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TTreaty of Versailles (Was too harsh and left resentment in Germany; Hitler promised to reject the treaty) GGreat Depression (Germany was severely affected by the depression; Hitler promised full employment for the German people) RRise of Hitler & Nazi Party FFailure of League of Nations (no real military force to stop aggression; used sanctions instead) EExtreme Nationalism FFascism (Is a system of a government based on an unquestioning acceptance of a dictator ’ s rule) IIsolationism and Appeasement (Unwillingness of democratic governments to intervene in places like Germany) # Fundamental Causes of WWII
May 1939 British King and Queen visit Canada hoping to get support Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada, did not want to join another war: Lost too many Canadian in WWI Conscription divided the country Just recovering from Depression The Munich Agreement CBC archives—Canadian Greetings to Queen and King-hyperlink
September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland Britain and France declared war on Germany In WWI, this would mean that Canada also declared war on Germany. But by 1939, Canada was an independent country They take a vote in Parliament September 8, 1939 Government meeting King wanted to support the war Ernest Lapoint (minister of Justice) from Quebec also supported war. King promised no conscription https://www.historicacanada.ca/conte nt/heritage-minutes/winnie https://www.historicacanada.ca/conte nt/heritage-minutes/winnie
Not prepared for war Small army, air force, and navy troops Old equipment Canadians were cheering on the streets when Canada decided to join WWI This time somber feeling Still there were many volunteers Aboriginal people volunteered more than other groups join Canada Example: Thomas Prince No African Canadians (racist)-more acceptance later Canadians wanted to join the war because: Pay $1.30/day & $60/month for depended spouse and $30/month for each child Sediment towards Britain Newfound national pride Why? https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/herita ge-minutes/tommy- prince?media_type=&media_category=32 https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/herita ge-minutes/tommy- prince?media_type=&media_category=32 MOBALIZING CANADA’S RECOURCES
A political cartoon of the time shows Canada as a huge goal net and three small figures (all equal size) labelled “Army”, “Air force” and “Navy” trying to guard it. It is called the “National Nightmare” 1939 (start of war!). What do you think this represents? See image to the right a. Canada’s air force was much smaller than its other branches b. Canada’s armed forces were too small to defend Canada properly c. Canada’s coasts were defended by only one branch of the military d. Canada’s army was prepared for war and could defend its homeland.
Allies Britain, France, Commonwealth countries like Canada, Australia and New Zealand Axis Germany, Italy, and Japan Allied troops along France’s borders and waited for Germany’s next move Nothing happened for seven months Called a “phoney war” (attrition?) April 1940 Blitzkrieg (see animation) “Lightning War” Powerful and successful war tactic Surprise and fast attacks German tanks, warplanes, and soldiers in enemy territory and destroying communication and transportation links. Countries attacked became confused and trapped Attacked Denmark and Norway The War in Europe
Key battle: Evacuation at Dunkirk May 10, 1940 Invasion of Netherlands German forces went into Belgium and into France Dunkirk-Allied forces were surrounded and had to escape They could only escape by the sea May 26, 1940 Britain decide to organize all its boats, from ferries to fishing boats to go to the beaches of Dunkirk, so they can save the Allied forces Luftwaffe, German air force, bombed Dunkirk. Escape from Dunkirk was hard, but Allies were able to escape Boosted morale-seen as “miracle” Also, many troops saved for later battles June 22, 1940 Because of Germany’s strong army, Germany soon captured France. France surrendered. Only Britain and the Commonwealth countries fought against Germany ions/wwtwo_map_fall_france/index_embed.sht ml
