Human Resource Management Compensation and Benefits
Compensation Hot topics Compensation Management Benefits
Hot or Warm Topics Executive compensation - Are corporate executives overpaid or underpaid? Sex discrimination and comparable worth Open vs. secret pay plans Skill-based compensation plans Team vs. individual pay
Executive Compensation (2012) RankName Company Pay ($mil)5-Yr Pay ($mil)RankNameCompany5-Yr Pay ($mil) 1 John H HammergrenMcKesson131.19285.02John H Hammergren 2Ralph LaurenRalph Lauren66.65204.06Ralph Lauren 3 Michael D FascitelliVornado Realty64.40Michael D Fascitelli 4 Richard D KinderKinder Morgan60.9460.94Richard D Kinder 5 David M CoteHoneywell55.7996.11David M Cote 6 George PazExpress Scripts51.52 51 00.21George Paz 7 Jeffery H BoydPriceline.com50.18 5 90.3Jeffery H Boyd 8 Stephen J HemsleyUnitedHealth Group48.83 5 169.3Stephen J Hemsley 9 Clarence P Cazalot JrMarathon Oil43.7167.23Clarence P Cazalot Jr 10 John C MartinGilead Sciences43.19214.92John C Martin 11 John D WrenOmnicom Group42.62 5 110.41John D Wren 12 James DimonJPMorgan Chase41.99 5 140.92James Dimon http://www.forbes.com/lists/2012/12/ceo-compensation-12_land.html
Executive Compensation (2008) Average compensation for 200 chief executives at America's largest public companies was $10.8 million Sanjay Jha Motorola $104.4 million Larry EllisonOracle$84.6 million Robert IgerWalt Disney$51.1 million Kenneth ChenaultAmerican Express$42.8 million Vikram PanditCitigroup$38.2 million Mark HurdHewlett-Packard$34.0 million Jack FuscoCalpine$32.7 million Rupert MurdochNews Corp.$30.1 million David CoteHoneywell International$28.7 million A.G. LafleyProcter & Gamble$25.6 million
CEO Compensation Compared to Average Production Worker 2011380 to 1 2007344 to 1 2006364 to 1 2005465 to 1 2004431 to 1 2003301 to 1 2001525 to 1 1990107 to 1 1982 42 to 1 1970 28 to 1 Since 1990, if the minimum wage rate had risen at the same rate as CEO pay, minimum wage would now be $23.03 instead of $7.25. http://money.cnn.com/2012/04/19/news/economy/ceo-pay/index.htm/
Europe's 25 Highest-Paid CEOs(2005) 1. Lindsay Owen-Jones, L'Oreal (France), $28.3M 2. John Browne, BP (Britain), $14.0M 3. Arun Sarin, Vodaphone (Britain), $12.2M 4. Henri De Castries, AXA (France), $9.1M 5. Josef Ackermann, Deutsche Bank (Germany), $8.4M http://www.timeinc.net/fortune/information/presscenter/fortune/press_releases/2 0050627H_europe.html (2013)Euros Martin WinterkornVolkswagen (VW)16,596,206 Joseph JimenezNovartis12,544,596 Alfredo Saenz AbadBank of Santander10,723,000 Bernard ArnaultLVMH10,696,670 Peter VoserRoyal Dutch Shell10,208,000 http://www.topafric.com/index.php/en/site-map/421-top-10-best- paid-ceos-in-europe.html
% ChangeCEO Pay/Relative to 1988-2005Worker Pay (2005)*US CEO (2005) Australia 292% 15.6 33% Belgium 157 18 46 Canada 152 23.1 49 France 197 22.8 56 Germany 187 20.1 55 Italy 232 25.9 53 Japan 8 10.8 25 Netherlands118 17.8 40 New Zealand -- 24.9 18 Spain 98 17.2 32 Sweden 304 19.2 44 Switzerland172 19.3 64 UK161 31.8 55 US16939 * Ratio of CEO compensation to the compensation of manufacturing production workers. Source: Authors’ analysis of Towers Perrin (1988, 2003, and 2005).
Median Annual Earnings of Full- time Workers (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2000 census) Physicians, surgeons$140,000 88,000 Lawyers 90,000 66,000 Judges, magistrates 88,000 50,000 Actuaries 80,000 56,000 Pharmacists 70,000 63,000 Teacher assistants 20,000 15,000 Cooks 17.000 15,000 MaleFemale http://gblakely.com/BADM553/censr-15.pdf
Compensation Goals Attracting good employees Retaining good employees Motivating employees Complying with the law Having a cost effective compensation system
Compensation and the Three Equities External Equity Attracting good employees Internal Equity Retaining good employees Individual or Employee Equity Motivating employees
External Equity Attracting good employees Labor Market Model Market Surveys http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_data_occupa tional_data.htm http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_nat.h tm http://swz.salary.com/ Pay strategy/policies
Internal Equity Retaining good employees Job Evaluation General Basis Skill Effort Responsibility Working Conditions
Internal Equity Job Evaluation Techniques Ranking Jobs are compared to each other based on their overall worth to the company. The ‘worth’ of a job is usually measured by judgments of skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions. The advantage of the ranking method is that it is simple. The disadvantages, similar to the ranking method of performance appraisal, are that the intervals between the ranks are assumed to be equal, the judgments are global, and as the number of jobs for evaluation increases it becomes increasingly difficult. Also, the evaluators must have knowledge of all jobs.
