Presentation on theme: "V IEWS OF T EACHER C ANDIDATES ON THE U SE OF C ONCEPT C ARTOONS IN S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY C OURSE Teacher Merve EVSEN DÜZGÜN Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nil DUBAN."— Presentation transcript:
V IEWS OF T EACHER C ANDIDATES ON THE U SE OF C ONCEPT C ARTOONS IN S CIENCE AND T ECHNOLOGY C OURSE Teacher Merve EVSEN DÜZGÜN Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nil DUBAN AFYON KOCATEPE UNIVERSITY TÜRKİYE
INTRODUCTION The first Concept Cartoons were created by Brenda Keogh and Stuart Naylor in 1991. A brief outline of the Concept Cartoon strategy was first published in 1993 (Keogh & Naylor, 1993). The purpose for creating them was as a strategy to elicit learners’ ideas, challenge their thinking and support learners in developing their understanding. Concept cartoons are found to be valuable due to their feature of making the situation problematic by showing alternative ways of looking it. In this way, concept cartoons help students to question their thoughts, consider other perspectives which might contradict to their views and solve this problem out.
This concept cartoon addressing the effect of placing a coat on a snowman.
The aim of this study is to identify the views of the teacher candidates about concept cartoons used in Science and Technology Courses.
M ETHOD In the current study, qualitative research method was used. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews.
The participants of the study were selected via criterion sampling. The working group was the 4th grade students who are training in Department of Elementary Teacher Training at Afyon Kocatepe University. The criteria of the current research is to taken the courses of “Science and Technology Teaching-I” and “Science and Technology Teaching-II” by participants. Content analysis was used in the analysis of the data.
In order to establish internal validity, the developed interview form was analyzed by field specialists. Then the items of the form were reorganized based on the views of the specialists and the form was finalized. In order to establish external validity, the form was used in a pilot study with one teacher. The answers given to the items were recorded and transcribed. Then the correlation between items and answers was analyzed in terms of the appropriateness of the items.
According to the content analysis method, these transcripts of records were analyzed by the authors independently and then coded. Next, the codings by the authors were compared and the reliability was determined using the reliability formula developed by Miles and Huberman (1994): “Reliability = Agreement/(Agreement +Disagreement)”. The reliability of the interviews was found to be 92 %.
While giving direct quotations, nick names are used. The themes were developed based on the questions asked in the interviews. Related codes obtained in the data analysis were used as sub-themes and categories.
f (a) funy (b) visual (c) useful c.1. create cognitive balance, c.2. materialize the ideas, c.3. they create a context of discussion and learning (d) used for multiple purposes 14 11 10 7 Table 1: Characteristics of Concept Cartoons FINDINGS The Views of Clasroom Teacher Trainees Regarding the Characteristics of Concept Cartoons
Petek puts forward the advantages by saying: “Concept cartoons seem more enjoyable to them (the students), I mean concept cartoons attract their interest to the subject more.” (line 17). Veysel says “(concept cartoons) a fun technique, that is why – in my opinion – they should be used.
Şermin who expresses that concept cartoons are visual materials mentions her views saying “one of the methods which appeals to our visual intelligence” (line 16); and Meltem says “makes more impression on the mind as a visual” (line 21). Arda who thinks concept cartoons are materializing expresses his views “Because they can materialize abstract concepts more” (line 22). Gökçe who thinks concept cartoons create a context for discussion says “they are activities which stir discussions” (line 16 – 17).
f (a) They reveal misconceptions (b) They bring out science conceptions the student has built. (c) They enable enjoyable/fun learning. (d) They iron out misconceptions. (e) They contribute to/make assessment and evaluation. (f) They help the teacher grab students’ attention. 16 13 12 6 The aims of Using Concept Cartoons Table 2: The aims of Using Concept Cartoons
Arzu puts forward her view saying “What may be the aim of using concept cartoons? The aim may be to reveal misconceptions.” (Line 28 – 29); Fatma: “With concept cartoons, we can find out what students know and what they don’t and where there are information gaps or insufficiencies.”; Uğur: “If concept cartoons are prepared, the subject becomes more fun for students to learn.” (line 26 – 27); Cemre: “we can say both fun and learning together” (line 23 – 24).
Fazıl who thinks the aim of using concept cartoons is removing misconceptions expresses his view saying “they are used for removing misconceptions in science and technology courses.” (line 21 – 22) Canan: “They eradicate misconceptions.” (line 31 – 32).
