G RADE B OUNDARIES /83 A – 54 B – 47 C – 41 D – 35 E – 29
S ECTION B: T HE P SYCHOLOGY OF A DDICTIVE B EHAVIOUR (24 MARKS ) 13. Sam has recently left school and started work. His new job is monotonous and he often feels bored. On the way home from work, he and his new workmates call at the betting shop and place a couple of bets. Sam has a few wins in the first week and finds the atmosphere exciting. He starts to visit the betting shop after work most days, and is now spending over half of his wages on gambling. Using your knowledge of the psychology of addictive behaviour, explain some of the reasons for Sam’s addiction to gambling. (10 marks)
Q UESTION 13: ‘S AM ’ SCENARIO A02/A03 – the question requires candidates to apply their psychological knowledge of addictive behaviour to the given scenario. The scenario provides a number of ‘clues’ as to the cause of Sam’s addiction to gambling. Material from both sub-sections of the specification can receive credit (i.e. approaches and risk factors) but only if there is evidence of these explanations in the text provided.
E XAMINER MARK BANDS 0 marks No creditworthy material is presented. 1-2 marks Rudimentary – Very limited understanding, answer is weak/muddled and may be largely irrelevant. Written expression is confusing. 3-5 marks Basic – Superficial understanding, answer is sometimes focused, written expression lacks clarity.
E XAMINER MARK BANDS 6-8 marks Reasonable – Reasonable understanding, answer is generally focused, most ideas are appropriately structured and expressed clearly. 9-10 marks Effective – Sound understanding, answer is well focused and effective, ideas are well structured and expressed clearly and fluently.
M ARK BAND LIMITATIONS For candidates to access the higher mark bands they must engage clearly and consistently with the scenario E.g. by giving direct ‘quotations’ from the scenario as evidence to support their points. If candidates select relevant explanations but do not apply these to the scenario they should be awarded a maximum of 4 marks.
R ELEVANT EXPLANATIONS THAT CAN RECEIVE CREDIT Risk factors 1. Age – ‘Sam has recently left school’ – research has suggested that people of a younger age are often more influenced by their peers. 2. Peers – ‘new workmates’ – Social Identity Theory – Sam may gamble to fit in with and become a part of the social identity of his new group of friends from work. 3. Personality – ‘ his new job is monotonous and he often feels bored’ and ‘finds the atmosphere very exciting ’ – Eysenck’s theory of personality suggests individuals with the trait of extraversion (i.e. become bored easily) are more likely to take part in activities, like gambling, which increase brain arousal (i.e. sensation-seeking behaviour).
E XAMINER ADVICE Risk factors There is no direct evidence in the scenario that suggests Sam is experiencing ‘stress.’ Being bored doesn’t necessarily mean he is stressed. Therefore ‘stress’ as a risk factor would receive no credit for this question. Remember only use explanations that you can support with evidence from the scenario – do not infer!
R ELEVANT EXPLANATIONS THAT CAN RECEIVE CREDIT Approaches 1. Learning approach – ‘he and his new workmates call at the betting shop and place a couple of bets’ – Social Learning Theory. Sam may see his new workmates as role models and therefore observes their gambling behaviour and imitates it in order to fit in and reap the same rewards as them e.g. social approval/acceptance and financial gain. 2. Learning approach – ‘Sam has a few wins in the first week and finds the atmosphere very exciting’ – Operant conditioning – positive reinforcement. Sam has received rewards from gambling (financial gain and the feeling of anticipation/rush of adrenaline) which encourage him to repeat the addictive behaviour again.
R ELEVANT EXPLANATIONS THAT CAN RECEIVE CREDIT Approaches 1. Cognitive approach – ‘he often feels bored’ and ‘finds the atmosphere very exciting’ – Coping and Expectancies. Sam may use gambling as a way of coping with the boredom he experiences at work. Sam may also have the expectancy that gambling will relieve this boredom and that he will get an adrenaline rush from the anticipation associated with gambling, as he finds the atmosphere ‘very exciting.’ 2. Biological approach (biochemical) – ‘finds the atmosphere very exciting’ – When Sam gambles he experiences a rush of adrenaline and the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in the brain is activated so that Sam experiences pleasure when gambling. A long-term memory is created linking this adrenaline rush/pleasure with gambling encouraging Sam to continue with the addictive behaviour.
E XAMINER ADVICE There is no evidence in the scenario that Sam has a low mood (i.e. depression) OR that he is experiencing financial/social/medical problems. It does say that he is ‘bored’ and that he ‘is now spending over half of his wages on gambling.’ However this does not mean that he is depressed or having financial problems. Therefore using Beck’s ‘vicious circle’ will receive no credit for this scenario.
E XAMINER ADVICE There is no evidence in the scenario that there is a genetic cause of Sam’s gambling addiction. Therefore using the genetic explanation (i.e. the A1 variant of DRD ² ) will receive no credit for this scenario.
S ECTION B: T HE P SYCHOLOGY OF A DDICTIVE B EHAVIOUR (24 MARKS ) 14. Outline the theory of planned behaviour as a model for addiction prevention. (4 marks)
Q UESTION 14 A01: description of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) as a model for addiction prevention. Diagrams of TPB can receive credit. Maximum of 3 marks awarded if there is no reference to addiction prevention in the answer. For 4 marks students must outline the theory and explain how it could be used to prevent addictive behaviour.
