→ The earliest known modern human remains were found in ETHIOPIA. → They are estimated to be around 200,000 years old. → Ancestors of these remains date back even further…. 7 million years ago!!! Early Beginnings
Societies were HUNTER-GATHERERS During the prehistoric-Stone Age, the Sahara Desert’s climate was actually like a Savannah. Around 6,000 BCE the Sahara began to steadily dry, ultimately becoming the Sahara Desert that it is today. The ancient Egyptian civilization began to spring up around the Nile Valley– one of the richest agricultural areas in the world. History: North Africa
Jennifer Smith, Ph.D., circles a beautifully bizarre geological formation carved by sand-bearing winds after the Sahara became a desert. http://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/afr ica/exhibit/sahara/artwork.htm
The Bantu were a group of people that spoke the same language (Bantu). Of the Bantu language…the most popular is SWAHILI! They originated in Western Africa. They began to migrate into Southern and Eastern parts of Africa around 1000 BCE – 1100 CE. http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/ca/books/bkf3/im aps/AC_06_206_bantu/AC_06_206_bantu.html http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/ca/books/bkf3/im aps/AC_06_206_bantu/AC_06_206_bantu.html History: Africa South of the Sahara
Why did they migrate? There are many theories on their movement….. Overpopulation, so they left in search of more land. Fertile Land Internal Conflicts Climate changes WHICH ARE PUSH & WHICH ARE PULL FACTORS? Bantu Migration
How have they affected Africa? They had iron tools which made it possible to clear land. They were the first to farm large areas of land in Africa. They were the first to introduce crops such as millet or sorghum. They increased the population of Eastern and Southern Africa. Spread their language. Today, 50 million Africans speak Swahili which is a Bantu Language. Bantu Migration
What does it sound like? Click HERE!HERE Bantu Language Comparison
Colonization/Imperialism The mad scramble for Africa.
What statement do you think this political cartoon is making? The Rhodes Colossus The Rhodes Colossus, an 1892 caricature of Cecil Rhodes after announcing plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo. For Punch by Edward Linley Sambourne.caricature Cecil Rhodes telegraphCape TownCairo PunchEdward Linley Sambourne
Colonization/Imperialism 1. What European countries were involved in the control of Africa? 2. What two European countries had the most control over Africa? British, French, Belgian, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish British and French
This was where European countries took control of Africa and colonized. Europeans had noticed the region would be a source of raw materials and precious natural resources. Main reason - Wealth They began to colonize and control most of Africa often exploiting Africans of their natural resources. By 1914, all of Africa except Ethiopia and Liberia was under European control. What was Imperialism (1800’s – mid 1900’s)
What resources might these Europeans be after?
Europeans created boundaries that cut across ethnic homelands. (Created disputes) They basically all met together and drew lines on the map of where they would rule without any concern for native living there. Many wars today are fought because ethnic groups living in the same country do not get along. Many Africans benefited from new educational opportunities and city development. Promoted European culture which diminished African culture. Disrupted village life by making large plantations. Many Europeans got wealthy while Africans stayed underdeveloped and poor. Effects of European colonization
Slavery The spread of a horrible & inhumane practice.
Slavery, by definition, is a social stratification system under which people are treated as property (to be bought or sold) and forced to work. Slavery goes all the way back to before 6000 BCE! Slavery was common all over the ancient world—from Europe to Asia or even within the various African tribes. Slavery was common in the Americas BEFORE the Transatlantic Slave Trade….The Aztec and the Inca had slaves & here in Texas, the Comanche Indians even had slaves. Slavery
Who was the Slave Trade between? Transatlantic Slave Trade
As the demand for slaves increased with European colonial expansion in the New World, rising prices made the slave trade increasingly lucrative. African governments eager to augment their treasuries even preyed upon their own peoples by manipulating their judicial systems, condemning individuals and their families to slavery in order to reap the rewards of their sale to European traders. Slave exports were responsible for the emergence of a number of large and powerful kingdoms that relied on a militaristic culture of constant warfare to generate the great numbers of human captives required for trade with the Europeans. Why would Africans trade their own people as Slaves?
There was a general population decline, and it is believed that the shortage of men in particular may have changed the structure of many societies by thrusting women into roles previously occupied by their husbands and brothers. Additionally, some scholars have argued that images stemming from this era of constant violence and banditry have survived to the present day in the form of metaphysical fears and beliefs concerning malevolent witchcraft. As the demand for slaves increased with European colonial expansion in the New World, rising prices made the slave trade increasingly lucrative. African governments eager to augment their treasuries even preyed upon their own peoples by manipulating their judicial systems, condemning individuals and their families to slavery in order to reap the rewards of their sale to European traders. Slave exports were responsible for the emergence of a number of large and powerful kingdoms that relied on a militaristic culture of constant warfare to generate the great numbers of human captives required for trade with the Europeans. What are some effects of the Slave Trade on Africa?