2 The Great DepressionThe Rise of FascismThe Treaty of VersaillesThe Failure of the League of NationsThe Appeasement of HitlerThe Invasion of Poland
3 The Great DepressionThe Depression destabilized economies and governments world widePeople looked for changeChange often came in radical forms of governmentMilitary spending and aggressive expansion helped countries emerge from economic problems.
4 The Rise of Facism Dictators of the 1930s Hitler – Germany Mussolini – ItalyStalin – RussiaHirohito – JapanFranco - Spain
5 The Treaty of Versailles In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the U.S. met to discuss the conditions for the end of World War I.The Big Four
6 President Wilson designed a 14 point plan that was fair and balanced President Wilson designed a 14 point plan that was fair and balanced. Germany, which was not invited to process, believed the Treaty would be based on Wilson’s plan.
7 Wilson’s plan was vetoed Wilson’s plan was vetoed. The French wanted revenge and the Treaty was created to punish Germany for the destruction France and other countries suffered.
8 Terms of the Treaty of Versailles There were a total of 440 clauses in the final treaty. The first 26 clauses dealt with the establishment of the League of Nations. The remaining 414 clauses spelled out Germany's punishment.
9 The League of NationsThe League was established to ensure that war never broke out again. This would be done through collective security and preservation of peace through arbitration of international disputes.Forcing one or two countriesTo work out their problemspeacefully
10 War would be avoided because no one country would want to deal with the 65 member countries of the League. It was like a big police force.
16 Military ClausesArmy - was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no tanks or heavy equipment was allowed
17 Navy - Germany was only allowed : 6 battleships6 light cruisers12 destroyers12 torpedo boatsNavy could not have more than 1500 officers
18 Airforce - Germany was not allowed any airforce
19 Rhineland - The Rhineland area was to be kept free of German military personnel and weapons
20 Territorial ClausesAnschluss - Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria.
21 Land - Germany lost valuable land to a number of other countries. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to FranceEupen and Malmedy were given to BelgiumNorth Schleswig was given to DenmarkGerman land was also given to Czechoslovakia and Poland
22 The League of Nations took control of Germany's colonies
23 May the hand wither that signs this treaty. Frederick Scheidemann, the German Chancellor (June 1919) then he resigned rather than agree to the TreatyThose who sign this treaty, will sign the death sentence of many millions of German men, women and children. Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, leader of the German delegation to Versailles (15 May 1919).
24 The Failure of the League of Nations It was weak from the beginning, and had spectacular failures in Manchuria and Abyssinia, and in making Hitler keep the Treaty of Versailles. It failed to achieve disarmament.
25 ManchuriaIn 1932, the Japanese army invaded Manchuria and threw out the Chinese. China asked the League to help. The League could not agree on sanctions or even a ban on weapons sales. Britain and France did not want a war, so nothing was done.The Japanese stayed in Manchuria.The League had failed.
26 AbyssiniaIn 1935 Mussolini got ready to invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia). He wanted war and glory. He tested new weapons of war against tribal people. Abyssinia asked the League to help. Italy conquered AbyssiniaThe League did nothing.
27 Reasons for Failure WAS DUMB Weak America Structure Depression UnsuccessfulMembersBig Bullies
28 Weak – It had no army.America – the strongest nation in the world never joined. Britain and France were not strong enough to impose pace on their own.Structure – the League was muddled, so it took ages to do anything. Members couldn’t agree – but decisions had to be unanimous. This paralysed the League.
29 Depression – the world-wide Depression made countries try to get more land and power. Unsuccessful – the more the League failed, the less people trusted it. In the end, everybody just ignored it.Members – the League’s main members let it down. Italy and Japan betrayed the League. France and Britain did nothing to help it.Big bullies – in the 1920s, the League had dealt with weak countries. In the 1930s, powerful countries like Germany, Italy and Japan attacked weaker countries. They were too strong for the League to stop them.
30 Appeasement~ Giving in to a bully or pacifying a baby ~
31 1. CONSCRIPTION&RE-ARMAMENT Hitler began to build up his armed forces. In 1935 he introduced conscription (forced military enlistment). This broke the Treaty of Versailles, but Britain and France let him get away with it.
32 3. RHINELANDHitler marched into the Rhineland on 7 March 1936 The Rhineland is an area of German territory on the border with France. Germany was not to have any soldiers in this area so that the French could feel safe. Bringing soldiers in broke the Treaty of Versailles. It was a bluff – the German army had only 22,000 soldiers and had orders to retreat if they met any resistance. But Britain and France did nothing.
33 4. AUSTRIA (Anschluss)In 1938, Hitler took over Austria. First, Hitler encouraged the Austrian Nazis to demand union with Germany. Then Hitler invaded Austria (11 March 1938). This broke the Treaty of Versailles, but once again, Britain and France did nothing.
34 5. SudetenlandIn 1938, Hitler tried to take over the Sudetenland (a part of Czechoslovakia with a large German population). British P.M. Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler. At Munich, on 29 September 1938, Britain and France gave Hitler the Sudetenland.
35 “Appeasement proves that sensible discussion instead of fighting can produce success - no lives were lost!”“This deal means fair treatment”.“Appeasement means we can avoid another terrible war. This is clearly a good idea”British Prime Minister Chamberlain
36 6. CZECHOSLOVAKIAOn 15 March 1939, Hitler’s troops marched into the rest of Czechoslovakia. This, for most British people, was the time when they realized that the only thing that would stop Hitler was a war. Britain and France still did nothing.
37 “Appeasement makes us look weak, powerless and a waste of space…Hitler must be laughing! Giving Germany landonly means they will get more powerful and thus less easy to defeat. Hitler has made his plans clear - he wants all of Eastern Europe - he will NEVER keep to his promise.Russia will now look for agreements with Nazi Germany rather than with us. This is dangerous…A terrible policy. Hitler now thinks he can get away with whatever he wants!”Future Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
38 7. USSR ~ NAZI PACTIn summer 1939, Hitler began to unfold his plan to take over Poland. Chamberlain promised the Poles that Britain would support them if Germany attacked Poland. In August 1939, Hitler made a secret treaty with Russia. He thought this would stop Britain & France helping Poland.
39 8. POLANDOn 1 September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland.On 3 September 1939, Chamberlain declared war on Germany.On May 10, after British forces are defeated by Germany in Norway, Chamberlain resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Winston Churchill.