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Prelude to WWII Unit 4 Honors US History What are the Main Causes of War? 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___.

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Presentation on theme: "Prelude to WWII Unit 4 Honors US History What are the Main Causes of War? 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Prelude to WWII Unit 4 Honors US History

3 What are the Main Causes of War? 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___

4 What are the Main Causes of War? 1. A common enemy to a nation 2. An outside threat to a nation 3. Mob mentality, or the power of inspiration in the masses 4. Inspiration concerning a common cause Can you use this formula for the causes of WWII?

5 Common Enemy to the Nation The Treaty of Versailles had been a thorn in the sides of Germans for almost twenty years The Treaty of Versailles had been a thorn in the sides of Germans for almost twenty years Hitler was an opportunist when it came to building upon this shame and humiliation. Hitler was an opportunist when it came to building upon this shame and humiliation. Blamed France, Great Britain, Russia for Germany’s ills Blamed France, Great Britain, Russia for Germany’s ills

6 Outside Threat Hitler and Nazis brought about fear that the communism would spread from the USSR Hitler and Nazis brought about fear that the communism would spread from the USSR Many of the forces which Hitler was able to bring under control in Germany were actually opposed to Nazi rule, but accepted the rule for the greater goal of eliminating the spreading Bolshevism in Russia. Many of the forces which Hitler was able to bring under control in Germany were actually opposed to Nazi rule, but accepted the rule for the greater goal of eliminating the spreading Bolshevism in Russia. Hitler often expounded upon these fears in his propaganda, promising an end to Bolshevism and the threat of communist takeover. Hitler often expounded upon these fears in his propaganda, promising an end to Bolshevism and the threat of communist takeover. propaganda

7 Outside Threat AND A Common Enemy Anti-Semitist policies of Nazi Germany were closely tied to Anti-Communism and the "Red Scare," and the Jews were blamed for Bolshevism and its spread. Anti-Semitist policies of Nazi Germany were closely tied to Anti-Communism and the "Red Scare," and the Jews were blamed for Bolshevism and its spread."Red Scare," "Red Scare," Anti-Semitism, too, was magnified in German lands by the use of subtle and not-so-subtle propaganda. Anti-Semitism, too, was magnified in German lands by the use of subtle and not-so-subtle propaganda. propaganda Ideas of the evil and sub-humanity of other races, such as the Slavs and Jews, Hitler gave a sense of pride to all Germans, who, he claimed, were innately superior. Ideas of the evil and sub-humanity of other races, such as the Slavs and Jews, Hitler gave a sense of pride to all Germans, who, he claimed, were innately superior.

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9 Mob Mentality The “Lost Generation” from WWI The “Lost Generation” from WWI World War I had produced an entire generation of youth who had gone into a war of an extent which none could have guessed. World War I had produced an entire generation of youth who had gone into a war of an extent which none could have guessed. This youth had no training in peace time careers, and, when the first Great War ended in 1918, knew nothing but the art of war. This youth had no training in peace time careers, and, when the first Great War ended in 1918, knew nothing but the art of war. Thus, the "Lost Generation" of German youth, displaced by its own society, played a major role in supporting Nazi rule and the onset of WWII, as well as many of the brutalities which occurred under Nazi occupation of other countries. Thus, the "Lost Generation" of German youth, displaced by its own society, played a major role in supporting Nazi rule and the onset of WWII, as well as many of the brutalities which occurred under Nazi occupation of other countries.