July 10, 1940-Battle of Britain “ Operation Sea Lion” Germany’s plan to attack Britain Destroy Britain’s air power Massive bombing of harbours and shipping facilities in Southern England Bombing raids of airfields and aircraft factories RAF retaliates and bombs Berlin Bombing of civilian targets for almost 55 nights Scared and killed many people Luftwaffe destroyed buildings and streets Called the “Blitz” Germany had more planes than Britain, but Germany could not win war against British Radar System Britain could know when German raids will be Spitfires and Hurricanes Good fighter planes Joined by many pilots from Commonwealth countries Britain was successful in shooting German bombers May 1941 Hitler decided to stop trying to invade Britain ain
The War Spreads Germany lost the Battle of Britain “Operation Barbarossa” Invasion of Russia Germany and the Soviet agreed before in 1939 that they would not invade each other, but Hitler did not keep his promise! Hitler needed to control Russia because he wanted a greater Germany, a big German Empire, and get to Russia’s rich oil fields Battle lost because of cold Russian winter
The War in the Pacific Japan was an Axis power but not involved in war in Europe December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbour Japanese planes bombed naval base in Pearl harbour, Hawaii, USA Destroyed half of US navy US declared war on Japan Watch Attack Scene! Lessons: In Canada we become hysterical over the fact that the Japanese might attack us! PREJUDICE AGAINST JAPANESE CANADIANS Germany and Italy declared war on the US since they were allies with Japan Also bombed Philippines Battle of Hong Kong Hong Kong, British colony Also invaded Hong Kong, British colony Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day, 1941 Canada had sent troops to Hong Kong 1975 Canadians were either killed or taken prisoner by the Japanese Canadians were scared to learn of the fate of the Canadians and angry that troops had been sent to Hong Kong https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage- minutes/osborn-hong-kong
Canada’s Role in Europe1942 Soviet Union- Lost many soldiers against German invasions Wanted Allies to invade Europe from the West Would weaken German army because it would fight two fronts
The Dieppe Raid, August 19, 1942 Second Canadian Division was chosen to be the ones to attack the French port of Dieppe, under German occupation Allied troops were to be protected by air force bombers and tanks were to be landed on town Plan failed Germans knew we were coming Late start Poor communication Many died Dieppe was a valuable lesson for D-Day
Canadians at Sea Royal Canadian Navy rushed into a massive building and training program : The Battle of the Atlantic Canada’s help was needed Food and military supplies Allied ships to England were being sunk by German submarines Convoy system Warships escort and protect ships that carry important supplies German still destroyed these ships cms/expositions-exhibitions/sackville/ve10/index.htmlCorvettes Escort convoys Quick, small, and easily controlled Unsteady Built by Canadians Seemed like Allies were losing Battle of the Atlantic, but they start to win.
Britain found out Germany’s naval code: ENIGMA Allies could know German submarine movements Building more ships Better training of Royal Canadian Navy Better equipment Liberator bombers that can protect convoy’s route Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) increased in numbers and became more important Participated in bombing raids in Britain, North Africa, Northwest Europe, and Southeast Asia Participated in night bombing in Germany (US participated in day bombings) Example: Hamburg, Germany Created firestorm (City was in flames) Many died https://www.historicacanada.ca/content /heritage-minutes/andrew-mynarski https://www.historicacanada.ca/content /heritage-minutes/andrew-mynarski
1941 RCAF formed Women’s Division to support the war effort Women were trained as clerks, cooks, hospital assistants, drivers, telephone operators, welders, instrument mechanics, and engine mechanics. Women were not allowed to fly in combat, but in delivering planes to Britain. https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/marion- orr?media_type=41&media_category=35 Operations monitoring at the Eastern Air Command HQ, Halifax, January 9th, Three photographers getting ready to take off; from left to right: Flight Sergeant A.D. Lang, Aircraftswomen M. Dudlyke, M. Clayborne and Jeanne Farris.
The Tide Turns 1942 Allies gained strength when the US entered the conflict in Dec Allies began to win the Battle of the Atlantic Allies made important advances in Asia1943 Allies cleared North Africa of Axis forces and could turn their attention to the invasion of Europe What is their next step?
