2WWII Vocabulary Dec. 7, 1941 island hopping El Alamein Stalingrad Adolf HitlerLend-Lease ActDestroyers for bases dealManchuriaUnited NationsMidwayIwo Jima and OkinawaHiroshima and NagasakiTuskegee AirmenBattle of BritainDec. 7, 1941island hoppingEl AlameinStalingradD-DayNisei regimentsBataan Death MarchgenocideFinal SolutionNuremburg Trialsrationingwar bondsMarshall PlanSelective serviceInternment campGeneva Convention
3World War II : the beginning (Europe) World War II officially began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland from the west in Sept.1939.Shortly after, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, and the Baltic States.
4During the first two years, the US stayed officially neutral as Germany overran France, most of Europe, and pounded Britain from the air (The Battle of Britain)In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his former partner and invaded the Soviet Union
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6Despite strong isolationist sentiment at home, the US increasingly helped Britain. It gave war supplies (Lend-Lease) and old warships (Destroyers for bases) to Britain in exchange for military bases in the Caribbean and Bermuda.
7FDR compared it to“ lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire”
8During the 1930s a militaristic Japan invaded and brutalized Manchuria and China as it sought military and economic domination over AsiaThe US refused to recognize Japanese conquests in Asia and imposed an embargo on oil and steel to Japan. TENSIONS ROSE.
9The US and Japan negotiated to avoid war. While negotiating with the US, Japan carried out an air attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, on DEC. 7TH, 1941
10The attack killed several thousand Americans and destroyed much of the American Pacific fleet.
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12“a date that will live in infamy” FDR called it:“a date that will live in infamy”He will ask Congress to declare war on Japan.Hitler will honor a pact with Japan and declare war on the US.
13The debate over isolationism in the US was over The debate over isolationism in the US was over. World War II was truly a world war now and the US was fully involved.
14Most American military resources were targeted for Europe. Allied StrategyAmerica and its Allies (Great Britain and the Soviet Union) followed a “Defeat Hitler First” strategy.Most American military resources were targeted for Europe.
15In the Pacific, American military strategy called for an “Island Hopping” campaign. The US would seize islands closer and closer to Japan and use them for air raids on Japan.
16We would also cut off Japanese supplies by using submarine warfare against Japanese shipping
17Germany’s strategyGermany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly and gain control of their oil fields.Also hoped to force Britain out of the war with a bombing campaign and submarine warfare.
18Hoped to end it before American industrial and military strength could turn the tide
19Japan’s strategyJapan invaded the Philippines and Indonesia after Pearl Harbor. They planned to invade Australia and Hawaii.
20Japan’s leaders hoped America would accept Japanese predominance in South Asia and the Pacific rather than commit to a bloody costly war to reverse their gains
21Major Battles and Turning Points North AfricaEl Alamein--German forces threatened to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal. The Germans were stopped by the British.
22**This prevented Germany from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil and possibly attacking the Soviets from the south
23EuropeStalingrad--Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a month long siege of the Russian city
24.**This prevented Germany from capturing Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the east.**
25Normandy--(D-Day) American and Allied troops led by Gen. Dwight D Normandy--(D-Day) American and Allied troops led by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower landed in German occupied France on June 6, 1944.
26Despite heavy German opposition and heavy American casualties, the landings were successful and the liberation of western Europe from Hitler had begun
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28Final Solution--Germany’s decision to exterminate all Jews HolocaustGenocide--the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural groupFinal Solution--Germany’s decision to exterminate all Jews
29Affected GroupsJews PolesSlavs GypsiesUndesirables (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents)
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34Significance--In the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes. The Nuremberg trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during a war, regardless of orders received.
35The trials led to an increased demand for a Jewish homeland (Israel) A new Jewish country will be founded in 1948
36AsiaMidway--In the “Miracle of Midway” American naval forces defeated a much larger Japanese naval force. A Japanese victory would have allowed the Japanese to invade Hawaii.
