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WWII. WWI/Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept.

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Presentation on theme: "WWII. WWI/Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept."— Presentation transcript:

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2 WWI/Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized. Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized. Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Union with Austria was forbidden. Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Union with Austria was forbidden.

3 The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money and during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. Germany could not afford to pay the money and during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. People were dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. His name was Adolf Hitler. His name was Adolf Hitler.

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5 Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany's army and weapons. Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany's army and weapons. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships and created a German airforce. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships and created a German airforce. Compulsory military service was also introduced. Compulsory military service was also introduced.

6 In 1936 Hitler ordered German troops to enter the Rhineland. At this point the German army was not very strong and could have been easily defeated. Yet neither France nor Britain was prepared to start another war. In 1936 Hitler ordered German troops to enter the Rhineland. At this point the German army was not very strong and could have been easily defeated. Yet neither France nor Britain was prepared to start another war. Hitler also made two important alliances during The first was called the Rome-Berlin Axis Pact and allied Hitler's Germany with Mussolini's Italy. The second was called the Anti-Comitern Pact and allied Germany with Japan. Hitler also made two important alliances during The first was called the Rome-Berlin Axis Pact and allied Hitler's Germany with Mussolini's Italy. The second was called the Anti-Comitern Pact and allied Germany with Japan.

7 Hitler's next step was to begin taking back the land that had been taken away from Germany. Hitler's next step was to begin taking back the land that had been taken away from Germany. In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. The Austrian leader was forced to hold a vote asking the people whether they wanted to be part of Germany. In March 1938, German troops marched into Austria. The Austrian leader was forced to hold a vote asking the people whether they wanted to be part of Germany. The results of the vote were fixed and showed that 99% of Austrian people wanted a union with Germany. The results of the vote were fixed and showed that 99% of Austrian people wanted a union with Germany. Hitler promised that Austria was the end of his expansionist aims and not wanting to risk war, the other countries did nothing. Hitler promised that Austria was the end of his expansionist aims and not wanting to risk war, the other countries did nothing.

8 Hitler did not keep his word and six months later demanded that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia be handed over to Germany. Hitler did not keep his word and six months later demanded that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia be handed over to Germany. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Britain, met with Hitler three times during September 1938 to try to reach an agreement that would prevent war. The Munich Agreement stated that Hitler could have the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia provided that he promised not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Britain, met with Hitler three times during September 1938 to try to reach an agreement that would prevent war. The Munich Agreement stated that Hitler could have the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia provided that he promised not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia.

9 Hitler was not a man of his word and in March 1939 invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Hitler was not a man of his word and in March 1939 invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Despite calls for help from the Czechoslovak government, neither Britain nor France was prepared to take military action against Hitler. Despite calls for help from the Czechoslovak government, neither Britain nor France was prepared to take military action against Hitler. Some action was now necessary and believing that Poland would be Hitler's next target, both Britain and France promised that they would take military action against Hitler if he invaded Poland. Some action was now necessary and believing that Poland would be Hitler's next target, both Britain and France promised that they would take military action against Hitler if he invaded Poland. Chamberlain believed that, faced with the prospect of war against Britain and France, Hitler would stop his aggression. Chamberlain believed that, faced with the prospect of war against Britain and France, Hitler would stop his aggression. Chamberlain was wrong. German troops invaded Poland on 1st September Chamberlain was wrong. German troops invaded Poland on 1st September 1939.

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12 Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later Axis powers- Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan Axis powers- Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan Allied nations- Great Britain, France, China, the United States, and Soviet Union Allied nations- Great Britain, France, China, the United States, and Soviet Union

13 On June 25, the French surrendered, with the Germans requiring them to sign the documents at Compiègne in the same rail car that Germany had been compelled to sign the armistice ending World War I. On June 25, the French surrendered, with the Germans requiring them to sign the documents at Compiègne in the same rail car that Germany had been compelled to sign the armistice ending World War I. German forces occupied much of northern and western France German forces occupied much of northern and western France