Views of teacher trainess f (a)While preparing: a.1. Must be suitable for readiness level of the students a.2. The expressions in the speech bubbles should be clear.. a.3. The cartoon should be attention grabbing. a.4. The teacher should prepare the cartoon after making researches. a.5. Must be aimed at misconceptions. a.6 There should be interesting characters in the cartoon. (b) While using: b.1. Must be suitable for the subject. b.1.1. Can be used in the subjects consisting misconceptions predominantly. b.1.2. Can be used in all kind of subjects/topics. b.1.3. Can be used in the topics which are related to daily life. b.2. Must drive student into thinking. b.3. Shouldn’t be regarded as a game. 19 18 12 9 8 6 12 17 7 4 6 3 Points to Consider While Classroom Teacher Trainees Prepare and Use Concept Cartoons
Fazıl who thinks while classroom teacher trainees are preparing concept cartoons for science and technology course, the materials should be suitable for the readiness level of students expresses his views saying “Firstly, a concept cartoon should be appropriate for the level of the students” (line 32) Asım says “the readiness level of the student should be taken into account” (line 59). Petek who expresses that the expressions in the speech bubbles must be clear says “For example, the expressions in the bubbles; the expressions in the bubbles should be clear and comprehensible” (line 83- 84).
Fatma who thinks the teacher should research while preparing concept cartoons expresses her views saying “The teacher – himself/herself – should spend effort for the materials” (line 82); Buse: “The teacher – himself/herself – should research comprehensively” (line 79); Özge “Thorough preparation beforehand is a must” (line 95).
Fatma who thinks concept cartoons should be used in the topics which can be related to daily life says “(Concept cartoons should be used) for daily events and daily lives of students” (line 34- 35) Feyza expresses her views saying “They aren’t appropriate for all the subjects but (they are appropriate) for some topics related to daily life (line 51).
Views of teacher trainess f (a) To teachers: a.1. They help teaching – learning processes achieve success easily. a.2. They activate the students in the class. a.3. They are economical and can be used in a short time (b) To students: b.1. Fun/enjoyable learning. b.2. They enable active participation. b.3. They contribute to/ensure retention of information. 11 9 4 13 9 8 The views of classroom teacher trainees on contributions of concept cartoons to teaching – learning processes Table 4: Contributions of concept cartoons to teaching – learning processes
Akın expresses his views saying “When evaluated from teachers’ point of view, they help students learn new information more easily and comfortably and thus this method makes teaching an easier job for teachers.” (line 59-60-61). Aynur indicates her views “I think they save the time which is normally wasted for verbal lecturing all the time” (line 59-60).
Fatma who states that the use of concept cartoons in science and technology courses create enjoyable learning environments for students says “Their contribution to students is that as the students learn in an enjoyable environment, they realize both misconceptions and right concepts in their minds and thus the retention of the right concept develops.
Meanwhile the students develop and strengthen the right concepts and eliminate misconceptions saying “Well, this one isn’t right. The concept in my mind isn’t the right one but the other way or concept is the right one.” (line 66-67- 68). Canan reveals her views saying “As the children like enjoyable learning, they will like this method in any case.” (line 52-53).
f (a) In-service training should be given a.1. Theoretical information should be presented a.2. The training should include the practical use of the information. (b) The teacher should update their knowledge base b.1. The teacher must search themselves. b.1.1. There must be comprehensive planning b.1.2. The teacher shouldn’t be limited to the course book. 21 3 4 5 4 Table 5: Suggestions for Effective Use of Concept Cartoons The views of Classroom Teacher Trainees on Suggestions for Effective Use of Concept Cartoons
Selma explains her views saying “In – service training may be given to develop the teachers” (line 132). Arzu who indicates that concept cartoons should be used in pre – service teacher training to show the right and effective use of them in science and technology classes expresses her views saying “I think our lecturers in the faculties who were educated in this education system should use this technique” (line 134-135), Cemre uses these words to express her views: “This technique should be applied in university education very often” (line 80).
SUGGESTIONS Based on the results of the research, a number of suggestions can be presented: The teachers can be given in-service training on concept cartoons which enable meaningful and permanent learning especially in Science and Technology courses. The practical trainings or researches on concept cartoons may be carried out with teachers. Teacher trainees may be given hands on activities along with theoretical information for widespread use of concept cartoons. More examples of concept cartoons may be given in teachers’ guide books.