37The American victory ended the Japanese threat to Hawaii and began a series of victories in the island hopping campaign.
39Iwo Jima and Okinawa--American victories on the two island brought the US even closer to Japan but at the cost of thousands of American lives and even more Japanese lives.
40Japanese soldiers fought fiercely over every square inch of the islands and Japanese soldiers and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender
41Hiroshima and Nagasaki--because we faced terrible casualties of both the Americans and Japanese if we had to invade the Japanese home islands, President Truman ordered the use of the atomic bomb on both cities.
42**Tens of thousands of people were killed in both cities, but it convinced the Japanese leaders to surrender.
44Geneva ConventionAttempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war. It established rules to be followed by all nationsIt still exists today.
45The treatment of prisoners in the Pacific often reflected the savagery of the fighting there. In the Bataan Death March--American POWs suffered brutal treatment by the Japanese after their surrender in the Philippines
46Japanese soldiers often committed suicide rather than surrender
47The treatment of prisoners in Europe more closely followed the ideas of the Geneva Convention
48Japanese Americans were relocated to internment camps Internment affected Japanese American populations along the West Coast. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s right to act against Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the US.
49Reasons for internment 1. Strong anti-Japanese prejudice on the West Coast2. False belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy
50A public apology was eventually issued by the US government A public apology was eventually issued by the US government. Financial payment was made to survivors.
51War at HOMESuccess in the war required the total commitment of the nation’s resources. On the home front, public education and the mass media promoted nationalism
52Economic Resources--The US government and industry forged a close working relationship to allocate resources effectively1. Rationing was used to maintain the supply of products essential to the war effort
532. War bonds and the income tax were used to finance the war. 3. Businesses retooled from peacetime to wartime production (ex.--car manufacturing to tank manufacturing)
54Human resources1. More women and minorities entered the labor force as men entered the armed forces2. Citizens volunteered in support of the war effort.
55Military ResourcesThe draft/selective service was used to provide personnel for the military
56Minority participation African-Americans generally served in segregated military units and were assigned to non-combat roles.They demanded the right to serve in combat rather than support roles
57There were two all- minority units in particular--Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments Tuskegee Airmen--African-American pilots who served with distinction in Europe
59Nisei Regiments--Asian-Americans earned high number of decorations earned in fighting in Europe
60Communication codes of the Navajo Indians were used as code Communication codes of the Navajo Indians were used as code. It was an oral, not written, language*It was impossible for the Japanese to breakMexican-Americans fought but in non-segregated
61Minority units suffered high casualties and won numerous unit citations and individual medals for bravery in action
62Contributions to a war effort come from all segments of a society Contributions to a war effort come from all segments of a society. Women entered into previously male job roles as African Americans and others struggled to obtain desegregation in the armed forces and end discriminatory hiring practices.
63Women increasingly participated in the work force to replace men serving in the military (ex.--Rosie the Riveter)They typically participated in the military in non-combat roles (WAACS and WAVES, and nurses)
64African Americans migrated to cities in search of jobs in the war plants They campaigned for victory in war and equality at home
65The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting the war. Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort
66The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.
67WW II aftermathThe Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern and Central Europe, eastern Germany and North KoreaGerman was divided (partitioned) into four zones. The US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union each controlled a zone
68The US, GB, and FR will combine their zones into a democratic self-governing country called West GermanyEast Germany will be created and dominated by the SU for the next 40+ years. It will be communistic
69Japan will also be occupied by the US Japan will also be occupied by the US. It will also adopt a democratic government based on the US model. It becomes a strong ally of the US in the region.
70Marshall PlanBecause Europe lay in ruins, the US will launch an economic aid program called the Marshall Plan.We provided massive amounts of financial aid to rebuild Europe.We did this to prevent the spread of communism.
71United NationsA new world peace organization was formed near the end of WWII.It was to prevent future global wars.The US will play a prominent role in the UN.The UN’s headquarters are located in New York City.