14 On September 4, Hitler ordered the bombing of British cities and towns On September 4, Hitler ordered the bombing of British cities and towns This raid signaled the beginning of the "Blitz," which would see the Germans bombing British cities regularly until May 1941, with the goal of destroying civilian morale. This raid signaled the beginning of the "Blitz," which would see the Germans bombing British cities regularly until May 1941, with the goal of destroying civilian morale. The RAF had successfully defended Britain The RAF had successfully defended Britain

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18 August 1941, Germany attacked Russia August 1941, Germany attacked Russia As the Germans had anticipated a quick campaign to conquer the Soviet Union, they were not prepared for winter warfare. Soon the cold and snow were causing more casualties than combat. As the Germans had anticipated a quick campaign to conquer the Soviet Union, they were not prepared for winter warfare. Soon the cold and snow were causing more casualties than combat. July 1943, Germans exhausted their resources and reserves / Germany retreated July 1943, Germans exhausted their resources and reserves / Germany retreated ar_2_imap.htm ar_2_imap.htm ar_2_imap.htm ar_2_imap.htm

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20 U S U.S. ends arms embargo: Beginning in 1935, a series of American neutrality acts and extensions banned arms shipments, loans, and other aid to belligerent countries, including Great Britain. U.S. ends arms embargo: Beginning in 1935, a series of American neutrality acts and extensions banned arms shipments, loans, and other aid to belligerent countries, including Great Britain. Roosevelt came to regret signing the 1935 act. Roosevelt came to regret signing the 1935 act. On September 21, 1939, he urged an end to the arms embargo. On September 21, 1939, he urged an end to the arms embargo. In November, Congress repealed the embargo and passed a "cash and carry" policy for Allied purchases, though other bans remained in effect. In November, Congress repealed the embargo and passed a "cash and carry" policy for Allied purchases, though other bans remained in effect.

21 Early 1941, British ran out of cash to buy American supplies Early 1941, British ran out of cash to buy American supplies Congress authorized Roosevelt to lend or lease arms to them Congress authorized Roosevelt to lend or lease arms to them

22 December 7, Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor (right). After several years of growing tensions between the United States and Japan over the latter's war in China, the December 7, Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor (right). After several years of growing tensions between the United States and Japan over the latter's war in China, theattack Pearl Harborattack Pearl Harbor Roosevelt Administration initiated an oil embargo in August Reliant on the United States for the majority of its oil, the embargo led the Japanese to begin planning operations to capture the Dutch East Indies. Roosevelt Administration initiated an oil embargo in August Reliant on the United States for the majority of its oil, the embargo led the Japanese to begin planning operations to capture the Dutch East Indies. Believing that the US Pacific Fleet posed a threat to this plan, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto began planning for an attack on Pearl Harbor. Believing that the US Pacific Fleet posed a threat to this plan, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto began planning for an attack on Pearl Harbor.Admiral Isoroku YamamotoPearl HarborAdmiral Isoroku YamamotoPearl Harbor

23 December 7, the Japanese carriers launched two attack waves which sank or damaged 21 ships, including all eight of the Pacific Fleet's battleships. December 7, the Japanese carriers launched two attack waves which sank or damaged 21 ships, including all eight of the Pacific Fleet's battleships. Dubbed a "date which will live in infamy," the attack brought the United States into World War II and united the nation behind the war effort. Dubbed a "date which will live in infamy," the attack brought the United States into World War II and united the nation behind the war effort.World War IIWorld War II

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28 End of the war Mussolini's death: On April 27, 1945, as Allied forces closed in on Milan, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was captured by Italian Partisans. Mussolini's death: On April 27, 1945, as Allied forces closed in on Milan, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was captured by Italian Partisans.MilanBenito MussoliniItalian PartisansMilanBenito MussoliniItalian Partisans Hitler's death: On April 30, as the Battle of Berlin raged above him, realizing that all was lost and not wishing to suffer Mussolini's fate, German dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term mistress whom he had married just hours before their joint suicide. Hitler's death: On April 30, as the Battle of Berlin raged above him, realizing that all was lost and not wishing to suffer Mussolini's fate, German dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term mistress whom he had married just hours before their joint suicide.Battle of Berlin Adolf Hitlercommitted suicidebunkerEva BraunBattle of Berlin Adolf Hitlercommitted suicidebunkerEva Braun

