Presentation on theme: "ECON 1001 AB Introduction to Economics I Dr. Ka-fu WONG"— Presentation transcript:
1ECON 1001 AB Introduction to Economics I Dr. Ka-fu WONG Eighth week of tutorial sessionsKKL 925, KKL 1010, K812, KKL 106Clifford CHANKKL 1109
2Covered and to be covered Covered last weekDr. Wong finished up to kf008.ppt and slide #7 of kf010.pptYou should have at least read up to Chapter 8 The Quest for Profit and the Invisible HandIf not, please press hard on it. Start reading Chapter 10 Monopoly and Other Forms of Imperfect CompetitionTo be covered in the tutorial sessions this weekProblems in chapter 8: #1, #3, #5, #7 and #9An extra question relevant to Chapter 8You are advised to work on the even ones as well
3Problem #1, Chapter 8Explain why the following statements are true or falseA) The economic maxim: “There’s no cash on the table.” That means there are never any unexploited economic opportunitiesFalseThis statement is kind of trickyIt is wrong that there are never any unexploited economic opportunityIn the short run, there are normal unexploited economic opportunities to be drawn from so new entries are attracted by a positive economic profit
4Solution to Problem #1 (1) However, as the number of suppliers grows in the long run, all participating firms will earn a zero economic profitHowever, as the number of suppliers grows in the long run, the market price will be driven down and all the participating firms will eventually earn a zero economic profitOnly in the long run, there are no unexploited economic opportunitiesBut there are exploited economic opportunities in the short run so that new suppliers are encouraged to enter the market!
5Solution to Problem #1 (2) B) Firms in competitive environments making no accounting profit when the market is in long-run equilibriumFalseFirms in competitive environments make a positive accounting profit in the long-run equilibrium so that it can be used to cover the opportunity cost of resources suppliedHowever, firms in competitive environments make no economic profit in the long-run equilibrium!
6Solution to Problem #1 (3) C) Firms that can introduce cost-saving innovations can make an economic profit in the short runTrueIn the short run, market price of a good has not yet been adjusted, but firms experience a reduction in production cost due to the innovations, and thus they enjoy a higher economic profitThe supply curve will shift to the right due to the replication of innovation and the increasing number of suppliers in the marketThe market price will be driven down until the economic profit gets down to zero
7Problem #3, Chapter 8 Labour $2000 Food and drink $500 Electricity $100Vehicle lease$150RentInterest on loan for equipment$1,000John Jones owns and manages a café in Collegetown whose annual revenue is $5,000. Annual expenses are as above
8Solution to Problem #3 (1) A) Calculate John’s annual accounting profitRecall the difference between accounting profit and economic profitAccounting profit = Total revenue – Total explicit costEconomic profit = Total revenue – Total explicit and implicit costsEconomic profit is always less than accounting profitIn this question, the total annual revenue is $5,000The total explicit cost is the sum of the annual expensesTotal explicit cost = Labour + Food and drink + Electricity + Vehicle lease + Rent + Interest on loan for equipmentTotal explicit cost = $4250
9Solution to Problem #3 (2) Annual accounting profit = $ $4250 = $750B) John could earn $1000 per year as a recycler of aluminum cans. However, he prefers to run the café. In fact, he would be willing to pay up to $275 per year to run the café rather than to recycle. Is the café making an economic profit? Should John stay in the café business? Explain.Considers the two options for John: Running a café or Being a recyclerIf he runs the café, he will forgone the annual income ($1000) that he can potentially earn from being a recycler
10Solution to Problem #3 (3) In addition, if he runs the café, he will receive benefit which is equivalent to $275 per yearTherefore, if he runs the café, he will forgo the potential income earned from recycling minus the benefits he receives from the caféHis true opportunity cost is $ $275 = $725Economic profit = Accounting profit – Implicit cost (OC)Economic profit = $750 - $725 = $25Since John’s annual economic profit is greater than 0, he should run the business
11Solution to Problem #3 (4) Suppose the café revenues and expenses remain the same, but the recyclers’ earnings rise to $1,100 per year. Is the café still making an economic profit? Explain.If the earnings from recycling increases to $1,100, that means the true opportunity cost becomes $ $275 = $825Again, economic profit = accounting profit – opportunity costNew economic profit = $750 - $825 = -$75Since the new economic profit is less than zero, John will suffer from an annual economic loss of $75 from running the cafe
12Solution to Problem #3 (5) D) Suppose John had not had to get a $10,000 loan at an annual interest rate of 10 percent to buy equipment, but instead had invested $10,000 of his own money in equipment. How would your answer to parts a and b change?If John did not borrow a loan to finance the equipment, he could save the interest on loan for equipmentAs a result, the total explicit cost would be decreased by $1000 to $3250Therefore, the new annual accounting profit = $ $3250 = $1750
13Solution to Problem #3 (6) However, the economic profit in part b would not change (assuming that the interest rate one has to pay on bank loan is the same as that one gets from bank deposits.)There would be a new opportunity cost for the interest income of $1000 that John would forgo by investing his money in the equipmentThe increase in the accounting profit in part a would be offset by the new opportunity cost when we calculate the new economic profit for part bNew economic profit = new accounting profit – new opportunity costNew economic profit = $1750 – ($ $275 +$1000)New economic profit = $ $1725 = $25 (No change!)