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11 Inspiration In claiming to rebuild Germany to its former glory Hitler was able to add to the sense of pride In claiming to rebuild Germany to its former glory Hitler was able to add to the sense of pride Many Germans felt at the acknowledgement of their "pure and superior Aryan blood" by claiming responsibility for the growing economy after the Great Depression Many Germans felt at the acknowledgement of their "pure and superior Aryan blood" by claiming responsibility for the growing economy after the Great Depression

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13 Germany Elects Nazi Party Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933 Nazi Party Nazi Party Nazis passed the Nuremburg Laws which caused Jews to: Nazis passed the Nuremburg Laws which caused Jews to: Lose German citizenship Lose German citizenship Lose all political rights Lose all political rights Be banned from school Be banned from school Be segregated in public places Be segregated in public places Wear a yellow star as identification of ethnicity Wear a yellow star as identification of ethnicity

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15 Adolph Hitler's charisma Adolph Hitler's charisma Inspiration Inspiration Hitler seemed to have a hold over his people by use of a steady and unwavering charisma. Hitler seemed to have a hold over his people by use of a steady and unwavering charisma. Even when the war was inevitably lost and the people of Germany were disgusted with the entire war, many blamed the other Nazi leaders, never removing Hitler from his pedestal. Even when the war was inevitably lost and the people of Germany were disgusted with the entire war, many blamed the other Nazi leaders, never removing Hitler from his pedestal. Furthermore, Hitler had a strongly developed understanding of the desires of the German people, and was always able to aim his promises in exactly the right directions. Furthermore, Hitler had a strongly developed understanding of the desires of the German people, and was always able to aim his promises in exactly the right directions.

16 ce.com/worldwar2/tim eline/threat.htm Hitler Speech- 1939

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18 Propaganda used by the Nazi Party Propaganda used by the Nazi Party Mob mentality Mob mentality Hitler made explicit use of the mob mentality to rally the masses behind the Nazi flag. Hitler made explicit use of the mob mentality to rally the masses behind the Nazi flag. Hitler stated many times that the only way to use propaganda effectively was to aim it at the stupidity of the masses rather than the intellectuals. Hitler stated many times that the only way to use propaganda effectively was to aim it at the stupidity of the masses rather than the intellectuals. He used short slogans repeated again and again to drive ideas home into the minds of his followers. He used short slogans repeated again and again to drive ideas home into the minds of his followers. More importantly, however, Hitler staged massive Nazi support rallies such as the Nuremburg Rallies in November each year, in which the people could look around and see how many "fellow countrymen" were upholding the ideals of the Nazis. More importantly, however, Hitler staged massive Nazi support rallies such as the Nuremburg Rallies in November each year, in which the people could look around and see how many "fellow countrymen" were upholding the ideals of the Nazis.

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20 Nuremberg Party Rally: 1933

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25 1936 Berlin Olympics

26 Leni Riefenstahl: making “Olympic” movie (1936)

27 Jesse Owens

28 Hitler's Statements on Foreign Policy: (extracts) May 17, 1933: "The German Government wish to settle all difficult questions with other Governments by peaceful methods... Germany will tread no other path than that laid down by the Treaties... The German people have no thought of invading any country." May 17, 1933: "The German Government wish to settle all difficult questions with other Governments by peaceful methods... Germany will tread no other path than that laid down by the Treaties... The German people have no thought of invading any country." Nov 10, 1933: "I am not crazy enough to want a war." Nov 10, 1933: "I am not crazy enough to want a war." Aug 17, 1934: "The German Government, like the German people, are filled with the unconditional wish to make the greatest possible contribution to the preservation of peace in this world." Aug 17, 1934: "The German Government, like the German people, are filled with the unconditional wish to make the greatest possible contribution to the preservation of peace in this world."

29 Still Making Claims in 1939 Jan 1, 1939: "In general we have but one wish-- that in the coming years we may be able to make our contribution to this general pacification of the whole world." Jan 1, 1939: "In general we have but one wish-- that in the coming years we may be able to make our contribution to this general pacification of the whole world." Jan 30, 1939: "Only the war-mongers think there will be a war. I think there will be a long period of peace." Jan 30, 1939: "Only the war-mongers think there will be a war. I think there will be a long period of peace." Apr 1, 1939: "(We) do not dream of attacking other nations, providing they leave us alone..." Apr 1, 1939: "(We) do not dream of attacking other nations, providing they leave us alone..."

