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Why are commas important? Items in a series Independent clauses Introductory elements Interrupters Conventional uses of commas Review A Review B Using.

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Presentation on theme: "Why are commas important? Items in a series Independent clauses Introductory elements Interrupters Conventional uses of commas Review A Review B Using."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why are commas important? Items in a series Independent clauses Introductory elements Interrupters Conventional uses of commas Review A Review B Using Commas

2 Why are commas important? Problem: Unnecessary commas Amy, and I put a DVD, and a fashion catalog, in the time capsule, and, then, our friend, Jack, added a miniature, flashlight. Commas help make the meaning of a sentence clear by setting apart elements in the sentence. Too many commas can clutter a sentence and confuse readers.

3 Why are commas important? Problem: Missing commas Derek Lucia and Ben are making spaghetti squash spinach salad and garlic bread for dinner. Missing commas may also confuse readers. Is Derek being spoken to, or is he one of the people making dinner? Are they making spaghetti squash? Or spaghetti and also squash? Are they making a spinach salad? Or spinach and also a salad?

4 Why are commas important? With commas placed correctly, the meaning of the sentence is now clear. Derek, Lucia, and Ben are making spaghetti, squash, spinach salad, and garlic bread for dinner. [End of Section]

5 Items in a series Use commas to separate items in a series. Words in a series Phrases in a series She had been a correspondent for the wire service in London, Paris, Rome, and Madrid. I studied for the test on the way to school, during homeroom, and in study hall.

6 Items in a series Use commas to separate items in a series. Clauses in a series The reporter wanted to know who I was, where I went to school, and how I felt about getting my driver’s license.

7 If all the items in a series are joined by and, or, or nor, do not use commas to separate them. Items in a series Bring the paint and some brushes and a roller. Daryl or Juan or Yvette will represent the senior class.

8 Items in a series Use commas to separate items in a series. Short independent clauses I drove to the store, I bought the groceries, and I drove right home. Two or more adjectives preceding a noun Did you see that boring, silly, worthless movie?

9 To determine whether to use a comma between two adjectives, insert and between the adjectives. If and fits sensibly between them, use a comma. Items in a series It was a crisp and clear and autumn day. And sounds sensible between crisp and clear but not between clear and autumn. It was a crisp, clear autumn day.

10 1.Armando sang danced and juggled in the talent show. 2.Sal is an eager willing able young man. 3.My parents always ask me where I’m going who will be there and when I’ll be home. Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary. Items in a series 4.I’ll draw the plans Clay will get the supplies and Kerry will build the fountain.

11 1.Armando sang danced and juggled in the talent show., Items in a series Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary., Use commas to separate words in a series.

12 2.Sal is an eager willing able young man. Items in a series Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary.,, Use commas to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun.

13 3.My parents always ask me where I’m going who will be there and when I’ll be home.,, Items in a series Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary. Use commas to separate clauses in a series.

14 4.I’ll draw the plans Clay will get the supplies and Kerry will build the fountain.,, Items in a series Identify each series in the following sentences, and add commas where necessary. Use commas to separate short independent clauses.

15 On Your Own Items in a series Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.My father has worked as a teacher a librarian and a computer programmer. 2.Should we go to the mall to the park or to Yoko’s house? 3.Mel washed the dishes took out the trash and mowed the huge overgrown front yard. [End of Section]

16 Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.My father has worked as a teacher a librarian and a computer programmer. 2.Should we go to the mall to the park or to Yoko’s house? 3.Mel washed the dishes took out the trash and mowed the huge overgrown front yard. Items in a series Answers,,,,,,,

17 Independent clauses Use a comma before and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet when it joins independent clauses.independent clauses We looked for seats, but the subway car was crowded. Amy followed the recipe carefully, for she had never made paella before. The sky looks clear, yet rain has been forecast.

18 An independent clause has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. We Subject Verb lookedfor seats. The subway carwas SubjectVerb An independent clause can stand by itself as a sentence. Independent clauses crowded.

19 Do not be fooled by compound verbs, which can make a sentence look like a compound sentence. Do not use a comma between the parts of a compound verb. Independent clauses Dad ordered the new coat but then changed his mind. One subject with a compound verb.

20 1.Are you busy Friday night or would you like to go to the movies? 2.I am eating dinner now but will call you back later. Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 3.We shivered and clutched our jackets close for the wind had picked up. Independent clauses

21 1.Are you busy Friday night or would you like to go to the movies? Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed., M Independent clauses The word or joins two independent clauses, so it should be preceded by a comma.

22 Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. C Independent clauses 2.I am eating dinner now but will call you back later. This sentence has a single subject, I, and a compound verb. It does not have two independent clauses, so no comma is needed before but.

23 3.We shivered and clutched our jackets close for the wind had picked up. Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. M, Independent clauses The word for joins two independent clauses, so it should be preceded by a comma.

