Presentation on theme: "The former imperial governments of Germany, Russia, Austria- Hungary and Ottoman Turkey were gone. The first years after the war were not easy ones. Peoples."— Presentation transcript:
The former imperial governments of Germany, Russia, Austria- Hungary and Ottoman Turkey were gone. The first years after the war were not easy ones. Peoples in Central Europe suffered from famine caused by a wartime blockade of foodstuffs. Returning soldiers faced unemployment. A major flu epidemic of 1919 killed as many people as the war itself. Farms, cities and railroad lines had been torn up in the fighting. Europeans spent the next five years rebuilding and recovering from the war.
Based on the Treaty of Versailles, Germans had to make huge reparation payments for the war to France and Britain, slowing German economic recovery. Germany printed extra money to pay the debt, triggering hyper- inflation. Workers were known to collect their wages in suitcases, then spending them immediately. During the war, Britain and France had purchased war goods from the United States on credit. Now they were deeply in debt. Americans faced a brief recession when the war ended.
Consumers in both America and Europe also benefited from new electric appliances like the vacuum cleaners, refrigerator, and toaster. They went to the movies and listened to the radio for the first time Americans invested some of their wealth overseas, especially in Germany. American prosperity spread to Europe by the late 1920s. As Europeans began once again buying goods from their colonies, prosperity spread further to Asia, Africa, and Latin America
October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) a stock market crash in New York started a chain reaction that sent the world economy into the Great Depression. A depression is an economic downturn in which large numbers of businesses fail and workers are unemployed. The prices of stocks started falling and nothing could hold them up, as people scrambled to sell. People who lost money in the stock market stopped spending. America banks and investors recalled their loans from Europe, and the depression quickly spread world-wide.
Part of the prosperity was due to stock market and real estate over speculation. Investors borrowed money to invest in order to make a quick profit. Another problem was overproduction. The interrelationship of loans and debts between Europe and America ensured that the recession would quickly spread. Most government leaders reacted poorly. Many stopped spending, tightened credit and cut off international trade People had no safety net such as unemployment insurance or social security, it they lost their jobs and savings.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Elected in 1932 Immediately created a relief program called the New Deal. The federal government provided money to each state to provide the needy with clothing, food, & shelter. To create jobs the government began a program of public works. Congress all reformed the economic system Banks and stock exchanges were put under stricter regulations Social Security Act 1935: Provided unemployment and old-age benefits
Fascism: government doctrine that relies on dictatorial rule and a totalitarian regime, in which the state maintains rigid control of the people through force and censorship. Formed by Benito Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini: Provided a clear response to Italy’s problems Black Shirts: the followers of Mussolini. European fascism shared the following Characteristics: Nationalism: extreme nationalist who believed that the highest value was the nation. Unity of all social classes: Felt a single national party should unite all classes All-Powerful leaders: A single all powerful leader could best represent the national and will lead the nation. Extreme Militarism: Used violence to defeat their political opponents and prepared to use war for national expansion.
Anti Semitism: The hatred of Jews Jews frequently faced prejudice and persecution. Their unique beliefs and custom made them easy targets in times of social unrest and economic difficulty. Racism This is a form of hatred for people of other races Social Darwinism: Social Darwinists believed that all human groups competed for survival and that stronger groups had the right to succeed over weaker groups, who deserved to die out.
Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced out when the war was lost. The new German democratic republic, known as the Weimar Republic, was weak. Blamed the Weimar Republic for accepting the Treaty of Versailles. U.S.S.R The Soviet Communists had demonstrated how to build a totalitarian state, controlling all aspects of life. When Lenin died in 1924, Joseph Stalin succeeded him as leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin quickly moved to eliminate other rivals.
The leaders of the Weimar government could not agree on how to cope with this economic catastrophe In the elections, the farmers, the unemployed, and members of the middle class turned to be more radical solutions offered by both the Communists and the Nazi Party. National Socialist Party: Nazi Party came to power in the 1920s. Extremely nationalistic Anti-Semitic and Anticommunist
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was the leader of the Nazi Party. By 1921 he was the head of the Nazi Party Hitler spelled out his radical ideas in this book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Condemnation of the Weimar Republic Aryan Race: Believed that Germans were a superior Aryan Race Anti-Semitism: Jews were an “evil race” caused Germany’s defeat in the war. Important belief of Nazi’s: loyalty/obedience to Hitler.