30 Germany’s imperialistic plans Germany strengthened military and markets. Germany strengthened military and markets. Created massive army Created massive army Decided to control the North Atlantic region Decided to control the North Atlantic region Believed they were racially and culturally superior to other nations and peoples Believed they were racially and culturally superior to other nations and peoples Used European Jews as slave labor Used European Jews as slave labor

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32 More Of Hitler’s Statements May 21, 1935: "Germany neither intends nor wishes to interfere in the internal affairs of Austria, to annex Austria, or to conclude an Anschluss [political union]" May 21, 1935: "Germany neither intends nor wishes to interfere in the internal affairs of Austria, to annex Austria, or to conclude an Anschluss [political union]" Mar 15, 1936: "The German people do not wish to continue waging war to readjust frontiers. Each readjustment is bought by sacrifices out of proportion to what is to be gained." Mar 15, 1936: "The German people do not wish to continue waging war to readjust frontiers. Each readjustment is bought by sacrifices out of proportion to what is to be gained." Sep 26, 1938: "We have assured all our immediate neighbors of the integrity of their territory as far as Germany is concerned. That is no hollow phrase: it is our sacred will... The Sudetenland is the last territorial claim which I have to make in Europe.." Sep 26, 1938: "We have assured all our immediate neighbors of the integrity of their territory as far as Germany is concerned. That is no hollow phrase: it is our sacred will... The Sudetenland is the last territorial claim which I have to make in Europe.."

33 Germany Takes Rhineland in 1936 German troops entered the demilitarized zone between France and Germany called the Rhineland. German troops entered the demilitarized zone between France and Germany called the Rhineland. This was a direct violation of the Versailles Treaty This was a direct violation of the Versailles Treaty No one stopped them No one stopped them

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35 Munich Pact: Britain, France and Germany signed pact Britain, France and Germany signed pact Hitler promised not to take any more land. Hitler promised not to take any more land. Britain and France gave in. Britain and France gave in. Called “appeasement.” Called “appeasement.” Famous quote from British Prime Minister Chamberlain Famous quote from British Prime Minister Chamberlain “… peace in our time.” “… peace in our time.”

36 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”

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39 Germany In 1937 Germany annexed Austria to “unite the German people.” In 1937 Germany annexed Austria to “unite the German people.” This was called the Anschluss This was called the Anschluss Nazis silenced opposition to the Act by threats and violence Nazis silenced opposition to the Act by threats and violence Later that year, Germany annexed the area of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudentenland Later that year, Germany annexed the area of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudentenland

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41 Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler

42 Kristallnacht A massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich on the night of November 9, 1938, into the next day, has come to be known as Kristallnacht or “The Night of Broken Glass”. A massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich on the night of November 9, 1938, into the next day, has come to be known as Kristallnacht or “The Night of Broken Glass”. Mob violence broke out as the regular German police stood by and crowds of spectators watched. Mob violence broke out as the regular German police stood by and crowds of spectators watched. Nazi storm troopers along with members of the SS and Hitler Youth beat and murdered Jews, broke into and wrecked Jewish homes, and brutalized Jewish women and children. Nazi storm troopers along with members of the SS and Hitler Youth beat and murdered Jews, broke into and wrecked Jewish homes, and brutalized Jewish women and children.

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44 Kristallnacht All over Germany, Austria and other Nazi controlled areas, Jewish shops and department stores had their windows smashed and contents destroyed. Synagogues were especially targeted for vandalism, including desecration of sacred Torah scrolls. All over Germany, Austria and other Nazi controlled areas, Jewish shops and department stores had their windows smashed and contents destroyed. Synagogues were especially targeted for vandalism, including desecration of sacred Torah scrolls. Hundreds of synagogues were systematically burned while local fire departments stood by or simply prevented the fire from spreading to surrounding buildings. Hundreds of synagogues were systematically burned while local fire departments stood by or simply prevented the fire from spreading to surrounding buildings. About 25,000 Jewish men were rounded up and later sent to concentration camps where they were often brutalized by SS guards and in some cases randomly chosen to be beaten to death. About 25,000 Jewish men were rounded up and later sent to concentration camps where they were often brutalized by SS guards and in some cases randomly chosen to be beaten to death.

