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Arengu-uuringud 5. Arengueesmärgid Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester.

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Presentation on theme: "Arengu-uuringud 5. Arengueesmärgid Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arengu-uuringud 5. Arengueesmärgid Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester

2 Järeldused intellektuaalsest debatist teemal areng Pole ühe kindlat mõõdupuud ega liikumissuunda. On põnevaid käsitlusi ja huvitavaid vaateid. Aga ka süvenev mitmekesisus arengu mõistmisel ja hindamisel Kuidas see väljendub praktilises tegevuses: arengueesmärkide seadmine, arengupoliitikate väljatöötamine, arenguabi...

3 ÜRO globaalsed arengueesmärgid 2000 aastal – globaalsed arengueesmärgid. World leaders have pledged to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, including the overarching goal of cutting poverty in half by The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September Kaheksa arengueesmärki, jaotatud 21 mõõdetavaks ülesandeks, mida hinnatakse 60 indikaatori abil. Regulaarne monitooring.

4 MDG - arengueesmärgid Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger –Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. –Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people. –Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Achieve universal primary education –Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Promote gender equality and empower women –Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by Reduce child mortality –Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Improve maternal health –Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio. –Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.

5 MDG - arengueesmärgid Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases –Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. –Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it. –Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Ensure environmental sustainability –Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources. –Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss. –Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply). –By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers. Develop a global partnership for development –Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—nationally and internationally. –Address the special needs of the least developed countries. This includes tariff and quota free access for their exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction. –Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. –In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries. –In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications.

6 MDG raportid Millennium Development Goals: MDG Progress Report 2008: Ülevaade eesmärkide saavutamisest riikide kaupa: Andmebaas globaalse arengu hindajatele ja käsitlejatele

7 Sõnumid UNDP-lt ja MDG analüütikutelt MDG – tänapäeva globaalne arengukonstrukt. Sisu esitatud eitusena - selle eitamine, mida ei soovita – vaesus, nälg, harimatus, haigused, ebavõrdsus, keskkonna saastamine, osavõtmatus Areng = ebameeldivate asjade puudumine?! Loogika – ideaal on leitud, tuleb mahajäänute sinnajõudmist toetada?! Sama EL strateegia uusliikmete suhtes?! Vrdl 19 sajandi arengukäsitlustega?!

8 OECD Rikaste riikide klubi eesmärgipüstitused! OECD: Organisation For Economic Cooperation and Development Asutatud 1961, peakorter Pariisis, 30 liikmesriiki, töötajaid ca 2500, eelarve ca 359 miljonit EUR aastas, peasekretär: Angel Gurria, ca 250 publikatsiooni aastas. Rikaste riikide klubi! Mitte segamini ajada - OSCE (The Organization for Security and Co- operation in Europe) OECD brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to: Üks suuremaid ja usaldusväärsemaid arenguteemaliste andmete kogujaid ja analüüsijaid. Samas fookus oluliselt erinev UNDP-ga võrreldes. Vaesuse vältimine vs rikkuse saavutamine!? For more than 40 years, OECD has been one of the world's largest and most reliable sources of comparable statistics, and economic and social data. As well as collecting data, OECD monitors trends, analyses and forecasts economic developments and researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, agriculture, technology, taxation and more.

9 OECD’s mission Article 1 of the OECD Convention defines the Organisation’s mission as being to: support economic growth boost employment raise living standards maintain financial stability assist other countries’ economic development contribute to growth in world trade

10 OECD tegevussuunad Economy Competition, Development, Economics and Growth, Enterprise, Industry and Services, Regional, Rural and Urban Development, Trade Society Population, Education, Employment, Social and Welfare Issues, Health, Migration Governance Corporate Governance, Fighting Corruption, Public Governance and Management, Regulatory Reform Finance Financial Markets, Insurance and Pensions, Investment, Tax Innovation Biotechnology, Information and Communication Technologies, Science and Innovation Sustainability Agriculture and Fisheries, Energy, Environment, Sustainable Development

11 OECD publikatsioonid OECD publikatsioonid: OECD Factbook This is the fourth edition of a comprehensive and dynamic statistical annual from the OECD. More than 100 indicators cover a wide range of areas: economy, agriculture, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health and quality of life, industry, information and communications, population/labour force, trade and investment, taxation, public expenditure and R&D. This year, the OECD Factbook features a focus chapter on productivity. Data are provided for all OECD member countries with area totals, and in some cases, for selected non-member economies. For each indicator, there is a two-page spread. Näide: rahvastikustatistikast: Age sturcture, Life expectancy at birth, Feritlity rate, Infant mortality, Foreign population, Health spendings, Pharmaceutical expenditure, Acute care beds, Practising psysicians, MRI screen units, Tobacco consumption, Alcohol consumption

12 OECD haridusanalüüsid Education at a Glance Parim võrdluspilt haridusest: sisseastujad ja lõpetajad, väljakukkujad, maksumus, palgad, vanemate hoiakud, haridus ja tööturg … Andmed + analüüs. Eesti kõrghariduse ülevaade Protseduur: kohalik ülevaade + külastus + sõltumatu analüüs Osundused Eestile: võrdne juurdepääs, rahastamine … Miks nad seda teevad? Oma arengukonstrukt.