Nazis built up their power with a private army of “Brown Shirts” made up of former soldiers and unemployed workers. They beat up political opponents and Jews, and staged rallies and parades. When the Great Depression hit Germany support for the Nazi party increased. In 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor Conservatives thought they could control Hitler Hitler secured complete control quickly Someone set fire to the Reichstag(legislature) building Blamed communists and Hitler said it was a communist revolt Used these powers to make himself dictator
In the following months the Nazi Party, like the fascists in Italy, took over every aspect of German social, economic and political life. The army took a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler. He turned Germany into a police state Murdered his rivals within the Nazi party Gestapo: Secret police with a wide-range of powers. Created the “New Order.” Under the New order many changes took place
People were arrested and executed without trial. Political opponents sent to concentration camps. Hitler made use of public works projects like building highways and military rearmament to secure full employment. Economic prosperity returned to Germany Hitler called his rule the Third Reich Secretly began to rebuild his army In 1936 he ordered troops into Rhineland. This act violated the treaty of Versailles. Sought an alliance with Mussolini (Italy) In 1936 they formed the Rome-Berlin Axis
In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin used terror tactics similar to those used by Hitler. People had to obey the demands of the Communist Party without complaint or face punishment. Government controlled religion and art Ordered the imprisonment or execution of ministers, priests, and rabbis. The works of artists, musicians, and writers were subject government control and censorship
The rise of Fascist dictators in Italy, Germany and elsewhere made the outbreak of a new war almost inevitable. These dictators glorified war and laid plans for national expansion. WWII could be seen as a continuation of the war that had ended in 1918 Japan will launch a war in East Asia in 1931
Hitler sought revenge from Britain and France for Germany’s humiliating defeat. Hitler planned to enslave whole populations and to exterminate others. WWII became a struggle to the death for mastery of the world. WWII will transform the entire world just as WW1 transformed Europe.
Hitler and Mussolini began taking aggressive step. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. Hitler helped Francisco Franco, another fascist dictator, in Spain. Then Hitler demanded Austria and a part of Czechoslovakia that had many German nationals living there. Hitler next demanded Danzig in Poland for the seaports but the Poles – now backed by Britain and France – refused to give in.
League of Nations Fails The League relied on its members to help each other to prevent another war. The League could do nothing to stop Hitler Because its member states refused to take action. They feared any such steps might lead to war. Appeasement Hitler next claimed territories where Germans lived. He annexed (took) Austria early in 1938. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler in Munich hoping to avoid war, Chamberlain agreed to Hitler’s demand for western Czechoslovakia. Invasion of Poland In 1939, Hitler made new demands for part of Poland. Hitler made a secret deal with Stalin to keep the Soviet Union out of the war. Germany then invaded Poland, starting WWII. Stalin took part of Eastern Poland.
Great Britain & France will ask Stalin to become a part of an alliance against Germany. At the same time Stalin was negotiating with Great Britain & France he was carrying on secret talks with Germany. German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact): August 1939, this agreement publicly stated that Germany and the Soviet Union would never attack each other. Secretly, Hitler and Stalin agreed to divide eastern Europe into spheres of influence.
Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 started the war Two days later Great Britain and France decided they would not stand for any further Nazi aggression and declared war on Germany. Blitzkrieg(German for lightning war): it took place with great speed and force. “Phony War”: Early phase of WWII marked by little activity in Western Europe. April 9, 1940 the “phony war” ended with a German invasion of Denmark and Norway. By the end of 1940, Germany controlled most of Western Europe – only Britain held out
The British air force was badly outnumbered and struggled to help the trapped forces in Dunkerque. Every available ship & boat in Britain was ordered to Dunkerque. About 330,000 men were safely transported from Dunkerque to England. Hitler did not attack the retreating Allies which proved later to be a costly mistake.
Hitler hoped to overcome British resistance by bombing London and other British cities from the air. Winston Churchill, the new British Prime Minister, rallied British resistance. The use of radar, the bravery of the British air force, and Britain’s island location helped defend Britain from German air attacks. Fought mostly in the air. Fighting continued non-stop during September & October Hitler was unable to defeat the British.
