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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGICAL & BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS (YOUTH & TEENS) KNR 270."— Presentation transcript:


2 Psychological Disorders  Seeing more children with more severe problems  All the disabilities discussed in Mental Illness (+ reactive attachment disorder, etc.)  Labeled earlier  Discharged from institutions back home  Seek recreation services in the community as well as in special recreation services

3 Behavioral Disorders  Learning problems not attributed to intellectual, sensory, or health problems  Difficulty in relating appropriately to peers, siblings, parents & others  Difficulty responding to academic and social tasks  Excessive behaviors  Lack of coping behaviors

4 Types of Negative Behavior  Noncompliance  Attention getting behaviors  Inappropriate physical contact  Physical aggression  Others

5 Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Enduring pattern of uncooperative, defiant, hostile behavior toward authority figures  Behaviors are more frequent & intense than unaffected peers  Cause problems in social, academic, work, recreation  Often with other disabilities (e.g., AD/HD, LD, addiction, anti-social personality)  Genetic & environmental causes

6 Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Behaviors for 6 mos. 4 or more: Losing temper Arguing with adults Actively defying or refusing to carry out rules or requests of adults Deliberately doing things to annoy others Blaming others for own mistakes or misbehavior Being touchy or easily annoyed by others Being angry and resentful Being spiteful or vindictive

7 Conduct Disorder  Pattern of repetitive behavior where rights of others or social norms are violated Childhood-onset: 1 criteria before 10 y/o Adolescent-onset: no criteria evident prior to 10  Causes: Child abuse, brought up in chaotic environments

8 Conduct Disorder  3 or more of the following criteria in the past 12 months with at least 1 criteria present in past 6 months

9 Conduct Disorder  Aggression to people & animals Often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others Often initiates physical fights Has used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others Has been physically cruel to people Has been physically cruel to animals Has stolen while confronting a victim Has forced someone into sexual activity

10 Conduct Disorder  Destruction of property Deliberately engaged in fire setting with intention of causing serious damage Deliberately destroyed others’ property (other than by fire setting)

11 Conduct Disorder  Deceitfulness or theft Has broken into someone else’s house, building, or car Often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations (“cons” others) Has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim (e.g., shoplifting, but without breaking and entering; forgery)

12 Conduct Disorder  Serious violations of rules Often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13 Has run away from home overnight at lease twice while living in parental or parental surrogate home (or once without returning for a lengthy period) Often truant from school, beginning before age 13

13 ADA  Must make accommodations just like we do for physical disabilities  If we don’t, we discriminate  If we have a plan and we don’t follow it, we discriminate  Safety is still an issue

14 Abuse  Abuse: Act of commission or inflicting injury or allowing injury to result Physical: Intentional physical injury Sexual: Involves child in sexual act or situation for sexual gratification or financial gain Emotional: Makes child to feel bad about himself, adult ignores child’s emotional needs  Almost always present with other forms of abuse

15 Neglect  Act of omission  Failure to act on behalf of a child  Failure to provide for a child’s basic needs Food, clothing, shelter, health care, education, supervision

16 Mandatory Reporter  If you provide services to children, you are a mandatory reporter Child Abuse Hotline 800-25A-BUSE Reasonable cause of abuse/neglect If in doubt, call  You can also be reported

17 Prevention  Screening & background checks  Education & training of staff  Pledge of moral character  Policies & procedures Kids not sit on lap Don’t be alone in a room or restroom or vehicle

18 Prevention  Positively stated rules & expectations Post rules Involve youth in setting rules (5) Provide clear examples  Teach expected behaviors Social skills, anger management, peer mediation, count to 10, deep breaths, quiet space  Encourage expected behaviors Focus on increasing appropriate behaviors Give specific feedback Increase involvement & making choices

19 Prevention  Discourage problem behaviors Structure program Daily schedule Enforce rules Give understandable definitions of infractions Tolerate some behaviors (pick your battles) Redirect to different tasks Use nonverbal cues Give consequences related to behavior Provide empathy/listen

20 Prevention  Be a role model Attention is paid to what you do vs. say Use peer role models  Recognize good behaviors Normally we comment on bad For every correction, give 4 positive comments Catch doing something good Provide opportunities for success

21 Prevention  Keep things active Have fun Do things they like to do Get them involved Decrease line up time Outdoor programs/adventure/challenge courses  Redirect Give something else to do  Analyze/decrease time outs

22 Prevention  Know your clients What sets them off What they respond to  Know yourself Stay calm Know your triggers Voice control – speak softly Take a step back Keep hands at side Sit down if possible

23 Prevention  Have an individualized behavior plan Behavior contracts Sticker charts Reinforcers (e.g., praise, attention, choice of activities, tangible reward) Talk with parents/teachers  Obtain specific training Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI) Talk down vs. take down  Contact a CTRS or your SRA


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