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MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY REVIEW

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Presentation on theme: "MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY REVIEW"— Presentation transcript:

1 MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY REVIEW
14/2/2013

2 HISTORY Mrs M / 72y.o /malay Underlying DM/HPT and IHD under KK f/up
Pt’s meds T gliclazide 80mg bd T metformin 1g bd T amlodipine 5mg od T metoprolol 100mg bd T digoxin 0.25mg od T lovastatin 20mg ON

3 Case referred from Hosp Setiu on 17/1/13
Pt alleged flame burn injury at 2 pm on the day of admission She went to her son’s workshop when a fire sparked from the welding apparatus. She was caught on fire from the petrol Premorbidly ADL independent had on and off palpitation Denied chest pain, sob and failure sx NYHA I-II

4 Physical examination Alert, conscious, pink, afebrile GCS 15/15
BP: 205/108  140/98 (after T adalat 10mg stat) PR: 120  88bpm Spo2 100% Lungs clear, equal air entry CVS irregular rhythm PA: soft

5 Deep partial thickness burn injury at Rt lower limbs fr foot up to whole thigh
Partial thickness burn injury at Lt LL from foot up to whole thigh involving perineum Mixed partial thickness burn at ant part of torso including both nipples Superficial partial thickness burn at left hand up to wrist Partial thickness burn at right hand

6 Deep partial thickness 17.5
Superficial partial thickness 25.5 Total area 43% TBSA ASSESSMENT Alleged flame burn injury with 43% partial and full thickness burn injury over both LL, perineum and ant chest

7 Investigations Ix from hosp setiu Twcc 16.7 / hb 6.9 / plat 267
BUSE: 3.4 / 128 / 3.1 / 96 PT/PTTK/INR: 13.9 / 21.2 / 0.95 ECG: atrial flutter

8 CARE PLAN IVD HM 500ml/H till 10pm then 355ml/h till 2pm cm Daily SSD dressing and CMC ointment Hourly circulation chart FM 5L/min Strict I/O chart High protein diet

9 18/1/13 Premed review BP: 151/97, HR: 104, SPO2 100%
ECG showed Atrial fibrillation, CXR showed cardiomegaly Pb list Alleged flame injury with 43% partial and full thickness burn injury over both lower limbs, perineum and ant chest AF, rate control Underlying Dm, HPT classified as ASA II Anaest plan: GA with IPPV

10

11 Medical review Premorbidly well D’scan 15  13 Medical plan QID d’scan
Add s/c actrapid 6u tds Add s/c insulatard 10u ON Add captopril 12.5mg tds

12 20/1/13 Operation done under GA
Operation: WD, euro skin application and dressing Time of op: 12:56 – 14:57 Intraop: cardiac monitor showed Atrial fibrillation with HR EBL 800ml fluid given 2.5L (4 pints crystalloid and 1 pint WB) Post op order: admit ward with FMO2 5L/min IVD 2 pints NS 2 pints HM

13 …cont At 11.45pm, noted pt become drowsy
D’scan 1.8  given D50% 50ml + RTF peptamen 250ml  rpt d’scan 5.6 Otherwise, GCS full, but pt not taken orally well since post op Documented urine output 0.5ml/kg/h Plan Change IVD to 4 pint D5% Start RTF 250ml/4Hly D’scan Hly then 4Hly

14 21/1/13 3.00 am Pt developed desaturation. Spo2 90% under HFOM, BP 156/91, HR 120 Given T digoxin 0.5mg stat D’scan 10.3 Lungs: crept up to bilat UZ ECG showed AF with HR 130bpm Plan IV lasix 20mg stat reduce IVD 2 pint D5% Withhold RTF

15 Urine output 400ml post IV lasix 20mg
Lung transmitted sound, crepts MZ RR 24 Plan Reduced IVD 1pint D5% Another 10mg IV lasix

16 7am Pt become more tachypneoic SPO2 80-85% under HFOM
On oral suction noted yellowish fluid RT aspirate >150ml undigested milk Clinically drowsy BP 123/56 HR 95 RR 25 SPO2 on manual bagging 85% Lungs: gen crepts Plan : refer anaest for airway protection

17 Anaest referral Refer by plastic team for acute respiratory distress ? Secondary to aspiration / atelectasis Upon attended by anaest MO, SPO2 patient on manual bagging only 85% Clinically pt drowsy, open eyes spontaneously, not obey command, tachypneoic (RR 25) BP: 110/60. PR 100. afebrile lung: gen crepts

18 Acute resp distress ? Secondary to aspiration / post op atelectasis
ABG pH 7.31 pCO2 42 PO2 99 HCO3 21 BE -2 SPO2 98% ECG sinus tachycardia TWCC ; 16 Impression Alleged flame burn injury with 43% partial and full thickness burn injury Acute resp distress ? Secondary to aspiration / post op atelectasis Geriatric with multiple comorbid – DM/HPT/AF

19 ICU admission Pt on sedation mida/morphine Warm peripheries
BP 144/66, HR 126 IX reviewed ECG: atrial fibrillation CXR: pneumonic patch Bedside ECHO: dilated all chambers, global hypokinesia

20

21 Problem list Alleged flame injury with 43% partial and full thickness burn injury over both lower limbs, perineum and ant chest – D1 post WD, euro skin application and dressing Fluid overload possible of CCF Underlying DM,HPT, IHD, AF

22 Plan Start IV cefepime 2g tds IV MGSO4 10mmol stat Mist KCL 15mls tds
T digoxin 0.25mg od T lovastatin 20mg ON IVD HsD5% 80ml/h Sedate with mida/fentanyl Put on bilevel fio2 1, HPEEP 30, LPEEP 14, f 10, PS 10 Keep urine output >30mls/h