The Invasion of Italy British PM, Winston Churchill, said that the best way to get to Europe from Germany was through the “soft Underbelly” of Europe—Italy and Sicily Invasion of Italy and Sicily Thought it would be easy Lasted almost two years and cost many lives Therefore, not so easy July 10, 1943 Canadians participated in Allies’ invasion of Sicily Allies were successful September 1943 Moved to mainland Italy Rugged terrain, muddy conditions, and cold rainy weather (similar to WWI) Slow battles Example: Ortona Battle over one town, Ortona Canadians fought for a long time Germany withdrew eventually Allies advance through Italy was hard June 4, 1944 Reached Rome and gained control of it Continued in Italy until the spring of 1945— Bug Ms. D about this!!! It is really cool!
Canadian troops moving anti-tank gun into position during street fighting in Ortona, 21 December 1943.
D-day and Liberation June 6, 1944 “D-Day” “Operation Overlord” A full-scale invasion of Europe Five landing points along the beaches in Normandy in northern France Beaches called “Sword,” “Juno”, “Gold”, “Omaha”, and “Utah” Attacks on the beaches were preceded by massive air attacks and paratroopers were parachuted in behind the German lines Allied troops had two advantages Massive air and naval support with the ability to land more than a million troops within two or three weeks Details of the attack were secret German defense was poorly planned Allied began an eleven-month advance through France and Belgium, towards Germany Campaign was tiring and dangerous Allies were liberators of Europe Canadians marched triumphantly through the streets of Dieppe virtualmuseum.ca/Search.do?R=VE_319&lang=en&ex=on https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/juno- beach?media_type=&media_category=35
March 1945 Allied forces attacked Germany Task of Canadians: Free Netherlands This was done before, but unsuccessful Slow fighting Lots of casualties April 17, 1945 Liberation of Holland Canadians able to defeat German army and free Netherlands, and push Germans back into Germany! Also, air drops of food and convoys of trucks carrying food and fuel Canadians seen as heroes in Netherlands https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage- minutes/mona-parsons?media_type=41 May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered Allies attacked Germany in the West, while the Soviet Union attacked in the East Hitler killed himself didn’t want to surrender Two German officers in a group of prisoners who surrendered to Canadian troops in Courseulles, June 6th, 1944.
The Holocaust Discovered Allies pressed closer to Germany and discovered the actions of the Nazis—The Holocaust Millions of people murdered and many dead people and hungry people in concentration camps Anti-Semitic and racist views of Hitler and Nazi were known in the 1930s “Final Solution” Germany’s plan to rid their society of all people they considered undesirable Death camps were built in a number of places German scientists experimented with the best way of killing lots of people at one time Jews from all over Europe were shipped to death camps Stripped of their clothes and valuables Heads were shaved Families were separated Weak, old, and young sent to “showers” No water, just gas Strong and healthy were put to work Killed when too weak 1945 Germans had murdered 6 million Jews, Roma (Gypsies), Slavs and other people they thought was inferior Holocaust (massive killing of people) Were all Germans bad? Watch Irena Sandler clip
Japan surrenders 1945 Japanese air force and navy destroyed Army was still strong US government wanted to end war, so used an atomic bomb Manhattan Project US and British scientists working on a secret plan to make a nuclear bomb August 6, 1945 US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima-”Little Boy”(Enola Gay—airplane) 70,000 killed 130,000 people were wounded August 9, 1945 US dropped an atomic bomb (“Fat Man”) on Nagasaki 40,000 people killed WWII is over. nagasaki-photos-from-the-ruins/#1 nagasaki-photos-from-the-ruins/#1
The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan War effort was at home, so no conscription British instructors would train pilots and other flight personnel from all over the Commonwealth in Canada Open skies Climate Distance from enemies King liked BCTAP because it was a major Canadian contribution to the war effort, without casualties
Total War Government planned and controlled every aspect of society (politics, economy, society) Department of Munitions and Supplies C.D. Howe as its minister Controlled production Crown corporations Vancouver building ships for navy and Montreal was building new planes and bombers. Canada’s car industries were building military vehicles and tanks. Munitions factories in Quebec and Ontario Government controlled telephone companies, refined fuel, stockpiled silk for parachutes, mined uranium, and controlled food production Policy of Total War Canadians willing to do whatever it took to defeat the enemy. Important World War II Documents: War Measures Act (1940) detainment of Japanese Canadians and take civil liberties away (suspend them) National Selective Services Act able-bodied male and female had to do essential war work Lend-Lease Act – Supplying War goods to G.B. from CAN and U.S. National Resources Mobilization Act: required adult males to register for military service within Canada (conscription?) – I’ll talk about this later Ogdensburg Agreement-Military agreement between us and States
AAnimation/Letter Assignment AAfter the bombing of bombing of Pearl Harbour on ? there was a fear that Japanese would invade Canada. 222, 000 Japanese-Canadians (out of 23, 000 in Canada) are placed in Internment Camps in the interior of British Columbia AAll their possessions were taken and sold houses, cars, shops, fishing boats, and other property (for practically nothing!) AAfter the war they are not able to return to British Columbia IIn 1945 the Canadian government decided to deport Japanese Canadians back to Japan IIn 1988, the Canadian government agreed that it was wrong -- > paid 1400 people who were affected $21,000/each -- > gave citizenship back to those deported WWas it enough?