Classification method Jobs are classified into a grade/category structure. Each tier of the structure has a description and associated job titles. For example, the Westinghouse system had: –Grade 1 Unskilled ex. File clerk –Grade 2 Skilled ex. Typist, lathe operator –Grade 3 Interpretive ex. Chief clerk –Grade 4 Creative ex. Engineers, sales reps –Grade 5 Executive ex. Department heads –Grade 6 Administrative ex. Chief engineer, Director of R&D –Grade 7 Policy ex. Vice-president of Marketing Each job is assigned to the grade/category providing the closest match to the job. Standards are developed mainly along occupational lines. The standards help identify and describe key characteristics of occupations that are important for distinguishing different levels of work. Pay ranges are then assigned to grades. –See http://www.opm.gov/oca/08tables/html/gs.asp The advantages of this method are that it is simple and has been in use for many years. Its disadvantages include the fact that classification judgments are subjective, and the standard used for comparison may have built-in biases. Also, some jobs may fit into more than one grade/category or their descriptions are so broad that they do not relate to specific jobs.
Factor Comparison Select benchmark jobs. Sets of compensable factors are identified as determining the worth of jobs. The number of factors is usually four or five and typically relate to skill, responsibility, effort and working conditions. Jobs are then ranked on each factor. Wages are then allocated to the factors. The organization’s other jobs are then compared to the benchmark jobs and rates of pay for each of the other jobs. Factor comparison has the advantage that the value of the job is expressed in monetary terms, and the method is applicable to a wide range of jobs. The method’s disadvantages are that the pay points for each factor is based on subjective judgments.
Point Method The point method is an extension of the factor comparison method. Usually between eight and fourteen compensable factors (typically related to skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions) are identified as determining the worth of jobs. –Examples of compensable factors include »education, experience, knowledge, physical demands, mental demands, responsibility for equipment & work processes, responsibility for materials & products, responsibility for safety, responsibility for the work of others, responsibility for financial resources, job hazards, etc. Factors are divided into degrees Points are assigned the degrees Benchmark jobs are compared to market rates
Point Method continued – The Hay Method Know-how Problem Solving Accountability
Individual or Employee Equity Motivating performance
JOB ATTRIBUTE RANKING Please rank, from 1 to 10 in order of importance, with 1 being the most important, the following job attributes. In the first column indicate the rank in terms of your own preferences and in the second column indicate how you think others will rank these same job attributes. Your RankingOthers' Ranking Advancement__________ Benefits__________ Company__________ Co-workers__________ Hours__________ Pay__________ Job Security__________ Supervisor__________ Type of Work__________ Working Conditions__________
JOB ATTRIBUTE RANKING The following median rankings are based on the responses of 39,788 job applicants (Minneapolis Gas Company). (Minneapolis Gas Company). MEN WOMEN MEN WOMEN SelfOthersSelfOthers Advancement188.8.131.52.3 Benefits6.85.28.05.9 Company184.108.40.206.1 Co-workers6.07.75.27.3 Hours220.127.116.11.0 Pay5.62.16.02.1 Job Security18.104.22.168.4 Supervisor22.214.171.124.0 Type of Work126.96.36.199.5 Working Conditions188.8.131.52.8
What Do Workers Want From Their Jobs? Supervisors Workers Good working conditions 49 Feeling "in" on things 10 2 Tactful disciplining 710 Full appreciation for work done 81 Management loyalty to workers 68 Good wages 15 Promotion and growth with company 37 Sympathetic understanding of personal problems 93 Job security 24 Interesting work 56 1 = most important in job 10 = least important in job (From Lawrence Lindahl, " What Makes a Good Job?", Personnel, (January 1949)
What do new graduates value in jobs? Company culture 6.2 Advancement opportunities 6.0 Nature of work (e.g., challenging)5.9 Training provided 5.7 Work/non-work balance 5.5 Monetary compensation 5.3 Benefits 5.2 Location 5.0 Vacation time 4.6 Level of job security 3.9 Size of company 3.7 International assignments 3.3 Rated on seven point scale (1 = not important to 7 = very important). Source: Human Resource Management (2003), 42, p. 23-37.
What do applicants with college degrees want in jobs? 19931978 Type of work 2.2 1.5 Advancement 4.6 3.6 Co-workers 5.1 5.2 Company 5.7 4.4 Security 5.8 5.5 Location 6.2 Supervisor 6.35.5 Pay 6.3 5.2 Working conditions 7.27.2 Benefits 7.47.9 Hours 9.38.0 1993 sample = 623, 1978 sample = 4,535 Source: Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology (2003), 66, p. 71-81
Individual or Employee Equity Motivating performance At the individual level Pluses and minuses Methods/techniques At the organization level Pluses and minuses Methods/techniques
Compensation and the Legal Environment The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 Minimum Wage Exempt vs. Non-exempt and overtime http://www.ewin.com/articles/exneot.htm http://www.dol.gov/elaws/esa/flsa/screen75. asp As of 2005, $23,660/year are exempt if they have some “professional, administrative, or executive duties” The Equal Pay Act of 1963
Benefits The Cost of Benefits Mandatory Workers’ Compensation http://www.wvinsurance.gov/Default.aspx?tabid=73 Unemployment Insurance Family Medical Leave Social Security http://www.ssa.gov/http://www.ssa.gov/ Retirement income Disability income Medicare Survivor benefits 2010 rates –Social security 6.2% on first $106,800 –Medicare 1.45% unlimited
Benefits Non-mandatory Insurance Health –Cost escalation –COBRA –HIPAA –Types of health insurance »Traditional indemnity plans »HMO »PPO Retirement ERISA (1974) –Vesting »Full vesting after 5 years »20% per year after 3 years –Fiduciary standards –Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation Defined benefit Defined contribution –401(k), 403(b) »http://invest-faq.com/articles/ret-plan-401k.htmlhttp://invest-faq.com/articles/ret-plan-401k.html –IRA –SEP –Keogh http://www.dallasfed.org/ca/wealth/3.html http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/faqs/faq_compliance_pension.html
Benefits continued Paid time off Employee services