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47 "In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would then among other things settle the Jewish problem. Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!" -Adolph Hitler

48 The War Starts…1939 Germany annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939 Germany annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939 Then…Germany invaded Poland. Then…Germany invaded Poland. Beginning of WWII in Europe. Beginning of WWII in Europe. Britain and France declared war on Germany. Britain and France declared war on Germany. Russia and Germany sign a non- aggression treaty Russia and Germany sign a non- aggression treaty Will be broken as well when Germany invades Russia in 1941 Will be broken as well when Germany invades Russia in 1941

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52 The War Grows in Europe-1940 The Nazis invade Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg on May 10). The Nazis invade Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg on May 10). Chamberlain resigns as Britain's prime minister; Chamberlain resigns as Britain's prime minister; Churchill takes over (May 10). Churchill takes over (May 10). Germans cross French frontier (May 12) using air/tank/infantry “Blitzkrieg” tactics. Germans cross French frontier (May 12) using air/tank/infantry “Blitzkrieg” tactics. Dunkerque evacuation—about 335,000 out of 400,000 Allied soldiers rescued from Belgium by British civilian and naval craft (May 26–June 3). Dunkerque evacuation—about 335,000 out of 400,000 Allied soldiers rescued from Belgium by British civilian and naval craft (May 26–June 3). Italy declares war on France and Britain; invades France (June 10). Italy declares war on France and Britain; invades France (June 10). Germans enter Paris; city undefended (June 14). Germans enter Paris; city undefended (June 14). France and Germany sign armistice at Compiègne (June 22). France and Germany sign armistice at Compiègne (June 22). Nazis bomb Coventry, England (Nov. 14). Nazis bomb Coventry, England (Nov. 14).

53 Adolf Hitler visits Paris with architect Albert Speer (left) June 23, (Photo credit: U.S. National Archives)

54 British prisoners at Dunkerque, France, June 1940.

55 The Blitz in England

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58 Adolf Hitler and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini together in Munich, June 18, (Photo credit: U.S. National Archives)

59 Nazi ‘Mercy” Killings In October of 1939 amid the turmoil of the outbreak of war Hitler ordered widespread "mercy killing" of the sick and disabled. In October of 1939 amid the turmoil of the outbreak of war Hitler ordered widespread "mercy killing" of the sick and disabled. The Nazi euthanasia program to eliminate "life unworthy of life" at first focused on newborns and very young children The Nazi euthanasia program to eliminate "life unworthy of life" at first focused on newborns and very young children

60 Aktion (Action) T4 Hitler suspended Aktion T in 1941 but it had already accounted for nearly a hundred thousand deaths. Hitler suspended Aktion T in 1941 but it had already accounted for nearly a hundred thousand deaths. However, the Nazi euthanasia program quietly continued, but without the widespread gassings. Drugs and starvation were used and doctors were encouraged to decide in favor of death whenever euthanasia was being considered. However, the Nazi euthanasia program quietly continued, but without the widespread gassings. Drugs and starvation were used and doctors were encouraged to decide in favor of death whenever euthanasia was being considered.

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62 The Role of the US Pre-1941 Most are isolationists in the US Most are isolationists in the US In an attempt to remain neutral, FDR pushed aggressive nations away from the US In an attempt to remain neutral, FDR pushed aggressive nations away from the US Tried to “quarantine” the nation Tried to “quarantine” the nation The Quarantine Speech was FDR’s 1939 response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. The Quarantine Speech was FDR’s 1939 response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan, and suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression. It caused protests by isolationists and foes of intervention. It caused protests by isolationists and foes of intervention.

