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ENERGY SYSTEMS. Carbon/Capita Trends in Carbon-Intensity and Energy-Intensity.

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Presentation on theme: "ENERGY SYSTEMS. Carbon/Capita Trends in Carbon-Intensity and Energy-Intensity."— Presentation transcript:




4 Carbon/Capita

5 Trends in Carbon-Intensity and Energy-Intensity


7 Comparative Energy End-use Profiles


9 Unit Conversions 1. Convert raw energy to common units (millions of BTUs, MBTU): a. _________kWh x 3413 BTU/kWh x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU b. _________Therms x 100,000 BTU/therm x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU c. _________Gallons Oil x 138,095 BTU/gallon x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU d. _________ Gallons LPG x 95,500 BTUs/gallon x 1 MBTU/1,000,000 BTU 2. Convert MBTU of energy to greenhouse-gas emissions (pounds of carbon dioxide, CO2) a. 1.2 lbs CO2/kWh x 1 kWh/ MBTU x ______ MBTU of electricity b. 12 lbs CO2/therm x 1 therm/0.1 MBTU x ______ MBTU of natural gas c lbs CO2/gallon oil x 1 gallon/ MBTU x ______ MBTU of heating oil d lbs CO2/gallon LPG x 1 gallon/ MBTU x ______ MBTU of LPG

10 Energy Paradigms


12 Efficiency vs Conservation

13 Low-E windows Savings: 25-60% energy “Alaska Pipeline”

14 13% Dishwasher Savings: 13% energy $0.6 billion 1.1 megatons CO 2 Fridge Savings: 16% energy $1.1 billion 2.2 megatons CO 2

15 Compact Fluorescent Savings: 75% energy $8.2 billion 21 megatons CO 2

16 Dimmable Std Fluorescent Savings: 90% energy

17 Flat Screen Display Savings: 50% energy $11 billion 31 megatons CO 2

18 Leaking Electricity Savings: Up to 90% energy $4 billion 10 megatons CO 2

19 Leaky Ducts Savings: 30% on average


21 Shell Oil’s “Sustained Growth” Global Energy Scenario

22 Energy Efficiency Yields High Returns on Investment

23 The $230B Global Lighting Energy Bill

24 … of which ~$25B is fuel … or 1.4 million barrels of oil/day (~ Brazil, Algeria, Libya, or Indonesia, or 50% of Iraq’s production)

25  Excluding China, population is growing faster than electrification, e.g. 4-x faster in Sub-Saharan Africa  Other issues: literacy, safety, women’s work, indoor air quality, subsidy, scarcity, price volatility  The 1.6 billion non-electrified doesn’t include those facing power outages

26 Ghana “We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles” - Thomas Edison Photos: Rick Wilk There are more non-electrified households today than the total number of households in Edison’s time.

27 Photos: Evan Mills © Assam, India Bhutan

28 Photo: Evan Mills © Assam, India

29 Photos: Evan Mills © Varanassi, India Siem Reap, Cambodia

30 Kerosene Kommerce Photos: Evan Mills © Northeast Viet Nam

31 Photo: Evan Mills © Bhutan

32 Demographics

33 Lighting Equity Although one in three people obtain light with kerosene and other fuels, representing about 15% of global lighting costs, they receive only 0.2% of the resulting lighting energy services.

34 Energy Services; Energy & Equity An un-electrified household consumes as many lumens over an entire year as a single electric light produces in 10 hours

35 Energy Services & Costs

36 Stanford-LBNL Prototype Est. manufactured cost (before markups) ~$10 [] Annual Operating cost (replacement batteries) $3 ($15 for kerosene)

37 LED Payback Time: Years LBNL Analysis

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