24 On Your Own Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Quilting is a practical folk art and it is also a relaxing and enjoyable pastime. 2.They did not go to sleep nor did they stop talking that first night in the college dorm. 3.I knew my part well and was prepared yet I felt nervous about opening night. [End of Section] Independent clauses

25 Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Quilting is a practical folk art and it is also a relaxing and enjoyable pastime. 2.They did not go to sleep nor did they stop talking that first night in the college dorm. 3.I knew my part well and was prepared yet I felt nervous about opening night. Answers,,, Independent clauses

26 Introductory elements Use a comma to set off certain introductory elements. Well, have you come up with a plan for this evening? Yes, I want to finish my birdhouse. Mild exclamations such as well, oh, or why Introductory words such as yes and no

27 Introductory elements Use a comma to set off certain introductory elements. Looking poised and calm, Jill walked to the podium. Introductory participial phrases Near the beginning of the trail, the scout leader found an overturned canoe. Two or more introductory prepositional phrases or one long one.

28 The participial phrase looking poised and calm modifies the noun Jill. The participial phrase hidden by the dense brush modifies the noun rabbit. Introductory elements A participial phrase is used as an adjective and consists of a participle and any complements or modifiers the participle has. Looking poised and calm, Jill walked to the podium. participle Looking poised and calm, Jill walked to the podium. participial phrase Hidden by the dense brush, the rabbit sat absolutely still. participleparticipial phrase

29 Introductory elements A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. near the beginning of the trail prep. object of the prep. prep. object of the prep. near the beginning of the trail to the Oakridge Public Library prep. object of the prep. to the Oakridge Public Library

30 Introductory elements Use a comma to set off certain introductory elements. Introductory adverb clauses As he turned the key, the engine started.

31 Introductory elements An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.subordinate clause As he turned the key, the engine started. Adverb clauses generally tell how, when, where, why, how, how much, to what extent, or under what circumstances the action of the verb takes place. As he turned the key tells when the engine started.

32 Introductory elements A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a sentence. after they tuned their instruments which damages crops every year What happened after they tuned their instruments? What damages the crops?

33 1.As I walked into the house the phone rang. 2.Yes we can give you a refund. Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. Introductory elements 3.Trailing in the fourth quarter our team was able to come from behind to win the game. 4.In the morning she always walks the dog.

34 Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. Introductory elements M 1.As I walked into the house the phone rang., As I walked into the house is an introductory adverb clause and should be set off by a comma.

35 2.Yes we can give you a refund. M Introductory elements Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed., Introductory words such as yes and no are set off by a comma.

36 Introductory elements M Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 3.Trailing in the fourth quarter our team was able to come from behind to win the game., Trailing in the fourth quarter is an introductory participial phrase and should be set off by a comma.

37 Introductory elements C Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 4.In the morning she always walks the dog. The single, short introductory prepositional phrase In the morning does not require a comma.

38 Introductory elements On Your Own Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Sleeping soundly Ben did not hear the car pull away. 2.Why those flowers are just beautiful, aren’t they? 3.By the end of the second day of school Josie had already made several new friends. 4.If you want to volunteer for the Special Olympics sign up here. [End of Section]

39 Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Sleeping soundly Ben did not hear the car pull away. 2.Why those flowers are just beautiful, aren’t they? 3.By the end of the second day of school Josie had already made several new friends. 4.If you want to volunteer for the Special Olympics sign up here. Introductory elements Answers,,,,

40 Interrupters Use commas to set off elements that interrupt the sentence. Marie Curie, who studied radioactivity, won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in Nonessential clauses or phrases Nonessential clause The kitten, frightened by the thunder, jumped into my lap. Nonessential phrase

41 Interrupters A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) clause or phrase adds information that is not necessary to the main idea in the sentence. Removing the nonessential clause does not change the main idea of the sentence. Marie Curie, who studied radioactivity, won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1911.

42 Interrupters Use commas to set off elements that interrupt the sentence. The Jacobs’ cat, Sophie, is shy around new people. Nonessential appositives and appositive phrases Nonessential appositive Tyrell, my oldest nephew, plays the saxophone. Nonessential appositive phrase

43 Interrupters A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) appositive or appositive phrase provides information that is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. The Jacobs’ cat, Sophie, is shy around new people. Removing the nonessential appositive does not change the meaning of the sentence. The Jacobs’ cat is shy around new people.

44 Interrupters Use commas to set off elements that interrupt the sentence. Everyone, do you have your artworks ready to turn in? Direct address Your painting, Andy, is very original. Please show us your sketches, Amanda.

45 Parenthetical expressions Interrupters Use commas to set off elements that interrupt the sentence. On the contrary, exercise is usually relaxing. My grandfather, by the way, created these colorful sand paintings. Jameson was the first of the seniors to solve the puzzle, naturally.

46 Interrupters Parenthetical expressions are side remarks that add information or relate ideas. Commonly Used Parenthetical Expressions after allgenerally speakingnevertheless at any ratehoweverof course consequentlyI believeon the contrary for examplein the first placeon the other hand for instancemoreovertherefore

47 1.I think Dan my twin brother has a new job. 2.Please answer the phone Deborah. Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. Interrupters 3.Students going on the trip tomorrow will meet in the auditorium. 4.Our car which is more than seven years old does not start on cold mornings.