The War at Home (cont’d) Workers working long hours and many working seven days a week All women asked to work (esp. single women! Why?) Moved from rural to urban Companies built dormitories Married women also found factory work Provincial governments funded day care facilities Canada’s Wartime Economy Increased production and employment More money to spend Not many products to buy King also wished to prevent the massive debt problem
Ilsley Minister of finance Victory Bonds Government will make sure that Canadians are saving money Use money to help the cost of war Increase income taxes t/salvage.asp Inflation Rise in prices for goods and services that increases cost of living and triggers the demand for a rise in wages Wartime Prices and Trade Boards Freeze all wages and prices as a way to prevent inflation King introduced food rationing ww2/ig/Canadian-Posters-World-War-II/
The Growing Demand for Social Change Limit unions Shortage of labour helps the unions Workers=higher wages and collective bargaining Unions=striked1944 Acknowledge unions War changes role of government More involvement in economy The CCF (Cooperative Commonwealth Federation) party and its belief of social change was becoming popular King knew that he had competition, so he thought of: (Is he borrowing ideas from somewhere? The PM of the 1930s? Unemployment insurance program Expanded social assistance programs Family allowance program “Cradle to grave” social security Meaning that government will support everyone from young to old. Committee in House of Commons discussing the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940
The Conscription Crisis National Resources Mobilization Act National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA) Gather all resources in the nation to defeat the enemy. Conscription, but only for home defense pressured to adopt overseas conscription King decided to hold a plebiscite April 27, 1942 Plebiscite (vote) results: All provinces except Quebec voted “yes” Issue of conscription divided the nation August 1942 King allowed overseas conscription Quebec felt betrayed by King’s actions Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary“Not necessarily conscription, but conscription if necessary.” ministers/mackenzie-king-public-life-private-man/not- necessarily-conscription.html King did not want a divided Canada, so he tried to avoid overseas conscription until Political cartoon concerning the conscription crisis, November, 1944.
1944 Invasion of Europe lost almost 23,000 soldiers King agrees to send conscripts overseas NRMA conscripts to Europe (not all went peacefully) Riots Quebec legislature passed a motion that says it was against what the government was doing Division again between French and English in Canada Anti-conscription rally in Quebec City during World War II.
What the war Meant to Canada Military and economic support to the Allies Known as the “arsenal [military] storehouse of democracy.” GDP increases from Employment increased Economy changes from agricultural to industrial Investment in mining, production, transportation, and service industries Post-war immigration increased (Why?) Women workers producing primers (A cap or tube containing a small amount of explosive used to detonate the main explosive charge of a firearm or mine. )
Building an Identity Canada’s contribution to the war: soldiers, money, and products Canadians now major players in the global conflict 3 rd largest navy 4 th largest air force Many Canadians killed, wounded, or captured, but WWII helped show how Canada will be in the years to come. V-E Day Celebrations V-E (Victory in Europe) Day was celebrated all across Canada, as in Ottawa shown here on 8 May 1945
USSR22 million China11 million Germany7 million Poland7 million U.S.0.5 million Great Britain 0.3 million Japan1.5 million