Presentation on theme: "Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery"— Presentation transcript:
1Showa Era Japan: Great Depression, WW II & Recovery 14
2Collapse of Taisho Democracy Late 1920s: Government by AssassinationLiberals systematically eliminatedMilitary asserts great authorityWithhold military cabinet ministers to topple cabinetsWork with Zaibatsu to boost military budgets and military hardware acquisitionBuild alliance with Bureaucrats to get favorable policies
3Showa Emperor: Hirohito New EmperorNew policies: reemphasize national myth of Imperial DeityMilitary and Zaibatsu focus on Colonial Expansion
4Mukden Incident: 1931 Japan dominates in Manchuria (since 1905) Military wants complete controlModerates in Diet prefer to leave some Manchurian autonomyMilitary Stages Mukden incidentSabotage Japanese railroadLaunch full-scale war to preserve orderFiat accompli: Diet forced to ratify military aggressionJapan’s effective beginning of WWIIJapan’s Diet Building
5Marco Polo Bridge: 1937 Japan Joins Axis powers in WWII Military favors full-scale attack on ChinaModerates in Diet want to hold off and avoid war with USMilitary stages skirmish across Marco Polo BridgeIn Hot Pursuit – invade ChinaCapture BeijingPresent Diet with fiat accompliOfficial beginning of WWII for Japan and China
6WWII Rape of Nanjing (Nanking) Dec. 1937 – Jan 1938 Japanese military atrocitiesBataan Death MarchExperimentationPOW Torture, etc.Undisciplined military??Shinto and situational ethics???
7WWII Japan allied with Germany and Italy Japan as “Liberators of Asia” Nazi sympathy? Japanese as Arian?Japan threatened by whom? What?US Oil and Scrap metal embargo: 1940Japan as “Liberators of Asia”“Greater East Asian Co Prosperity Sphere”Domestic War Sentiment?
8WW II Pearl Harbor Surprise Attack Wipe out US Pacific Fleet in Harbor Does Japan expect victory?“We have only wakened a sleeping giant”
9WW II Severe & fanatical fighters Japanese Cities devastated Firebombing of TokyoDefeat but not SurrenderKamikaze:Divine Winds RepriseAct of Desperation
10WWII: Unconditional Surrender US insists on Complete SurrenderJapanese cannot conceive of itHiroshima … Nagasaki“We must endure the unendurable.”Emperor Hirohito
11Democratization Demilitarization Decentralization Postwar Occupation McArthur and SCAP:(Supreme Commander of Allied Powers)DemocratizationDemilitarizationDecentralization
12Postwar Occupation 1945-47 3 Ds: REALLY Break up of Zaibatsu Decentralize educationIntroduce Socialists & CommunistsSupport labor movementsDissolve militaryImpose Land Reform
13War Crimes Trial of Premier Tojo Hideki Postwar OccupationPurgesMost Elected OfficialsAll Military LeadersZaibatsu LeadersWar Crimes Trials for major officialsEmperor NOT triedWar Crimes Trial of Premier Tojo Hideki
14Prime Minister Yoshida @ UC Berkeley, 1951 Postwar OccupationBureaucratsSurvive Purges – US leadership is unaware of their major powerBureaucracy stays largely intactBureaucrats play major postwar roleExample:Yoshida ShigeruMinistry of FinanceGood EnglishRuns for DietEventually becomes PMPrime Minister UC Berkeley, 1951
15Constitution (1946, Ratified 1947) Japanese versions too much like Meiji ConstitutionMacArthur commissions US Military staff to write a constitutionBorrows heavily from BritishPopular sovereigntyDiet (two-house parliament) expresses people’s sovereigntyEmperor as the symbol of Japanese nation, NOT divineJudicial independence with power of Judicial ReviewUniversal adult suffrageEqual Rights??? Women’s roles?
16Odd Electoral SystemConstitution creates a deliberately complex system for electionsMulti-member districts with single, non-transferable voteIntent: to be sure no one party can win a majorityDesigned to prevent the Diet from being too effective or powerful
171947 Peace Constitution Peace Clause (Article IX) Proposed by PM Shidehara KijuroInitially rejected by MacArthur as unrealisticFinally accepted and incorporated into Japan’s Postwar Constitution.