48 1.I think Dan my twin brother has a new job., Interrupters M, Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. My twin brother is a nonessential appositive phrase, so it should be set off by commas.

49 M Interrupters Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 2.Please answer the phone Deborah., Deborah is used in direct address, so it should be set off by a comma.

50 Interrupters C Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 3.Students going on the trip tomorrow will meet in the auditorium. The participial phrase going on the trip tomorrow is not set off by commas because it is essential, not nonessential.

51 Interrupters M Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 4.Our car which is more than seven years old does not start on cold mornings. Which is more than seven years old is a nonessential clause, so it should be set off by commas.,,

52 Interrupters On Your Own Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Have you seen Mr. Welch our new accounting teacher? 2.The Youngstown Greek Festival which includes food and dancing is a popular local event. 3.Please listen class while Jim makes an announcement. 4.His mother by the way is a physics professor. [End of Section]

53 Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.Have you seen Mr. Welch our new accounting teacher? 2.The Youngstown Greek Festival which includes food and dancing is a popular local event. 3.Please listen class while Jim makes an announcement. 4.His mother by the way is a physics professor. Interrupters Answers,,,,,,,

54 Conventional uses of commas Use commas in certain conventional situations. On Monday, January 28, 2008, I bought my pet guinea pig. Separate items in dates and addresses They have lived at 108 Griffith Lane, Bethesda, Maryland, for ten years.

55 Conventional uses of commas Use commas in certain conventional situations. Dear Dale and Amy, After the salutation of a personal letter After the closing of any letter My dear Jessica, Sincerely yours,Warmest regards,

56 Conventional uses of commas Use commas in certain conventional situations. Our guest speaker today is Lauren Henson, M.D. Abbreviations such as Jr., Sr., or M.D. when they follow persons’ names Peter Grundel, Jr., has made several documentary films.

57 1.Beginning Monday June 10 please address all correspondence to 236 Meadowlark Lane, Omaha NE Kevin Harris Sr. will be retiring from the police force on January Conventional uses of commas 3.The letter was signed, “Regards, Marianne Peltier.” Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed.

58 1.Beginning Monday June 10 please address all correspondence to 236 Meadowlark Lane Omaha NE , Conventional uses of commas M, Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed.,, Use a comma to separate items in dates and addresses.

59 M Conventional uses of commas Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. 2.Kevin Harris Sr. will be retiring from the police force on January ,,, Use commas to set off abbreviations such as Jr., Sr., and M.D. when they follow persons’ names. Use a comma to separate items in dates.

60 3.The letter was signed, “Regards, Marianne Peltier.” Conventional uses of commas C Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the comma where needed. Use a comma after the closing of any letter.

61 Conventional uses of commas On Your Own Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.The Reyes family is moving to 1410 Tara Drive Greensboro North Carolina. 2.The letter began, “Dear Georgina How have you been?” 3.On August the new museum will have its grand opening. 4.Cecile Wong M.D. is our family doctor. [End of Section]

62 Add commas where needed in the following sentences. 1.The Reyes family is moving to 1410 Tara Drive Greensboro North Carolina. 2.The letter began, “Dear Georgina How have you been?” 3.On August the new museum will have its grand opening. 4.Cecile Wong M.D. is our family doctor. Conventional uses of commas Answers,,,,,,,

63 Review A Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the commas where needed. _____ 1.The waiting room was decorated in warm subtle earth tones so I felt relaxed there. _____ 2.Everyone wanted to know who he was what he wanted and how long he intended to stay. _____ 3.People who are overly nervous may not make good drivers. _____ 4.If we are going to finish on time we will need more volunteers I believe. [End of Section]

64 Tell whether the following items are missing commas (M) or are correct as is (C). For items missing commas, add the commas where needed. _____ 1.The waiting room was decorated in warm subtle earth tones so I felt relaxed there. _____ 2.Everyone wanted to know who he was what he wanted and how long he intended to stay. _____ 3.People who are overly nervous may not make good drivers. _____ 4.If we are going to finish on time we will need more volunteers I believe. Review A M M C,,,,, M,

65 Review B [End of Section] Add commas where necessary in the following sentences. 1.Before the start of the concert the musicians tuned their instruments. 2.Geometry which I took last year was not an easy subject for me. 3.The letter was dated June and was mailed from Washington D.C. 4.Hoping to meet Oprah Winfrey we got tickets to a taping of her show. 5.John Buse the president of our class asked me to sell tickets for the benefit concert.

66 Add commas where necessary in the following sentences. 1.Before the start of the concert the musicians tuned their instruments. 2.Geometry which I took last year was not an easy subject for me. 3.The letter was dated June and was mailed from Washington D.C. 4.Hoping to meet Oprah Winfrey we got tickets to a taping of her show. 5.John Buse the president of our class asked me to sell tickets for the benefit concert. Review B,,,,,,,,,

67 The End


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