Presentation on theme: "WWII “The Big One”. Japan Responds to the Depression Military leaders elected to power who promote absolute powers for Emperor Hirohito In 1931, Japan."— Presentation transcript:
WWII “The Big One”
Japan Responds to the Depression Military leaders elected to power who promote absolute powers for Emperor Hirohito In 1931, Japan invades Manchuria: for what? coal, iron ore, oil.
Weak Responses Encouraged More Attacks In 1935 Italy seizes Ethiopia troops into Rhineland Axis Pact Japan joins Axis. Why were the responses to these events so weak? - Why didn’t the League of Nations do anything ? ?
The Axis Supported General Franco Spanish Civil War Western volunteers support democracy Fascist rebel forces prevail.
Munich Pact: Sudetenland Sept 1938:What were the results of appeasement? –Promised “last territorial claim” –Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” Appeasement
Hitler Correctly Gauged French and British Response Why were the British and French reluctant to challenge Germany?
Various Historians have said that the Munich Pact…. 1.let Hitler grow stronger. 2.gave Britain time to re-arm. 3.humiliated Britain – no country in central Europe ever trusted Britain again. 4.abandoned millions of people to the Nazis. 5.caused the war, by encouraging Hitler to think he could do anything. 6.gave Britain the morale high ground – when war came, Britons knew they had done everything possible to keep the peace. 7.would never have stopped Hitler, who was determined to go to war. 8.was a fine attempt to prevent the deaths of millions of people in a war.
Blitzkrieg Took Poland in 1 Month What is this 1939 political cartoon about?
What is the Deal with the Soviets? Secret: USSR-Germany split E. Europe Germany wants to avoid a 2 front war… To the chancellor of the German Reich, Herr A. Hitler. I thank you for your letter. I hope that the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact will mark a decisive turn for the better in the political relations between our two countries.... J. Stalin* August 1939 Ribbentrop, Molotov (f), Stalin
Germany Expanded Without A Shot, Until Poland was Attacked 1936 Sept March 1939 March 1938 Munich War Begins in Poland, Sept 1,’39 France, GB declare Sept 3 German Reichstag Celebrates Annexation of Austria
The Blitzkrieg Spread Denmark : 24 hours Norway’s ports in 2 days Maginot Line Netherlands/Belgium/& France : 5 weeks –Retreat from Dunkirk By the end of June, most of Western Europe had been taken. Resistance groups Balkans fall in weeks “Lightning Warfare”
Germans March into Paris June 14, 1940: Humiliated France forced to sign at Compeign in RR car –A new Prime Minister: General Henri Petain What did the French have to give up? –France had to pay 400 Franks/day + 80% of resources + 2/3 of France annexed –French Jews turned over –French lands in the Pacific given to Japan France Split: “Vichy France”
Charles De Gaulle Vichy Regime becomes increasingly corrupt and cooperates with Nazis Charles de Gaulle – –Created “Free French,” a secret resistance movement to sabotage Nazis FDR recognizes Vichy Regime, but Churchill backed de Gaulle as leader of “Free French”
Battle of BritainBattle of Britain: Her “Finest Hour” Delayed: Hitler was sure Britain would surrender What is Churchill’s famous quote about this battle? “Never was so much owed by so many to so few” New Tech? –Radar –Ultra Churchill Speech
America’s role in the War Radio broadcasts brought the war into American homes Overcoming Isolationism –Neutrality Acts in 1935 and – FDR persuades Congress to allow sale of weapons to fighting nations by cash-and-carry policy 1940 – Congress approves draft during peacetime 1941 Lend-Lease Act – US would lend/lease supplies to countries fighting against aggressors
An Undeclared German/American Naval War In 1941 US was arming merchant ships and using navy to protect British ships September 4, 1941 German submarine fires on the USS Greer FDR orders navy commanders to shoot German submarines on sight after Greer incident Germany increasingly used newly developed U-Boats in naval war
A most critical friendship…
The Atlantic Charter : July 1941 N o enlargement of territories after the war; No territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; Bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; –established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance These ideas look a lot like what other plan that we’ve seen…?
