservative, pro-business parties Single-party dominance Single-party dominance Manage to manipulate the unwieldy electoral system to create one-party dominant system Manage to manipulate the unwieldy electoral system to create one-party dominant system Develop system of personal politics Develop system of personal politics Elections based on personal networks and pork-barrel politics Elections based on personal networks and pork-barrel politics Classic “party machine” system, like Tammany Hall in US History Classic “party machine” system, like Tammany Hall in US History Supported by a broad consensus that the Yoshida plan and the LDP governance is working Supported by a broad consensus that the Yoshida plan and the LDP governance is working Serve interests of Kiretsu (former Zaibatsu) Serve interests of Kiretsu (former Zaibatsu) Protects interest of conservative farmers to keep their vote Protects interest of conservative farmers to keep their vote

27 Bureaucratic Governance? Division of roles in Postwar Japan: Politicians Reign, Bureaucrats Rule Politicians Reign, Bureaucrats Rule Similar to emperors who reigned with shoguns who ruled … Similar to emperors who reigned with shoguns who ruled … LDP sets broad guidelines through Diet LDP sets broad guidelines through Diet Bureaucracies make it work Bureaucracies make it work Bureaucracies propose major adjustments Bureaucracies propose major adjustments LDP officials provide democratic legitimacy and get back in return discretionary funds to provide benefits to their constituents LDP officials provide democratic legitimacy and get back in return discretionary funds to provide benefits to their constituents

28 Indecisive Diet Weak Prime Minister Government by consensus Behind-the-scenes compromise with minor parties Behind-the-scenes compromise with minor parties Negotiate until minor parties agree to abstain Negotiate until minor parties agree to abstain To force a bill through over minority parties’ strong objections is “dictatorial” and “undemocratic” To force a bill through over minority parties’ strong objections is “dictatorial” and “undemocratic” Consensus takes a long time & allows only incremental change Consensus takes a long time & allows only incremental change

29 Major Post-war Japanese Political Consensus NO military involvements NO military involvements The military route nearly destroyed us The military route nearly destroyed us No one suffered as much as Japan in WWII No one suffered as much as Japan in WWII Militarism only leads to trouble Militarism only leads to trouble Japan must NOT have a military Japan must NOT have a military Maintain a “self defense force” Maintain a “self defense force” No “power projection capability” – no offensive weapons, only defensive technologies No “power projection capability” – no offensive weapons, only defensive technologies SDF limited to 1% of GDP – that makes it the 5 th largest military force in the world SDF limited to 1% of GDP – that makes it the 5 th largest military force in the world

30 Major Post-war Japanese Political Consensus Nuclear weapons are always evil Nuclear weapons are always evil Japan is the only victim of atomic bombs Japan is the only victim of atomic bombs It must never happen again – especially not at Japan’s instigation It must never happen again – especially not at Japan’s instigation No NUKES on our soil or in our harbors No NUKES on our soil or in our harbors The Yoshida Doctrine WORKED The Yoshida Doctrine WORKED Focus on economic growth without engaging in security politics pays off Focus on economic growth without engaging in security politics pays off Japan must avoid military involvement Japan must avoid military involvement

31 Challenges to Japan’s Post-war Political Consensus China is newly assertive in military matters and may pose a real threat China is newly assertive in military matters and may pose a real threat North Korea claims to have NUKES and has launched test missiles across Japan North Korea claims to have NUKES and has launched test missiles across Japan US is far less interested in defending Japan than it used to be US is far less interested in defending Japan than it used to be Changes in the world economy have undermined Japan’s economic model Changes in the world economy have undermined Japan’s economic model Too many countries are playing Japan’s game and have lower- cost labor – hence, very slow growth since 1991 Too many countries are playing Japan’s game and have lower- cost labor – hence, very slow growth since 1991 The Yoshida model may have run its course The Yoshida model may have run its course


Download ppt "Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery 14."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google