23 2pm BP progressively severe hypotensive
BP: 74/39, HR 144 Require step up inotropic support Inf noradrenaline 40mls/h Inf Dopamine 10mls/h Inf Dobutamine 5mls/h ABG : refractory hypoxia on high setting bilevel pH 7.25, pCO2 41.6, pO2 43.9, spo2 77.8, HCO3 15.4, BE -10, lactate 7.5

24

25 3pm Still in refractory hypotensive and hypoxia
Given multiple IV adrenaline boluses BP: 62/30, HR 110 Gasping , self sedated Pupils bilaterally dilated ASSESSMENT severe septicaemic shock with underlying poor cardiac reserve

26 Pronounced death at 3.55pm

27 Investigations Full blood count BUSE/CREAT 17/1/13 21/1/13 hb 13.6
11.3 11.7 plat 212 151 98 twcc 21.4 5.6 1 19/1/13 20/1/13 21/1/13 urea 5.7 4.6 3.6 3.7 sodium 127 135 131 potassium 4.7 4.2 3.8 chloride 99 106 104 creatinine 51 36 29 46

28 Investigations Full blood count BUSE/CREAT 17/1/13 21/1/13 hb 13.6
11.3 11.7 plat 212 151 98 twcc 21.4 5.6 1 19/1/13 20/1/13 21/1/13 urea 5.7 4.6 3.6 3.7 sodium 127 135 131 potassium 4.7 4.2 3.8 chloride 99 106 104 creatinine 51 36 29 46

29 Phospate : 0.78 Magnesium : 0.43 Calcium 1.70 RBS : 2.6 PT/PTTK/INR
20/1/13 21/1/13 PT 14.1 14 >60 INR 1.06 1.05 >4.44 PTTK 35.4 46.6 >120

30 LFT C&S Tissue C&S (17/1/13) : NG Urine C&S (21/1/13) : NG
Blood C&S (21/1/13) : klebsiella pneumonia Multisensitivity. Resistant ONLY to ampicillin 21/1/13 A/G 0.6 0.5 ALB 19 12 ALP 68 53 ALT 16 13 GLO 31 23 TB 7 10 TP 50 35

31 DISCUSSION

32 The depth of burn is documented as partial or full thickness
Burn assessment The depth of burn is documented as partial or full thickness The extent of burns is assessed using Wallace Rule of 9 in adult Lund browder chart in children The palm of pt’s hand represents ~1% of pt’s BSA

33 Classification of burn

34 Wallace rule of 9 Lund & Browder charts

35 Fluid regime Parkland’s formula Start time = time of burn injury
Total fluid requirement in the first 24H = 4 x pt’s weight (kg) x % TBSA Infuse the first half in the first 8h Infuse the rest in the next 16H Start time = time of burn injury Fluid of choice = hartmann’s solution

36 Adequate resuscitation is monitored by vital parameters and urine output 0.5 – 1ml/kg/h
If urine output falls below 0.5ml/kg/h a bolus of 10ml/kg body weight can be given If urine output >2ml/kg/h the rate of infusion should be reduced

37 Next 24H Total volume = ½ of the first day Colloids (o.5ml/kg/%) and 5% glucose or isotonic glucose saline to make up the rest

38 Consequences of burns Early consequences Permanent disfigurement
Renal failure (acute tubular necrosis d/t hypovolaemia , haemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria) Resp failure (smoke inhalation, airway obstruction, ARDS) Catabolism and nutritional depletion Venous thrombosis Curling’s ulcer and erosive gastritis Short term consequences Early consequences Permanent disfigurement Prolonged hospitalization Psychological problem Impaired function Long term consequences Hypovolaemia (loss of protein, fluid and electrolytes) Metabolic derangements hyponatraemia followed by risk of hypernatraemia, hyperkalaemia followed by hypokalaemia) Sepsis Hemolysis with anemia hypothermia

39 CVS: Acute phase: transient decrease in cardiac output d/t hypovolaemia, depressed myocardial function , increased blood viscosity and release of vasoactive substance causing poor organ and tissu perfusion Second phase (metabolic phase) :after 48H  increased blood flow

40 Resp Early compl : 0-24H – carbon monoxide poisoning and direct inhalational injury  airway obstruction and pulm edem Delayed 2-5days: adult resp distress syndrome Late: days to weeks – pneumonia, atelectasis and pulm emboli

41 Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in older adults with burn injury
By Tam N. Pham et al. J burn care res jan –feb; 31(1) ‘ 105 – 110 Older adult with burns are at risk for worse outcomes because of factors related to age, comorbidities and response to treatment Pneumonia is the most common infection in hospitalizes burn patients and is frequently assoc with death

42 Respiratory complications in burns: an evolving spectrum of injury
Boots, Robert J et all, clinical pulmonary medicine: may 2009 – vol 16 – issue 3 – pp Respiratory complications associated with burn injury are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and occur in up to 41% of patients admitted to hospital after thermal injury Inhalation injury can be due to a combination of thermal, chemical and systemic effects and is the most significant complication in the early phase post burn injury (first 48hours), predisposing the patient to the development of pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia

43 Prognosis of burn Age and general condition Extent of the burn
1 2 3 4 5 Age and general condition Extent of the burn Depth of the burn Site of the burn Assoc respiratory injury

44 Thank you

45 Points to learn Detail hx taking in burn case Clinical examination:
Facial and neck involvement Surrounding area: close vs open Clinical examination: Sx of burn smoke Sx of airway involvement: difficult articulation, change of voice, stridor Proper ASA classification Proper intraop management Invasive monitoring Fluid management Major burn : >10% in children, >15% in adult Major burn case admit icu – ventilated for airway protection/post op Proper burn management – inhalational, chem,etc Parkland formula is just a guide. Resuscitation must be based on pt’s cond and monitoring


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