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For Increasing Comprehension and Expanding Vocabulary 1.

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1 For Increasing Comprehension and Expanding Vocabulary 1

2  What are effective comprehension and vocabulary tools in the KCLM?  How do these tools relate to the reading strategies outlined in the model?  How can these tools help struggling students?  How can I use these tools in my daily teaching practice? 2

3  I can explain the comprehension and vocabulary tools of the KCLM.  I can explain the reading strategy that each tool supports.  I am able to embed the tools in unit and lesson planning to aid student learning. 3

4 Understanding is one of the most cherished goals of education. Teaching for understanding can bring knowledge to life by requiring students to manipulate knowledge in various ways. For instance, understanding a historical event means going beyond the facts to explain them, explore the remote causes, discuss the incident as different people might see it from their own perspectives, and skeptically critique what various sources say. 4

5 1. Connect to Prior Knowledge and Develop Schema 2. Draw Inferences and Predict 3. Ask Questions Before, During and After Reading 4. Determine Importance and Summarize Text 5. Visualize and Create Sensory Images 6. Synthesize and Retell 7. Monitor/Clarify Understanding of Text 5

6 Proficient Thinkers and Readers Connect to Prior Knowledge and Develop Schema They use their unique background knowledge to understand the text as they read.. 6

7 7

8 Comprehension Tools  Anticipation/Reaction guide  Question/Answer/Relationship  Skimming  Pictograph  Comparison Matrix Chart  Comparison Guide Map  Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain 8

9 Vocabulary Tools  Wordstorm  Word Sorts  Three Way Tie  Connect the Word  LitFig  Four Square Vocabulary Map/Frayer Model  Word Questioning  Text Impressions  Cinquain  Rate Your knowledge  Vocabulary Tree  Password  Memory  Most Important Word 9

10  Effective pre-teaching activity  Students predict how words will be used in context  Enhances students’ connections with technical or specialized vocabulary 10

11 What is the word? Combustion Write the sentence from the text in which the word is used.  Combustion includes many chemical reactions. What are some words that you think of when you see this word?  explosionfireheat Do you know any other forms of this word?  combustiblecombustibilitycombustive Name three people who would use this word.  firemenchemistrocket builder Can you think of any other words that mean the same thing?  flamingburningvisible oxidation Write a sentence using this word appropriately. Make sure your sentence tells us what the word means.  Combustion is a chemical reaction that gives off heat and light. Klemp, R.M The Reading Teacher(1994) 11

12  Find the article “7 Traits for a Winning Life”  Choose a word from the article  With a partner, complete the Wordstorm template  Be ready to share out 12

13 Proficient Thinkers/Readers Draw Inferences and Predict Inferring is the process of creating meaning by connecting what is in the reader’s head with what is in the text. 13

14 14

15  Questions/Answer/Relationships (QAR)  Skimming  Graphic Organizers for Analogies and Metaphors  Classification Graphic Organizer 15

16 Vocabulary Tools  Wordstorm  Three Way Tie  Connect the Words  LitFig  Word Questioning  Text Impressions  Rate Your Knowledge  Password  Most Important Word 16

17 QAR is a framework that offers an approach to reading comprehension instruction. It clarifies for students where to find information needed to answer questions. 17

18 In the Book (or video, photo, text…) The answer is there. In My Head Background knowledge comes into play. 18

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21 Question It SaysI SayAnd So 1. Read the question. 2. Find information from the text to help you. 3. What do you know about it? 4. Combine what you know with what the text says. 21

22 Proficient Thinkers/Readers Ask Questions They generate questions BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER reading. 22

23  Anticipation/Reaction Guide  QAR  Mind Mapping  Cornell Notes  Rule-based Strategy 23

24 Vocabulary Tools  Word Sort  Three Way Tie  Connect the Words  LitFig  Word Questioning  Text Impressions  Rate Your Knowledge  Most Important Word 24

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26 The class trip they took to the cave dwellings made the students feel like archaeologists. burying or hiding things. finding things to show what the past was like. people who dig up things to show how people lived in the past -ology appears in biology-the study of life So when I hear the word- because someone found rare stuff like jewels; I’ll know what it is. Caves, deserts ruins. In magazines, Indiana Jones, titanic, Disc. Channel An archaeologist is like a human shovel. 26