By 1940, Hitler had conquered all of Western Europe except Britain. According to Hitler, Germany needed to expand eastwards. June 22, 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union(Hitler betrayed Stalin) Germans first movements were very successful. Soviets used the scorched-earth method their ancestors used against Napoleon. Germans had to fight during the Russian winter. Soviets counter attack during the winter which forced the Germans to retreat. This causes the Battle of Stalingrad which lasts for 6 months. Germans are defeated and it’s a turning point in the war.
December 7, 1941: Japan launched a surprise attack on American ships at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. More than 2,300 American military dead. December 8, 1941: USA and Britain declared war on Japan December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declared war on USA Allied Powers: Britain, Soviet Union, and USA Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
The Holocaust refers to the attempted genocide of the Jews in Europe during WWII. The Final Solution: Hitler decided to execute all European Jews under the cover of the war. Henrich Himmler: the head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) was the head of the final solution. Wannsee Conference: January 1942, German officials met to set out a systematic plan for exterminating Jews in concentration camps.
Nazi’s moved Jews by the hundreds of thousands to concentration camps in Germany & Poland. Dachau & Buchenwald two of the largest camps in Germany Treblinka & Auschwitz huge death camps in Poland Not everyone was killed immediately some worked in the camps 6 million Jews were murdered (2/3 of those living in Europe)
Finally, on D-Day on June 6, 1944, allied troops landed in Normandy, in Northern France. This was the largest amphibious assault in history. The tide of war now turned in favor of the allies. August 25, 1944: Allied troops enter Paris and by September they reached Germany’s western edge. Several weeks after D-day the soviets began a major drive against Germany from the east. Germans began to fall apart in spring 1945 At the end of April 1945 the army in Italy surrendered. May 8, 1945 V-E day (The day of victory in Europe)
Several of the most important Nazi leaders were tried and convicted by an international court at Nuremberg for “crimes against humanity.” The Nuremberg trials revealed to the world the full extent of Nazi atrocities. The trials reaffirmed that not just a country but its individuals were accountable for violations of international law.
Germany itself was divided into separate zones and occupied by the four victorious allied Powers.
Just as German ambitions had triggered the war in Europe, Japan’s aggressive designs led to war in Asia. Japan’s military began to influence Japanese national policy They set Japan on a policy of expansion in Asia. They successfully invaded Manchuria, a northern province of China, 1931. Japan next went on to invade the rest of China in 1937.
Japanese leaders saw the war in Europe as an opportunity to gain control of mainland Asia. Only the United States was in a position to prevent Japan’s expansion. When the United States threatened to blockade the shipment of oil supplies unless Japan gave up some of its conquests, Japanese leaders decided on a surprise attack.
To carry out this strategy, Japan launched a massive surprise air attack from aircraft carriers on the U.S. fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. Japanese leaders badly miscalculated the ability of the USA. The tide began to turn in 1943 when the USA regained naval superiority in the Pacific at the Battle of Midway. In early1945 Roosevelt and Churchill met with Stalin and agreed that Germany would be divided and occupied by allied troops. In July 1945 Truman and Attlee meet and demanded an unconditional surrender from Japan.
When Japan refused to surrender President Truman had an important decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. A German Jewish physicist, Albert Einstein played a key role in developing the atom bomb. Manhattan Project: Leading scientists gathered in New Mexico to develop an atomic bomb. August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb is dropped on the city of Hiroshima. 80,000 people were killed instantly August 9, 1945 another atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. 40,000 people were killed instantly August 14, 1945 the Japanese surrender unconditionally.
General Douglas McArthur was assigned the task of rebuilding post-war Japan. Reforms made Japan less imperialistic and less aggressive Japan lost its overseas empire and was stripped of its army and navy. Japan’s leaders were put on trial and punished. A democratic constitution was created Emperor Hirohito was allowed to remain on the throne with reduced powers.
As many as 70 million people died More than 34 million were wounded In Europe and Asia more than 16 million civilians died. Violated human rights on scale that had never been seen before. Some estimates place the war cost at 2 trillion dollars.
A new international peace keeping organization launched in 1945. In April 1945 they agreed to the U.N. Charter Established its purpose to maintain peace in the world. Primary purpose was to maintain international peace and security. General Assembly: included all member nations Security Council: made up of leading powers. They are responsible for ensuring peace and deterring aggression. China, Britain, France, Soviet Union, & USA were permanent members.