181947 Peace Constitution Peace Clause (Article IX) ARTICLE 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.
19Postwar Japan Cold War and “Containment” 1947 Reverse Course 1947 Joseph DodgeGeorge Kennan: Mr. X in DaedalusReverse Course 1947Reforms haltedNo more decentralizationStop breaking up ZaibatsuDodge LineDetroit Banker leads in an anti-inflation campaignLeads initially to short term recession
20Yoshida Doctrine Japan must focus on economic growth Japan must avoid international conflictYoshida ShigeruRely on US for securityFollow US lead in international relationsFocus all energy on economic development
21Japan: Neo-mercantilism Yoshida Doctrine details:Focus on GrowthGrow through export, export, exportProtect domestic industryFocus on market share and growth, not consumer satisfaction
22Japan’s Economic Model Export-led GrowthProtect domestic firms at firstDemand that they exportProvide government assistance to direct investment and to support exportBrilliantly successful for Japan (& later Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, & now China)Standard (not Japanese) 1940s development modelImport SubstitutionProtect domestic industries, produce for domestic marketImport only raw materials and capital goodsFails miserably: leads to debt and weak domestic industries that never “grow up”
23Bureaucracy’s role in economic planning Administrative GuidanceControl of import licensesControl of capital allocationEncourage collaborative R&DAmakudari (descent from heaven)Chalmers Johnson’s Classic Study of bureaucracy in Japanese economic development
24Japanese Business Model Post “Ford” industrial modelDr. W. Edwards Deming:Focus primarily on QUALITYUse statistical analysis to measure and improve qualityDr. W. Edwards DemingEmpower shop floor workers to control and guarantee qualityFirst presented ideas to US Automakers but was rejectedTook his ideas to Japanese industrial leaders and they adopted them, leading them to become the world’s leaders in QUALITY
25Japan gets a Kick Start Chinese Revolution 1949 Korean War: 1950 Stimulates US interest in supporting Japanese development and securitySolidifies US security relationshipKorean War: 1950McArthur requests Japanese troops to help UN effort in KoreaJapan citing Article IX, declines to send troopsJapan serves as Command center, R&R site, and local procurement center – reaps profits from the war
26The LDP and Japan’s 1955 Political System 1955: Liberal Party and Democratic Party merge to form the Liberal Democratic Party -- LDPBoth were actually conservative, pro-business partiesSingle-party dominanceManage to manipulate the unwieldy electoral system to create one-party dominant systemDevelop system of personal politicsElections based on personal networks and pork-barrel politicsClassic “party machine” system, like Tammany Hall in US HistorySupported by a broad consensus that the Yoshida plan and the LDP governance is workingServe interests of Kiretsu (former Zaibatsu)Protects interest of conservative farmers to keep their vote
27Bureaucratic Governance? Division of roles in Postwar Japan:Politicians Reign, Bureaucrats RuleSimilar to emperors who reigned with shoguns who ruled …LDP sets broad guidelines through DietBureaucracies make it workBureaucracies propose major adjustmentsLDP officials provide democratic legitimacy and get back in return discretionary funds to provide benefits to their constituents
28Indecisive Diet Weak Prime Minister Government by consensusBehind-the-scenes compromise with minor partiesNegotiate until minor parties agree to abstainTo force a bill through over minority parties’ strong objections is “dictatorial” and “undemocratic”Consensus takes a long time & allows only incremental change
29Major Post-war Japanese Political Consensus NO military involvementsThe military route nearly destroyed usNo one suffered as much as Japan in WWIIMilitarism only leads to troubleJapan must NOT have a militaryMaintain a “self defense force”No “power projection capability” – no offensive weapons, only defensive technologiesSDF limited to 1% of GDP – that makes it the 5th largest military force in the world
30Major Post-war Japanese Political Consensus Nuclear weapons are always evilJapan is the only victim of atomic bombsIt must never happen again – especially not at Japan’s instigationNo NUKES on our soil or in our harborsThe Yoshida Doctrine WORKEDFocus on economic growth without engaging in security politics pays offJapan must avoid military involvement
31Challenges to Japan’s Post-war Political Consensus China is newly assertive in military matters and may pose a real threatNorth Korea claims to have NUKES and has launched test missiles across JapanUS is far less interested in defending Japan than it used to beChanges in the world economy have undermined Japan’s economic modelToo many countries are playing Japan’s game and have lower-cost labor – hence, very slow growth since 1991The Yoshida model may have run its course