IB Objectives The diplomatic and/or military role of two countries in the Second World War Social impact of the Second World War on: African Americans, Native Americans, women and minorities; conscription Treatment of Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians
IB Objectives Reaction to the Holocaust in the Americas Impact of technological developments and the beginning of the atomic age Economic and diplomatic effects of the Second World War in one country of the Americas
IB Paper 3 Sample Questions Analyze the social and economic effects of the Second World War on one country of the region. “The atomic bombs were necessary to end the Second World War.” To what extent do you agree with this statement. Assess the effects of the Second World War on women and minorities in two countries in the region.
IB Paper 3 Sample Questions With reference to one country of the region, evaluate the impact of the Second World War on the economy and on minority groups. Why did the United States become involved in the Second World War? For what reasons, and with what results, were Japanese citizens of Canada and the United States interned during the Second World War?
IB Paper 3 Sample Questions Assess the impact of the Second World War on the economy of one country of the region.
Key Terms Mackenzie King Canadian Japanese Internment
Lecture Outline I.US A. Economy B. Minorities II. Canada
Effects of WWII on the US The US had begun to mobilize prior to WWII. By December 1941, more than 1.5 million men and women were in uniform. By the end of the war, 15 million Americans were in the armed forces. WWII cost $560 billion and the national debt rose from $48 billion in 1941 to $247 billion in 1945.
Effects of WWII on the US Real wages rose 50% during the war and prices rose only moderately. The size of the federal government grew rapidly, from 1.1 million civilian employees in 1940 to 3.3 million in 1945. In 1944 alone, 96,000 airplanes were built in US factories. By 1943, Kaiser Shipyards were building 1 ship a day—a total of 10 million tons of shipping were constructed during the war.
WWII and minorities The armed forces and US society remained segregated, but WWII created opportunities for African Americans. It sowed the seeds of the civil rights movement. African Americans moved to the North in search of industrial jobs. By 1950, approximately 1/3 of America’s black population lived outside the South.
WWII and Minorities Riots broke out in the summer of 1943. The worst occurred in Detroit where 500,000 newcomers, including 60,000 blacks, had moved since 1940. In June 1943 a fight between teenage whites and blacks sparked two days of fighting and widespread looting. 25 blacks and 9 whites were killed, hundreds injured, and millions of dollars of property lost.
Canada and WWII King supported appeasement. He visited Nazi Germany in 1937 and believed that Hitler was not a threat but an ally in fighting against Communism. Canada joined the war on September 10, 1939. First time Canada declared war. Canada hoped that its contribution to the war effort would be materials not troops in order to avoid another conscription crisis.
Canada and WII 131,533 Commonwealth airmen, including 72,835 Canadians, graduated from Canada’s air training schools. This program pumped nearly $1.3 billion into the Canadian economy. The Canadian army grew from 4,000 to almost 700,000 men and women. The navy grew from 17 to 900 ships. A nation of less than 12 million people would put over 1 million into uniform.
Canada and WWII In the unsuccessful raid by the 2 nd Canadian Division on Dieppe, France in August 1942, nearly 2,700 of the 5,000 Canadians who hit the beach were casualties. Canada ultimately had the 3 rd largest navy, and the 4 th largest air force and army among the Allied powers in Europe.
Canada and WWII 43,000 Canadian women were in uniform. Canadian military casualties were 42,642 killed and about 58,000 wounded.
Effects of the War on the Economy Canada’s manufacturing production more than doubled, and the country produced 85,000 vehicles and over 16,000 military aircraft during the war. Union membership doubled during the war.
Canadian Japanese Internment The War Measures Act, a privy (executive) order, called for Japanese internment. 22,000 Japanese-Canadians (15,000 were native born) were interned. Men were sent to lumber labor camps and women and children to shanty towns. If you wanted your family to stay together you had to work on sugar beet farms in South Alberta.
Canadian Japanese Internment 4,000 were deported and the plan was to deport them all. September 1945 government required those in camps to relocate East of the Rocky Mts. Or undergo repatriation to Japan. Internment did not end until 1947.
Canadian Japanese Internment There was no restitution when they were released. March 31, 1949 all restrictions of Japanese citizens were removed.
Canadian Japanese Internment September 22, 1988 P.M. Mulroney signed an agreement that included a payment of $21,000 to all living individuals who had been affected by the internment, established a fund for community rebuilding, a purge of criminal records of those convicted, restitution of citizenship for those who were exiled, and the creation of the Canadian Race Relations Foundation.
Canada and WWII Canada didn’t begin conscription until 1944. King was re-elected in1945 WWII laid the basis for the future Canadian welfare state.
Create a venn diagram comparing the effects of WWII in Canada and the US