63 So. why did US Become Involved BEFORE Pearl Harbor?

64 Why did US Become Involved BEFORE Pearl Harbor? Close relationship with England Close relationship with England Language, customs, traditions Language, customs, traditions Worried about Hitler and the rising German nation Worried about Hitler and the rising German nation

65 Atlantic Charter: 1941 Churchill and FDR met on a battleship off the coast of Canada. Churchill and FDR met on a battleship off the coast of Canada. Made alliance for war Made alliance for war They planned for organization of the United Nations. They planned for organization of the United Nations.

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67 Lend-Lease Act: 1941 How did the US help Britain and France without breaking the Neutrality Acts? How did the US help Britain and France without breaking the Neutrality Acts? We would LEND them weapons, ammunition, ships, etc., and they would LEASE lands to us in the Atlantic for military bases. We would LEND them weapons, ammunition, ships, etc., and they would LEASE lands to us in the Atlantic for military bases.

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69 Burke-Wadsworth Act: U.S. established the draft (Selective Service) in 1940 U.S. established the draft (Selective Service) in 1940 All men register for military service. All men register for military service. Later, the ages were Later, the ages were Today 18-year old boys must register…but there currently is no draft Today 18-year old boys must register…but there currently is no draft

70 Japan’s Imperialistic Plans Japan needed raw materials and markets Japan needed raw materials and markets Decided to control the Pacific region Decided to control the Pacific region Believed they were racially and culturally superior to other nations Believed they were racially and culturally superior to other nations Took Korean peninsula and used Koreans as slave labor Took Korean peninsula and used Koreans as slave labor

71 Imperial Japan Beginning in the late 19th century, Japan fought a series of wars that expanded its control over the Asian mainland. Beginning in the late 19th century, Japan fought a series of wars that expanded its control over the Asian mainland. By the beginning of World War II in 1939, Japan had a sizeable empire in East Asia. By the beginning of World War II in 1939, Japan had a sizeable empire in East Asia.

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74 Strained US-Japanese Relations Stimson Doctrine: U. S. would not recognize any territory taken by force Stimson Doctrine: U. S. would not recognize any territory taken by force Japanese invaded northern China (Manchuria) beginning WWII in Asia Japanese invaded northern China (Manchuria) beginning WWII in Asia Japan established the puppet state Manchuko in China (Manchuria) Japan established the puppet state Manchuko in China (Manchuria) Panay Incident: Panay Incident: U.S. gun boat on Yangze River shot at by Japanese pilots. U.S. sailors killed. After U.S. protest, Japan pays reparations to U.S. and families U.S. gun boat on Yangze River shot at by Japanese pilots. U.S. sailors killed. After U.S. protest, Japan pays reparations to U.S. and families Hedecki Tojo became leader of Japanese war lords Hedecki Tojo became leader of Japanese war lords

75 Japanese Aggression in the Pacific Japan needed oil, rubber, steel, and food Japan needed oil, rubber, steel, and food Aggression against China, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya Aggression against China, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya US Response US Response Cancelled commercial treaty w/Japan Cancelled commercial treaty w/Japan Stopped exporting gasoline and scrap metal Stopped exporting gasoline and scrap metal

76 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941: 7:55 a.m. Japanese attacked U.S. Pacific Fleet headquarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. December 7, 1941: 7:55 a.m. Japanese attacked U.S. Pacific Fleet headquarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

77 Pearl Harbor Attack

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83 Famous Words by FDR Yesterday, December 7, a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. Yesterday, December 7, a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.

84 The US Enters WWII… December 9, 1941 …I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire. …I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.

85 The World Plunges into War The Results will be Devastating The total estimated human loss of life caused by World War II, irrespective of political alignment, was roughly 62 million people


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