27  With a partner, choose one word or concept from the article  Complete the word questioning graphic organizer  Be prepared to share with the group  Discuss implementation uses 27

28 Proficient Thinkers/Readers Determine Importance and Summarize Text And can support their ideas with evidence from the text.. I found it! 28

29  QAR  Pattern Organizers  Comparison Matrix Chart  Comparison Guide Map  Graphic Organizer for Analogies & Metaphors  Cornell Notes  Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain  Summary Frame  Rule-based Strategy 29

30 Vocabulary Tools  Word Sort  Word Questioning  Cinquain  Most Important Word 30

31 #1: Narrative Frame, p. 35 #2: Topic/Restriction-Illustration Frame, p. 37 Definition Frame, p. 38 #3: Argumentation Frame, p. 39 #4: Problem-Solution Frame, p. 40 #5: Conversation Frame, p. 41 31

32 1. What is being defined? 2. To which general category does the item belong? 3. What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category? 4. What are some different types or classes of the item being defined? 32

33 Proficient Thinkers/Readers….. Visualize and create sensory images as they read. 33

34 1. Create graphic representations 2. Draw pictures or pictographs 3. Generate mental images 4. Make physical models 5. Engage in kinesthetic activities 34

35  Skimming  Pattern Organizers  Mind Mapping  Pictograph  Comparison Guide Map  Graphic Organizer for Analogy and Metaphors  Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain 35

36 Vocabulary Activities  Word Sort  Three Way Tie  Connect the Words  LitFig  Four Square Vocabulary Map/Frayer Model  Word Questioning  Cinquain  Password 36

37 Draw pictures or pictographs to represent knowledge 37

38 The Principle of Sowing and Reaping Sow a thought, and you reap an act; Sow an act, and you reap a habit; Sow a habit, and you reap a character; Sow a character, and you reap a destiny. --Samuel Smiles 38

39 Visualizing: Use Pattern Graphic Organizers to Represent Knowledge TypePurpose Compare/ContrastIdentifying similarities and differences DescriptiveVocabulary terms or facts Time-SequenceOrganize events in chronological order Process/Cause-EffectOrganize information into a causal network leading to a specific outcome or into a sequence of steps leading to a specific product 39

40 TypePurpose Episode Organize a large quantity of information about a specific event Generalization/Principle Organize information into general statements with supporting examples and details Problem/Solution Organize ideas by identifying a problem and offering/evaluating solutions to the problem Concept Organize information about a word or phrase that represents an entire class or category 40

41 Hurricanes Eyewall Spin counterclockwise In Northern Hemisphere Seasonal Move heat from equatorial region to higher latitudes Spin clockwise In Southern Hemisphere Categorized by wind speed 41

42 Space Shuttle Program Vision of a reusable space craft to service International SpaceStation President Richard M. Nixon announced NASA wouldproceed with development ofreusable low cost space shuttlesystem. First fully functional orbiter, Columbia launched. Challenger was lost during launch. The Shuttle programwas grounded until. NASA returned to flight on with successful launch and re-entry ofDiscovery. Shuttle Discovery wasalso the first orbiter to fly afterthe Challenger accident. Columbia was lost during re- entry, once againgrounding the shuttleprogram 42 1960sJanuary 2, 1972 April 12, 1981 January 28, 1986 February 1, 2003 July 26, 2005

43 Vietnam split into North (Communist ) and South (Non- Communist) U.S. Destroyer Maddox attacked in Gulf of Tonkin U.S Support of South Vietnam US Troops moved in to fight Vietnam Conflict Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Civil War in Vietnam 43

44 Example: Episode Pattern Organizer Christopher Columbus Queen Isabella Of Spain Discovery of New World Aug. 3, 1492 – Oct. 12, 1492 Atlantic Ocean Aug. 1492 Seek a shorter, Western Route to India Colonization of the New World King Ferdinand of Spain Nina Pinta Santa Maria 44

45 45 PROBLEM = AIR POLLUTION SolutionPositiveNegative A: Anti-pollution laws Makes it illegal Public votes Court costs Lose jobs B: Boycott products Conform to rules to survive Some may not boycott C:

46 Have hair Warm-blooded Nourish young with milk Characteristics of Mammals 46

47 Hurricanes Category One – Winds 74-95 mph Weather Terms Hurricane Watch Hurricane Force Winds expected within 36 hours Hurricane Warning Hurricane Force Winds expected within 24 hours Seasonal June 1 – Nov. 30 Wind Speed Classification Category Two – Winds 96-110 mph Category Three– 111-130 Winds mph Category Four– 131-155 Winds mph Category Five – greater than 155 Winds mph 47

48 Proficient Thinkers/Readers Also… Synthesize and Retell 48

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50  Skimming  Mind Mapping  Comparison Guide Map 50

51 Vocabulary Activities  Word Sort  Connect the Words  Word Questioning  Cinquain  Password 51

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53  Find the articles: “7 Traits for a Winning Life” & “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Teens.”  Complete the Comparison Guide Map organizer individually or with a partner.  Be prepared to share with the group.  Discuss implementation uses. 53

54 Proficient Thinkers/Readers….. Monitor/Clarify understanding of text 54

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56  Anticipation/Reaction guide  QAR  Mind Mapping  Comparison Guide Map  Cornell Notes  Note-taking Using Both Sides of the Brain  Rule-based Strategy  Summary Frame 56

57 Vocabulary Tools  Three Way Tie  Connect the Words  LitFig  Four Square Vocabulary/Frayer Model  Word Questioning  Cinquain  Rate Your Knowledge  Vocabulary Tree  Memory 57

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59 "Life Is A Highway" Life's like a road that you travel on When there's one day here and the next day gone Sometimes you bend, sometimes you stand Sometimes you turn your back to the wind There's a world outside ev'ry darkened door Where blues won't haunt you anymore Where brave are free and lovers soar Come ride with me to the distant shore We won't hesitate To break down the garden gate There's not much time left today [Chorus:] Life is a highway I wanna ride it all night long If you're going my way I wanna drive it all night long 59

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61  Use your LitFig graphic organizer and the article called “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens” by Sean Covey.  With a partner, read the first paragraph and identify any example of figurative language.  Use the LitFig strategy to interpret your chosen example.  Be ready to share out with the whole group and discuss implementation uses 61

62 Connect to /Access Prior Knowledge and Develop Schema Draw Inferences and Predict Ask Questions Before, During, and After Reading Determine Importance and Summarize Visualize Synthesize and Retell Monitor and Clarify Understanding 62

63 “If we want our students to become literate, we must analyze our own literacy. We must be aware of our own processing, make that processing explicit, recognize the unique developmental needs of our students, use learning activities that meet those needs, and create an environment that nurtures learning. In this way, we stack the deck in favor of literacy learning for secondary students.” (Rozzelle & Scearce, p. 178) LEARNING TARGETS I can explain the comprehension and vocabulary tools of the KCLM. I can explain the strategies that each tool supports. I am able to embed the tools in unit and lesson planning to aid student learning. 63

64  7 Traits for a Winning Life – Mark Hansen http://www.success101forteens.com/  7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens – Sean Covey www.7habits4teens.com 64

65 Allen, Janet. Words, Words, Words. Stenhouse Publishers: 1999. Beers, Kylene. When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do. Heinemann: 2002. Klemp, R. M. (1994). “Word storm: Connecting vocabulary to the student’s database.” The Reading Teacher, 48, 282. Marzano, Robert. Classroom Instruction That Works. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: January 2002. Marzano, Robert, Barbara B. Gaddy & Ceri Dean. What Works in Classroom Instruction. McRel: August 2000. McLaughlin, M., & Allen, M.B. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A teaching model for grades 3–8. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Guided Comprehension: A teaching model for grades 3–8 MCEwan, Elaine. 7 Strategies of Highly Effective Readers. Corwin Press: 2004. Perkins, David. Teaching For Meaning. ASCD Educational Leadership: September 2004. Volume 62. Smiles, Samuel. “The Principles of Sowing and Reaping.” 1887. Zwiers, Jeff. Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12: A Toolkit of Classroom Activities. International Reading Association: 2010.


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