14Solution to Problem #3 (7) E) If John can earn $1000 a year as a recycler, and he likes recycling just as well as running the café, how much additional revenue would the café have to collect each year to earn a normal profit?Normal profit refers to the opportunity cost of the resources owned by the firmTo earn a normal profit, the café would have to cover all its implicit and explicit costsAfter all explicit costs are taken into account, the opportunity cost of running the café is $1000The accounting profit of running the café is $750Therefore, the café would have to earn an additional annual revenue of $250 to earn a normal profit of zero
15Problem #5, Chapter 8Explain carefully why, in the absence of a patent, a technical innovation invented and pioneered in one tofu factory will cause the supply curve for the entire tofu industry to shift to the right. What will finally halt the rightward shift?
16Solution to Problem #5 (1) Since the question does not specific for the market structure, we assume that the tofu industry is a perfectly competitive industry in which participating firms are earning a zero economic profit in the long runIf one of the firms introduces an innovation on the production technology, its cost (average cost and marginal cost, etc.) at each production level will be reducedIn the short run where price has not yet been adjusted, the innovating firm will earn a positive economic profit
17Solution to Problem #5 (2) As the innovation is not patented, other participating firms or potential firms will try to reap the positive economic profit by replicating the innovation and produce more to the marketAs a result, the market supply will increase because of the non-patented innovationWhen the market supply increases, the supply curve will continue shifting to the right (driving down the price)The fall in price of tofu will finally halt when the price falls to a level which generate zero economic profit to the participating firms
18Problem #7, Chapter 8Unskilled workers in a poor cotton-growing region must choose between working in a factory for $6000 a year and being tenant cotton farmer. One farmer can work at a 120-acre farm, which rents for $10000 a year. Such farms yield $20,000 worth of cotton each year. The total non-labour cost of producing and marketing the cotton is $4000 a year. A local politician whose motto is “working people come first” has promised that if he is elected, his administration will fund a fertilizer, irrigation, and marketing scheme that will triple cotton yields on tenant farms at no charge to tenant farmers
19Solution to Problem #7 (1) A) If the market price of cotton would be unaffected by this policy and no new jobs would be created in the cotton-growing industry, how would the project affect the incomes of tenant farmers in the short run? In the long run?In the short run, a cotton farmer will make an economic profit as followsRecall economic profit = total revenue – total explicit and implicit costsNote: in the question, it says the marketing scheme will triple the cotton yields on tenant farmsHence, new total revenue = $20000 * 3 = $60000
20Solution to Problem #7 (2) Economic profit = $60000 total revenue - $10000 rent - $4000 marketing cost - $6000 opportunity costEconomic profit = $40000 per yearSince the economic profit is greater than zero, factory workers will switch to being a cotton farmer in the long runAs the number of cotton farmers increases, the rent of cotton farmland will increaseOnce the rent of cotton farmland reaches to $50000 per year, cotton farmers will earn an economic profit of zero in the long run
21Solution to Problem #7 (3) Who would reap the benefit of the scheme in the long run? How much would they gain each year?LandownerIn the last part, we have shown that in the long run, the rent on cotton farmland will increaseThere will be no new cotton farmers when the rent of on cotton farmland reaches $50000 for which it was $10000 before the schemeThus, landowners in the long run earn an additional rent of $40000 per 120-acre farmland
22Problem #9, Chapter 8You have an opportunity to buy an apple orchard that produces $25,000 per year in total revenue. To run the orchard, you would have to give up your current job, which pays $10,000 per year. If you would find both jobs equally satisfying, and the annual interest rate is 10 percent, what is the highest price you would be willing to pay for the orchard?
23Solution to Problem #9 (1) If you buy the apple orchard, you will incur an opportunity cost of forgoing the alternative use of money like investmentGiven in the question, the annual interest rate is 10%That means if you buy the apple orchard, you will incur an opportunity cost that is equivalent to 10% of the price of the apple orchardIn addition, you will have to forgo the potential income you earn from your current job, which is $10,000 per yearRecall economic profit = total revenue – total explicit and implicit costs
24Solution to Problem #9 (2) Total revenue = $25,000 per yearTotal cost = $10,000 forgone income + (Priceappleorchard * 10% annual interest rate)You are willing to pay for the apple orchard up to a value that makes a zero economic profit$25,000 = $10, (0.10*Priceappleorchard)Priceappleorchard = $150,000
25Extra question #1, Chapter 8 Is the following statement true or false? Explain.Even if there is a non-patented cost-saving technology introduced, all firms will eventually earn a zero economic profit in the long run. The economy in the long run is thus just as well off as in the past
26Solution to Extra #1 (1) False The technology will generate a positive economic profit for existing firms in the short run, and it will also attract new entries to the industry to reap that positive profitThe supply curve will then shift to the right until the positive economic profit is once again dissipatedAll the participating firms will eventually receive a zero economic profit in the long runEven so, the economy is still better off than in the pastThe technology does create a larger pie for both consumers and producers in the market
27Solution to Extra #1 (2)Consumers benefit from a new lower price because of the new technologyConsumers capture a larger consumer surplus as the supply curve shifts to the rightThough producers earns a lower market price, they enjoy a higher volume because of the new technologyProducers capture a larger producer surplus as the supply curve shifts to the rightAs a result, the total economic surplus in the long run is increasedHence the economy in the long run is actually better off than in the past!
28Solution to Extra #1 (3)SSS’ w/ new technologyPPCSP*CS’P*PSP*’PS’DDQQQ*Q*Q*’CS’ > CS and PS’ > PS; total economic surplus increases
29Thanks for coming! See you next week!!! The endThanks for coming!See you next week!!!