German Invasion of the Soviet Union Soviet Union tempting because it offered additional living space and resources for Germany Hitler attacks Greece and Yugoslavia in 1941 to take over the Balkans Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary join the Axis June 22, 1941 – German uses blitzkrieg against USSR Three goals in USSR: Leningrad, Moscow, Ukraine
Hitler’s Biggest Mistake? Operation Barbarossa June 22, 1941 –Leningrad surrounded, never surrenders –Moscow never taken Stalemate in the snow Napoleon retreated, but Hitler won’t…“No Retreat” order is given –German troops suffer stranglehold at Stalingrad by early –Retreat Civilians at War
Pacific Campaign: Japan Threatened American Interests Japan attacked China, a friend of US –Civilians at War VideoCivilians at War Video US demands Japan withdraw from China or face embargo –FDR bans sale of scrap iron, steel, oil –Japan got 80% of fuel and scrap iron from the US –Prime Minister Tojo orders an attack on the US…
Before Pearl Harbor Happened… 1.Like Hitler, the Japanese saw Allies as weak –Negotiations dragged out by Japanese 2.Japanese code was broken – What did President Roosevelt know on Dec 6? Philippines a likely target 3.US Army orders in Hawaii not taken seriously
Pearl HarborPearl Harbor: Sunday morning Dec. 7, ‘41 6 Jap aircraft carriers w/ 400 planes “…a day which shall live in infamy.” - F. Roosevelt 2403 Americans died 1000 wounded 18 ships damaged; 8 battleships but no aircraft carriers
Japanese overran Western Pacific But then… Coral Sea, Midway 1942 Guadalcanal 1942
American Island Hopping Campaign
Before D-Day, the Allied Air War was Key British began night bombing Germany in ‘42 using American built bombers –Flying Fortress B-17 –Liberator B-24 The most built plane of the war (19000) American units joined with B-17s and B-24s by 1943 –High level daylight bombing of industrial areas
Allies To Europe by way of… North Africa: Why Africa? 1942 hit Morocco For oil and canal: Gen Montgomery defeats Gen Rommel near Suez Canal at El Alamein, Egypt Churchill and FDR met at Casablanca to plan… –Unconditional surrender demanded from Axis –And in ’43 hit Europe from the south Sicily, then Italy in ’43 –Why was Stalin unhappy? General George Patton The Desert Fox
: Allies Fight Their Way Up the Boot Sicily is a preview of D- Day in Normandy Uprising: Mussolini arrested and Imprisoned –escapes to Germans Civil War in Italy German troops pour in
What Happened to Mussolini? Sets up Italian Socialist Republic in German-held northern Italy. –In April, 1945, he would again be captured by Italians, and …….
Big Three decide at Tehran in ‘43 to launch 3rd front in France But not til next year
Normandy Landing: June 6, ‘44 Largest amphibious invasion ever undertaken
Animated Map of Normandy Battle
Allies Race Across France Generals Omar Bradley and George Patton The Battle of the Bulge: German counterattack Dec 1944 Newsreel
Yalta, Soviet Union, 1945
Reds and Yanks Meet West of Berlin April 25, ’45 Tensions between allies evident Cold War coming
Japan’s Atrocities In China Massacre of Nanjing –200,000 civilians killed –20,000 raped Beheading POWs "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings".
Kamikaze Warfare: May 1945: USS Bunker Hill hit and loses 372 sailors “Divine Wind” 2500 kamikaze pilots sacrificed Sunk 34 ships, damaged 300 others Claimed 5000 deaths, 10,000 casualties
Defeating Japan with atoms August 1945 Hiroshima Aug 6 Nagasaki Aug 9 VJ Day Aug 15, 1945 Why drop the bombs? 1 Million casualties predicted if invaded –using Normandy-like invasion Manhattan Project –So secret even VP Truman didn’t know
What did it take to achieve the surrender of Japan Aug. 1945??? Generals MacArthur and Wainright Aboard the USS Missouri
Picasso’s “Guernica” Civilians targeted
Civilian dead in Kerch, Ukraine, USSR, killed by German forces… Kerch was the site of fierce fighting and exchanged hands several times, Germans killed or deported about 30,0000 civilians here
Using High Estimates, Total Approximate Deaths* Country Pop. Killed/Missing Wounded Total(Military) Civilian Germany 78m 5.5 million 2.6 million 8.1 million 1.6million Italy 44m 330,000 Poland 35m 130, , , mill U.K. 48m 400, , ,000 67,000 France 42m 250, , , ,000 Australia 7m 30,000 40,000 70,000 India 360m 36,000 64, ,000 U.S.S.R. 194m 10.5 million 18 million 28.5 million 12 mill. U.S.A. 129m 400, ,000 1,000,000 Dutch E I 69 mill 3-4 mill Japan71m2.1 mill 600,000 China 3-4mill 7-16 mill Roughly, 47 million military deaths, and maybe 25 million civilian If 72 mill, By Side: Allies: 61 million Axis: 11 million *Numbers vary widely…Totals from 50 to 72 million dead!
70 million deaths
The statue “Goodness” overlooking bombed out Dresden 1945…
The Incomprehensible Death Count 50 – 70 million people million of these were Soviets USA: 400,000 –+ 600,000 wounded casualties
Hitler’s End Soviet Approach – withdraws into Berlin bunker under Imperial Chancellory Marries Eva Braun April 29 Gets word of Mussolini’s death April 30, 1945 – –gives cyanide poison to Eva –Poisons and shoots self –Bodies are doused with kerosene, burned and buried May 4 – Remains dug up by Soviets –VE Day - May 8, 1945
Hitler’s Remains Soviet soldiers bury and dig up remains several times ‘45-46 Soviets finally bury body in Magdeburg, E. Germany KGB take skull and jaw to Moscow Remains in Germany burned and ashes thrown into river, 1970 Verification by Western scientists in 2003
What were the Effects of WWII? Immediate Long Term