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Physical Activity / Physical Fitness

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1 Physical Activity / Physical Fitness
How to reap it’s benefits Unit 2-1

2 Bell Ringer "No Pain, No Gain"
Do you agree or disagree that exercise must be painful and that you have to exercise to the point of pain to reap the benefits of physical activity. Tell students that this is a myth. Pushing your body to the limits just increases your risk for injury. It also adds mental stress and takes some of the fun out of being active.

3 Health benefits of physical activity include:
Reduces risk for… -heart disease by strengthening the heart muscle -stroke (brain attack) -some types of cancer What else does it do? Health benefits of physical activity include: Reduces risk for heart disease by strengthening the heart muscle Reduces risk for stroke (brain attack) Reduces risk for some types of cancer Reduces LDL cholesterol levels ("bad" cholesterol) Raises HDL cholesterol level ("good" cholesterol) Improves blood flow Protects against osteoporosis (weakening of the bones) Increases muscle mass Strengthens immune system Decreases body fat levels by conserving muscle mass and increasing body's ability to burn calories

4 Mental/emotional benefits include:
Causes an increase in endorphins Causes an increase in serotonin levels May help prevent depression Decreases anxiety levels Releases anger, frustrations or tensions of everyday life Increases creative thinking and mental sharpness Increases energy levels Makes you feel good about yourself and increases confidence Causes an increase in endorphins (the "feel-good" chemicals in the brain responsible for mood elevation, also the body's natural pain killers) Causes an increase in serotonin levels (another feel-good chemical in the brain, associated with a sense of well-being and impulse control)

5 Social benefits include:
Opportunity to share time with friends and family Q What are some physical activities that you can enjoy throughout your life?

6 Five components of physical fitness
Aerobic endurance/cardio-respiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition

7 Cardio-respiratory Endurance/ Aerobic Fitness
1. Cardio respiratory endurance-the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to vigorous activity. Q List 5 aerobic activities. Aerobic activities include: brisk walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, aerobic dance, racket sports and rowing. Pertains to the body's ability to use oxygen. Is the combination of the respiratory system (lungs) and the circulatory system (cardio-heart and blood vessels) that provides the working muscles with enough oxygen to continue exercise for extended periods of time. Aerobic endurance allows you to last longer when participating in activities like jogging, bicycling and swimming. The more aerobic endurance people have, the easier it is for them to participate in physical activity. When exercising for aerobic endurance, you should never be breathless or exercise to the point that you cannot talk while engaging in the activity. Aerobic exercising includes activities that use the large muscle groups such as the legs and arms.

8 Muscular Strength and Endurance
2. Muscular Strength-the amount of force a muscle can exert 3. Muscular Endurance-the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued Muscular strength is the ability to exert a force against some type of resistance. Lifting a weight, picking up books from a desk and standing up from a chair are all examples of muscular strength. Strengthening the muscles allows people to lift heavier weights, pick up more books from a desk or stand up from a chair with greater ease. Muscular endurance refers to the ability to repeat muscle exertions. Sit-ups, push-ups, and squatting repeatedly are examples of muscular endurance activities. As muscular endurance increases, the ability to repeat muscle exertions also increases.

9 Flexibility and Body Composition
4. Flexibility-the ability to move a body part through a full range 5. Body composition-the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons. Flexibility is the ability to move through the full range of motion allowed by a joint. Flexibility depends on many factors, including age, gender, body fat/muscle mass ratio and exercises done to enhance flexibility. Females tend to be more flexible than males because of their body composition (body fat to muscle mass ratio). The older people get, the less flexible they become, because joint mobility decreases. The more a joint is used, the more flexible it will become. Body composition refers to percentage of body fat found in the body. The number of pounds a person weighs is not as important as body fat percentage. Women should fall within the range of 19 to 26 percent body fat, and men should fall within the range of 15 to 19 percent body fat. Women typically have a greater percentage of body fat, due to the extra energy demands placed upon their bodies during pregnancy and breast feeding-this is a natural occurrence. Several different tests can evaluate body fat percentage. Body fat percentage can be altered through a sound exercise program and healthy eating habits (those that follow the dietary guidelines).

10 Measuring Fitness Cardio-respiratory / fitness Aerobic endurance -PACER Test Muscular strength-Push Ups / Sit Ups Muscular endurance-Push Ups/ Sit Ups 4. Flexibility-Sit-and-Reach 5. Body composition-BMI

11 Improving Your Fitness
Aerobic Exercise-any activity that uses large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature, and can be maintained continuously for a least 10 minutes three times a day or for 20 to 30 minutes at one time (running, cycling, swimming, and dance) Anaerobic Exercise involves intense short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen (running 100-meter dash and lifting weights) When you do aerobic exercises, your heart rate increases and your heart sends more oxygen to your muscles to use as energy. Over time, this strengths the heart muscle, allowing it to pump blood more efficiently. Aerobic exercise also affects your respiratory system by increasing the lungs’ capacity to hold air. CAUTION: Don’t force yourself to continue an aerobic activity if you become exhausted. Before beginning a fitness program that includes aerobic activities, consult a health care professional. This is especially important if you have asthma or another respiratory disorder. It is also recommended for people with heart disease.

12 Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance
Anaerobic exercises improve muscular strength and endurance The more work the muscles do, the stronger they become Examples: Resistance or strength training Free weights, exercise machines, or your own body weight can provide resistance Resistance or strength training-builds muscles by requiring them to move in opposition to a force.

13 Increasing flexibility
Increasing flexibility is most effectively achieved through stretching Stretching lengthens the muscles The most important areas in which to maintain flexibility are the neck, shoulders, hamstring muscles, chest and hips It is important to never stretch a cold muscle Always warm up before stretching with some light activity Never bounce when stretching, and don't stretch to the point of pain

14 Improving and Maintaining Bone Strength
Healthy behavior you engage in related to Physical Activity and Nutrition can affect the health of your skeletal system now and later in life Resistance training and weight baring aerobic activities Resistance training and weight baring aerobic activities-force you to work against gravity, such as walking and stair climbing-can also help increase bone mass, strengthening your skeletal system.

15 Learning your fitness level and taking stops to improve it shows that you accept responsibility for your own health. You are the only one that has to live in your body… Take RESPONSIBILITY for it

16 Reviewing Facts and Vocab
Identify and describe the five areas of health related fitness Examine and briefly describe the relationship among body composition, diet, and fitness Examine and briefly describe the effects of resistance training on the muscular and skeletal systems

17 Thinking Critically Hudson has been doing 50 curl-ups each day. Explain what area of health-related fitness this exercise benefits. What other types of physical activities or exercises should Sam add to his routine to improve his total health related fitness. Estella, who has asthma, wants to begin an exercise program. She is thinking of signing up for a high-impact aerobic class. Is this a good strategy for Estella? Explain your answer. Curl-ups improve abdominal strength and endurance; aerobic activities, activities that build other muscle groups, and stretching activities should be added. No. She has a respiratory disease and should consult her doctor first.

18 Compare and contrast Describe the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Write a few sentences explaining how each contributes to a physical activity program. 10 minutes. Aerobic activity generally helps to strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Anaerobic exercise improves muscle strength.

19 Applying Health Skills
Help a family member determine their target heart ranges. Then make a list of aerobic activities you could do together. Determine how you all could use this information to improve your cardio- respiratory endurance. *Remember: Get a health screening before beginning an exercise program.

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