Unit Conversions 1. Convert raw energy to common units (millions of BTUs, MBTU): a. _________kWh x 3413 BTU/kWh x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU b. _________Therms x 100,000 BTU/therm x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU c. _________Gallons Oil x 138,095 BTU/gallon x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU d. _________ Gallons LPG x 95,500 BTUs/gallon x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU 2. Convert MBTU of energy to greenhouse-gas emissions (pounds of carbon dioxide, CO2) a. 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh x 1 kWh/0.003413 MBTU x ______ MBTU of electricity b. 12 lbs CO2/therm x 1 therm/0.1 MBTU x ______ MBTU of natural gas c. 22.384 lbs CO2/gallon oil x 1 gallon/0.138095 MBTU x ______ MBTU of heating oil d. 12.805 lbs CO2/gallon LPG x 1 gallon/0.0955 MBTU x ______ MBTU of LPG
… of which ~$25B is fuel … or 1.4 million barrels of oil/day (~ Brazil, Algeria, Libya, or Indonesia, or 50% of Iraq’s production)
Excluding China, population is growing faster than electrification, e.g. 4-x faster in Sub-Saharan Africa Other issues: literacy, safety, women’s work, indoor air quality, subsidy, scarcity, price volatility The 1.6 billion non-electrified doesn’t include those facing power outages
Ghana “We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles” - Thomas Edison Photos: Rick Wilk There are more non-electrified households today than the total number of households in Edison’s time.
Lighting Equity Although one in three people obtain light with kerosene and other fuels, representing about 15% of global lighting costs, they receive only 0.2% of the resulting lighting energy services.
Energy Services; Energy & Equity An un-electrified household consumes as many lumens over an entire year as a single electric light produces in 10 hours