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Finland and WWII: Three Wars History of Finland The Winter War, 1939-40 The Continuation War, 1941-44 Lapland War, 1944 - 1945 History of Finland The Winter.

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Presentation on theme: "Finland and WWII: Three Wars History of Finland The Winter War, 1939-40 The Continuation War, 1941-44 Lapland War, 1944 - 1945 History of Finland The Winter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Finland and WWII: Three Wars History of Finland The Winter War, The Continuation War, Lapland War, History of Finland The Winter War, The Continuation War, Lapland War,

2 Brief History of Finland  1155 A.D. Finland under Kingdom of Sweden  1808 Czarist Russia invades Finland  1809 Sweden surrenders Finland  “ Grand Duchy of Russia ”  Independence declared, 1917  (Bolshevik Revolution)  Civil War in Finland, 1918  Republic of Finland established, 1919  Constitution adopted  1155 A.D. Finland under Kingdom of Sweden  1808 Czarist Russia invades Finland  1809 Sweden surrenders Finland  “ Grand Duchy of Russia ”  Independence declared, 1917  (Bolshevik Revolution)  Civil War in Finland, 1918  Republic of Finland established, 1919  Constitution adopted

3 Finland: The Winter War  Soviet-German Non- Agression Pact, 1939  Invasion by Soviet Russia  Nov 1939-March 1940  Valiant effort with little support  Peace treaty, Finland forced to cede territories (%10) to USSR  Soviet-German Non- Agression Pact, 1939  Invasion by Soviet Russia  Nov 1939-March 1940  Valiant effort with little support  Peace treaty, Finland forced to cede territories (%10) to USSR

4 Aspects of The Winter War  Finnish forces were ill-equipped, but skillful  Soviet attack stalled and even thrown back in some areas  USSR used air superiority, tanks, greater, man-power to wear down Finnish defense  Winter War drew world attention  Finnish forces were ill-equipped, but skillful  Soviet attack stalled and even thrown back in some areas  USSR used air superiority, tanks, greater, man-power to wear down Finnish defense  Winter War drew world attention

5 The Continuation War June 24, September 4, 1944  Finland “co-belligerent” of Nazi Germany in “Operation Barbarossa” (German attack on USSR)  Contested theories regarding reasons for alliance, including:  Finland’s security viewed as dependent on collaboration with Germany (distrust of USSR)  Opportunity to win back territories lost in WW  Belief that Germany would win war.  Finland “co-belligerent” of Nazi Germany in “Operation Barbarossa” (German attack on USSR)  Contested theories regarding reasons for alliance, including:  Finland’s security viewed as dependent on collaboration with Germany (distrust of USSR)  Opportunity to win back territories lost in WW  Belief that Germany would win war.

6 The Continuation War  Finland allowed Germans to attack via Finland  Declared war on USSR after bombing of Finnish Cities  Recaptured areas lost in Winter War  Refused to join in attack on Leningrad  Finland allowed Germans to attack via Finland  Declared war on USSR after bombing of Finnish Cities  Recaptured areas lost in Winter War  Refused to join in attack on Leningrad

7 The Continuation War Mannerheim President of Finland, August  War in Static phase summer 1944  June 9, 1944: Soviets attacked Finnish Front (Karelian Isthmus)  Nordic History’s largest battle fought June 25- July 6, 1944  Armistice (USSR & Finland, signed Sept  War in Static phase summer 1944  June 9, 1944: Soviets attacked Finnish Front (Karelian Isthmus)  Nordic History’s largest battle fought June 25- July 6, 1944  Armistice (USSR & Finland, signed Sept. 1944

8 The Lapland War Sept. 27, April 27, 1945  War fought against Germany, after signing of armistice with USSR.  Fighting in Northern Finland (Lapland)  Finland under pressure from Allies and USSR  Finns to disarm German troops and drive out of Finland  Finland required to withdraw to 1940-lines  Finland to pay war indemnity to USSR  War fought against Germany, after signing of armistice with USSR.  Fighting in Northern Finland (Lapland)  Finland under pressure from Allies and USSR  Finns to disarm German troops and drive out of Finland  Finland required to withdraw to 1940-lines  Finland to pay war indemnity to USSR

9 Results of Wars  Loss of 85,000 Finnish lives  Finland sole country among defeated nations, not occupied by foreign troops  Finland saved its independence (the Baltic States annexed July 1940 by USSR)  Continued development under democratic government after Wars.  Loss of 85,000 Finnish lives  Finland sole country among defeated nations, not occupied by foreign troops  Finland saved its independence (the Baltic States annexed July 1940 by USSR)  Continued development under democratic government after Wars.

10 Väinö Linna ( )  Self-taught factory worker  Military service in Continuation War (machine- gun platoon)  Author, first work in 1947  Unknown soldier, 1954  Historical Epic  Leo Tolstoy ( )  Backwoods Realism  Working man’s perspective  Regional types: Dialects


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