E XAMINER MARK SCHEME 0 marks – No creditworthy material. 1 mark – Rudimentary – K&U are rudimentary and may be very brief/muddled/inaccurate. 2 marks – Basic – K&U are basic/relatively superficial and organisation/structure are basic. 3 marks – Reasonable – K&U are generally accurate and reasonably detailed. Organisation and structure of answer are reasonably clear. 4 marks – Effective – K&U are accurate and well detailed. Organisation and structure of the answer are coherent.
E XEMPLAR ANSWER The theory of planned behaviour (_________, 1985) is a ___________ theory consisting of __________ factors that lead to an individual’s decision to engage in a particular behaviour, i.e. an addictive behaviour like ___________. According to this theory an individual’s decision to engage in an addictive behaviour can be directly predicted by their ____________ to engage in that behaviour. Intention is a function of three factors; behavioural __________, subjective _________, and perceived behavioural ____________. Behavioural attitude refers to the individual’s beliefs about the addictive behaviour and the associated ________________ of that behaviour, both positive and negative. Subjective norms refer to the individual’s subjective ________________ of the social norms related to the addictive behaviour as well as their own beliefs about how significant others would _________ the behaviour. Perceived behavioural control is linked to ________________; it relates to the individual’s perceived control over the addictive behaviour and their ability to ____________the behaviour. Therefore in order to prevent addiction we must consider the factors that contribute to an individual’s intention and ____________these factors e.g. changing behavioural attitudes about the addictive behaviour from ___________ to negative in order to ____________ addiction. awarenessmanipulateviewAjzen threeattitudepositiveconsequences preventself-efficacycognitivemanage intentioncontrolnormssmoking
S ECTION B: T HE P SYCHOLOGY OF A DDICTIVE B EHAVIOUR (24 MARKS ) 15. Discuss the effectiveness of public health interventions in reducing addictive behaviour. (4 marks + 6 marks) Discuss = outline and evaluate.
E XAMINER MARK SCHEME (A01) 0 marks – No creditworthy material. 1 mark – Rudimentary – K&U are rudimentary and may be very brief/muddled/inaccurate. Lacks organisation and structure. 2 marks – Basic – K&U are basic/relatively superficial and organisation/structure are basic. 3 marks – Reasonable – K&U are generally accurate and reasonably detailed. Organisation and structure of answer are reasonably clear. 4 marks – Sound – K&U are accurate and well detailed. Organisation and structure of the answer are coherent.
A01 (4 MARKS ) Candidates should describe one or more public health interventions aimed at reducing/preventing addiction. PHIs are interventions by governments and voluntary organisations designed to prevent or treat addictions. They are targeted at the population (large groups of people). Examples include ‘No Smoking Day’, ‘Stoptober’, ‘Scared and Worried Campaigns,’ ‘Dry January’, mass media strategies, advertising, voluntary workplace bans, price increase and health education. Candidates should describe these PHIs in as much detail as possible.
E XAMINER MARK S CHEME (A02) 0 marks – No creditworthy material. 1 mark – Rudimentary – Very limited understanding, answer is weak/muddled/incomplete. Material is not used effectively and mainly irrelevant. Expression is confused. Answer lacks structure. Errors of SPAG are frequent and intrusive. 2-3 marks – Basic – Superficial understanding. Answer is sometimes focused and shows some evidence of elaboration. Expression of ideas lack clarity. Limited used of psychological terminology. Errors of SPAG are intrusive.
E XAMINER MARK S CHEME (A02) 4-5 marks – Reasonable – analysis and understanding are reasonable. Answer is generally focused and shows reasonable elaboration. Most ideas are appropriately structured and expressed clearly. Appropriate use of psychological terminology. Minor errors of SPAG occasionally compromise meaning. 6 marks – Effective – sound analysis, understanding and interpretation. The answer is well focused and shows coherent elaboration and a clear line of argument. Ideas are well structured and expressed clearly/fluently. Consistently effective use of psychological terminology. Appropriate used of SPAG.
A02 Discussion of the effectiveness of public health interventions – do they reduce/prevent addictive behaviours like smoking/gambling/alcohol addiction? Candidates should refer to relevant research evidence that support the effectiveness of PHIs. ‘No Smoking Day’ – Kotz et al (2011); Elton and Campbell (2008). ‘Stoptober’ – Yen (1999). ‘ Scared and Worried Campaign’ – Keller et al (1996). Answers which do not refer to relevant research are unlikely to receive a mark above basic (i.e. 2-3).
A02 Candidates may also discuss methodological issues with research evidence e.g. use of self-report techniques. Candidates can compare PHIs with biological (i.e. drugs) and/or psychological (i.e. CBT) interventions to receive A02 credit. Candidates can also discuss the problem of establishing cause and effect as many PHIs run concurrently.
A DDITIONAL A02 Difficult to define ‘effectiveness’ – is it a reduction in the addictive behaviour or complete abstinence? Effectiveness may depend on type of addiction e.g. chemical or behavioural. Which intervention is most effective? Most likely a combination of PHI, biological and psychological.