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Post-Classical Period 600-1450 Rise Of Major Belief Systems Fall of Classic Civilizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Post-Classical Period 600-1450 Rise Of Major Belief Systems Fall of Classic Civilizations."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Post-Classical Period

3 Rise Of Major Belief Systems Fall of Classic Civilizations

4 Classical Period ends with decline of urban areas. Why? Devastating plagues Invasions Decline of Ag. Production Political & economic decentralization

5 Urban Revival during Post- Classical Age. Why? End of invasions Availability of safe/reliable transport Rise of commerce and warmer temps. between Increased ag. production = rising pop. Great availability of labor

6 Buddhism Christianity Islam Spread of Religions

7 Why successfully spread? Emphasized spiritual life Stressed importance of divine powers Emphasized internal devotion Offers hope through afterlife Helped those in need (poor, hungry, oppressed)

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9 Christianity Moved Westward Church Organization Stressed Nature of Truth History in a line: Eternal life at end Intolerant of other beliefs

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11 Buddhism Moved East Stressed Individual Experience Stressed source of human suffering History is a circle Release from the circle Coexist with other beliefs

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13 Similarities Missionary Activity Coincided with Fall of Empires Met with some resistance Grew out of earlier faith traditions

14 The Spread of Islam

15 Origins of Islam Why was the Arabian Peninsula both a likely and unlikely place to start a religion???

16 Geography – desert People – –Bedouins –Tribal –No unity Strategic location UnlikelyLikely Located bwn 3 continents & major waterways

17 Changes during Late Classical Period Towns and Cities emerge * * * *

18 Prominent role of Arab Merchants

19 Growth of Arabic language

20 Materialistic culture emerges Literacy and Education increases

21 Fall of Rome

22 Islam as a “Unifier” Distinctly Arabic Ended feuding tribes Source of Authority Equality and a moral code Trade and profit making

23 Islamic Expansion Why conquest? *Unity gave confidence *Valuable lands/trade/money First Commanded by Muhammad Followed by the first Caliphs *Drought in Arabia *Seek Converts

24 Why was it successful? Quick, Agile Army Weak Surrounding Empires Taxing policies insured loyalty and revenue

25 Umayyad Dynasty Capital moved to Damascus Favoritism toward Arabs Second wave of conquest/expansion: W. India to Spain Caliph = religious leader; family = advisors

26 Capital = Baghdad Tolerance towards non- Arabs Consolidated Empire Caliph = Absolute ruler; Vizier headed complex bureaucracy Global Network of Trade; Baghdad = major trade city Baghdad = center of Islamic Golden Age Abbasids Dynasty

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28 Islam Arab Succession Issues Corruption

29 Goals Toleration Record Expansion and Conquest, reap rewards Expand trade, unify under Islam, culture Favoritism toward Arabs..Resentment, revolts Tolerant of Non-Arabs, Intermarriage, Recruited in Army Capital Damascus-central location Baghdad-located along key trade/water routes Political Structure Caliph as religious leader. Family as advisors Caliph as absolute ruler. Complex bureaucracy led by Vizier Using Islam as a unifier and a military to expand, the Arabs built a strong empire where trade and a general toleration was valued

30 Islamic Merchants West Africa Gold, Salt and Slaves East Africa Ivory and Gold East Asia Silk India/SE Asia Spices

31 Problems within the Empire 1. Issues of Succession *After the death of Muhammad *Rightful heir?

32 Division Emerges Sunnis Forward Majority Anyone can assume role of caliph Shi’is (Shiite) Fundamentalists Minority Claim to be direct descendants to Muhammad-Only they can be caliph

33 2. Empire grew too big Rebellious governors Ruling a diverse people End of Arabian dominance

34 RESULTS : By 1000 Abbasids were crumbling Other cultural influences takeover Arabs Persians, Turks, Mongols Arabian Political Dominance Islamic Cultural Dynamism

35 Islamic Contributions Art, Science and Literature Architecture Urbanized Empire Global Network of Trade

36 Complete the following Analogy What the birth and growth of Islam (Idea) did for the Arabs (people)… _____________________ (Idea) did for the__________________(people) because they both ____________________________________


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