Presentation on theme: "AUTHORITY zThe power to influence thought and behavior zPower xThe ability for A to get B to do what B would normally not do."— Presentation transcript:
AUTHORITY zThe power to influence thought and behavior zPower xThe ability for A to get B to do what B would normally not do
Sources of Authority xBureaucratic xPersonal xTechnical-rational xProfessional xMoral
Bureaucratic - Source zHierarchy zRules And Regulations z Mandates zRole Expectation zTeachers Are Expected To Comply Or Face The Consequences
Bureaucratic - Assumptions zTeachers Are Subordinates zTeachers Can’t Be Trusted zSupervisors Are Trustworthy zSupervisors’ And Teachers’ Goals Differ zSupervisors Must Be Watchful zSupervisors Know More Than Teachers zExternal Accountability Works Best
Bureaucratic - Strategies zExpect and Inspect zHold teachers to predetermined standards zDirectly supervise and closely monitor zDetermine teacher needs and In-service them zFind out how to motivate teacher and get them to change
Bureaucratic Supervision zHierarchy zRules And Regulations z Mandates zRole Expectation zTeachers Are Expected To Comply Or Face The Consequences
Bureaucratic - Consequences zWith proper monitoring, teachers respond as technicians in executing predetermined scripts zTeachers’ performance is narrowed
Personal - Source zMotivation technology zInterpersonal skills zHuman relations leadership zTeachers will want to comply because of the congenial climate provided and to reap rewards offered in exchange.
Personal - Assumptions zSupervisors’ And Teachers’ Goals Differ but can be bartered so each gets what they want zMeet teachers’ needs & the work gets done zCongenial climate makes teachers content, easier to work with & more apt to cooperate zSupervisors must be expert at handling people to increase compliance & performance
Personal - Strategies zDevelop a congenial school climate zExpect and reward zWhat gets rewarded gets done
Personal Supervision zMotivation technology zInterpersonal skills zHuman relations Supervision zTeachers will want to comply because of the congenial climate provided and to reap rewards offered in exchange.
Personal - Consequences zTeachers respond as required when rewards are available but not otherwise. zPerformance is narrowed
Technical Rationality - Source zEvidence by logic and scientific research zTeachers comply in light of what is considered to be the truth
Technical Rationality - Assumptions zSupervision & teaching are applied sciences zKnowledge & research is privileged zScientific knowledge supercedes practice zTeachers are skilled technicians zValues, preferences & beliefs don’t count - facts & objective evidence do
Technical Rationality - Strategies zUse research to identify the best practice zStandardize the work of teachers zIn-service teachers in the best practice zMonitor to insure compliance
Technical Rational Supervision zEvidence by logic and scientific research zTeachers comply in light of what is considered to be the truth
Technical Rationality - Consequences zWith proper monitoring, teachers respond as technicians in executing predetermined scripts. zPerformance is narrowed
Professional - Source zInformed knowledge of craft zPersonal expertise zTeacher responds on the basis of professional values, accepted tenets of practice, and internalized expertness
Professional - Assumptions zNo one best way exists zScientific knowledge is to inform not to prescribe practice zAcceptance of authority comes from within the teacher zSupervisor is respected for knowledge, training & experience
Professional - Strategies zPromote a dialogue among teachers to determine accepted practices zProvide teachers with as much discretion as they want or need zRequire teachers to hold each other accountable zMake available assistance, support & professional development opportunities
Professional Supervision zInformed knowledge of craft zPersonal expertise zTeachers respond on the basis of professional values, accepted tenets of practice, and internalized expertness
Professional - Consequences zTeachers respond to professional norms and thus little monitoring is required. zPerformance is expansive.
Moral - Source zFull obligation and duties derived from widely shared community values, ideas and ideals zTeachers respond to shared commitments and felt interdependence
Moral - Assumptions zSchools are professional learning communities zSchools are defined by their shared values, beliefs & commitments zWhat is right and good is as important as what works & is effective zCollegiality is a professional virtue
Moral - Strategies zPromote collegiality zRely on teachers to respond to their own sense of duties and obligations zRely on teachers informal norm system to enforce professional and community values
Moral Supervision zFull obligation and duties derived from widely shared community values, ideas and ideals zTeachers respond to shared commitments and felt interdependence
Moral - Consequences zTeachers respond to community values for moral reasons zPerformance is expansive and sustained.
Sergiovanni zSupervision I xBureaucratic xPersonal xTechnical-rational zSupervision II xProfessional xMoral
zWHICH IS THE BEST WAY TO SUPERVISE IN THE SCHOOL SETTING?
INSANITY zDO EVERYTHING THE WAY WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE IT AND EXPECT DIFFERENT RESULTS zIMPROVEMENT OF RESULTS REQUIRES CHANGE