13 Sõnumid OECD-lt Parim arenguabi on teadmine tegelikust olukorrast + kohaliku võimekuse arendamine Toetada neid, kes ise tahavad edeneda, haridus keskne instrument Haridus toodab jõukust, jõukus on arengueeldus

14 EL eesmärgipüstitused Lissaboni strateegia 2000! EL – maailma parimaks! Illusioonide aeg. It was set out by the European Council in Lisbon in March Lisbon Strategy was an action and development plan devised in 2000, for the economy of the European Union between 2000 and Its aim was to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion", by By 2010, most of its goals were not achieved!

15 Euroopa 2020 Euroopa 2020 – oluliselt tagasihoidlikum Europe 2020 is a 10-year strategy proposed by the European Commission in March 2010 for advancement of the economy of the European Union. It aims at "smart, sustainable, inclusive growth" with greater coordination of national and European policy. It follows the Lisbon Strategy for the period 2000–2010

16 Euroopa 2020 Viis eesmärki! The strategy identifies five headline targets the European Union should take to boost growth and employment. These are: 1-to raise the employment rate of the population aged 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. 2-to achieve the target of investing 3% of GDP in R&D in particular by improving the conditions for R&D investment by the private sector, and develop a new indicator to track innovation. 3-to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels or by 30% if the conditions are right, increase the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption to 20%, and achieve a 20% increase in energy efficiency. 4-to reduce the share of early school leavers to 10% from the current 15% and increase the share of the population aged 30–34 having completed tertiary education from 31% to at least 40%. 5-to reduce the number of Europeans living below national poverty lines by 25%, lifting 20 million people out of poverty

17 Initsiatiivid Seven flagship initiatives! Innovation Union: to improve framework conditions and access to finance for research and innovation so as to strengthen the innovation Youth on the move: to enhance the performance of education systems and to reinforce the international attractiveness of Europe's higher education. A digital agenda for Europe: to speed up the roll-out of high-speed internet and reap the benefits of a digital single market for households and firms. Resource efficient Europe: to help decouple economic growth from the use of resources, by decarbonising the economy, increasing the use of renewable sources, modernising the transport sector and promoting energy efficiency. An industrial policy for the globalisation era: to improve the business environment, especially for SMEs, and to support the development of a strong and sustainable industrial base able to compete globally. An agenda for new skills and jobs: to modernise labour markets by facilitating labour mobility and the development of skills throughout the lifecycle with a view to increasing labour participation and better matching labour supply and demand. European platform against poverty: to ensure social and territorial cohesion such that the benefits of growth and jobs are widely shared and people experiencing poverty and social exclusion are enabled to live in dignity and take an active part in society

18 Hariduse jaoks eraldi eesmärgid! Dokument: EU education and training 2020! Adult participation in lifelong learning. By 2020, an average of at least 15 % of adults should participate in lifelong learning Low achievers in basic skills. By 2020, the share of low-achieving 15-years olds in reading, mathematics and science should be less than 15 %. Tertiary level attainment. By 2020, the share of year olds with tertiary educational attainment should be at least 40 %. Early leavers from education and training. By 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training should be less than 10 %. Early childhood education. By 2020, at least 95 % of children between 4 years old and the age for starting compulsory primary education should participate in early childhood education

19 Järeldused eesmärkidest Areng on see, kui halba jääb vähemaks? Areng jõudmine kokkulepitud sihttasemeteni (40% kõrgharidusega!) Areng on multidimensionaalne! Arengut saab mõõta! Palju mõõdupuid! Areng on positsioon võrreldes teistega! Arengu mõõtmine on vajalik ja oluline! Arengumõõdikute maailm!

20 Arengumõõdikute maailm Täna maailma sadu arengumõõtjaid. ÜRO HDI tegi otsa lahti, suur hulk järgijaid. Loogika - areng on positsiooni muutus, teistega võrreldes Sest - enamik arengumõõdikutest on üles ehitatud järjestustena. Pingerea etteotsa sattunud saavad plussi, neid defineeritakse paremate ja arenenumatena, lõpuossa jäämine tähendab miinust, kehvem olemist. Kas väljaöeldult või varjatult osutavad järjestused teatud ihaldatud liikumissuunale sellele, mis on tänases maailmas oodatud, olgu selleks pikem eluiga, suurem konkurentsivõime või täielikum demokraatia. Kas erinevate järjestuste plusspoolte kokkukorjamine võiks viidata mingile üldisemale ideaalile, unistuste ühiskonnamudelile, mille suunas liikumist väärtustatakse ning kuhu avatud ja üleilmastuv maailm on sammud seadnud?


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