29 1945 German forces in Italy surrender on May 1 German forces in Italy surrender on May 1 German forces in Berlin surrender on May 2 German forces in Berlin surrender on May 2 German forces in North West Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands surrender on May 4 German forces in North West Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands surrender on May 4 German forces in Bavaria surrender on May 4 German forces in Bavaria surrender on May 4 All German armed forces unconditionally May 7 All German armed forces unconditionally May 7

30 Japan The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought hostilities in World War II to a close. The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought hostilities in World War II to a close.World War IIWorld War II On August 6 and 9, the Americans dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki On August 6 and 9, the Americans dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasakidropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasakidropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The surrender ceremony was held on September 2 aboard the U.S. battleship Missouri, at which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, officially ending World War II. The surrender ceremony was held on September 2 aboard the U.S. battleship Missouri, at which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, officially ending World War II.MissouriJapanese Instrument of SurrenderMissouriJapanese Instrument of Surrender

31 A dense column of smoke rises more than 60,000 feet into the air over the Japanese port of Nagasaki, the result of an atomic bomb, the second ever used in warfare, dropped on the industrial center August 8, 1945, from a U.S. B-29 Superfortress. (August 9, 1945)

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34 Georgia Military Bases Prosperity came to GA/millions of federal dollars Prosperity came to GA/millions of federal dollars Senator Richard Russell, Jr Senator Richard Russell, Jr Senator Walter F. George Senator Walter F. George Representative Carl Vinson Representative Carl Vinson Instrumental in new Georgia military installations Instrumental in new Georgia military installations

35 Fort Benning/largest infantry center in the country Fort Benning/largest infantry center in the country Only Texas trained more military than GA Only Texas trained more military than GA Airmen from Glynco Naval Air Station (near Brunswick) flew blimps along the southern Atlantic coast searching for German submarines Airmen from Glynco Naval Air Station (near Brunswick) flew blimps along the southern Atlantic coast searching for German submarines Fort McPherson/major induction center for newly drafted soldiers from all of the country/army hospital during WWI, reopened Fort McPherson/major induction center for newly drafted soldiers from all of the country/army hospital during WWI, reopened

36 Fort Gillen/army storage facility/railroad yard Fort Gillen/army storage facility/railroad yard Prisoners of war held at Forts Benning, Gordon, Oglethorpe, and Stewart Prisoners of war held at Forts Benning, Gordon, Oglethorpe, and Stewart

37 Richard B. Russell Georgia’s youngest governor Georgia’s youngest governor Member/Speaker of House of Representatives Member/Speaker of House of Representatives Combined boards of trustees of state colleges and universities into one agency-Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia Combined boards of trustees of state colleges and universities into one agency-Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia Served 38 years in U. S. Senate Served 38 years in U. S. Senate

38 Advisor to 6 presidents Advisor to 6 presidents Served as president pro tempore of the Senate/3 rd in line for presidency Served as president pro tempore of the Senate/3 rd in line for presidency

39 Carl Vinson 25 consecutive terms in U S House of Representative 25 consecutive terms in U S House of Representative Chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee/14 years/represented GA’s interest in the military Chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee/14 years/represented GA’s interest in the military Major influence in promoting a strong national defense Major influence in promoting a strong national defense Oversaw passage of Vinson-Trammel Act Oversaw passage of Vinson-Trammel Act

40 Authorized manufacture of 92 major warships Authorized manufacture of 92 major warships Before Pearl Harbor he helped passage of 2 important bills through Congress 1.) expansion of naval aviation system to 10,000 planes, trained 16,000 pilots, established 20 air bases Before Pearl Harbor he helped passage of 2 important bills through Congress 1.) expansion of naval aviation system to 10,000 planes, trained 16,000 pilots, established 20 air bases 2.) eased labor restrictions in shipbuilding industry and allowed faster construction of navy ships “Father of two ocean navy”

41 Pushed for strong defense throughout Cold War with Soviet Union Pushed for strong defense throughout Cold War with Soviet Union Presidential Medal of Freedom/1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom/ years in Congress 50 years in Congress Nixon/named country’s third nuclear carrier for him Nixon/named country’s third nuclear carrier for him


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