Presentation on theme: "Dividend Policy 1 Dividend policy Relevance? Payment of dividends Tax implications Dividend policies Stock dividends and stock splits."— Presentation transcript:
Dividend Policy 1 Dividend policy Relevance? Payment of dividends Tax implications Dividend policies Stock dividends and stock splits
Dividend Policy 2 Pay me now or pay me later? Theory: dividend policy is not relevant Firm will have finite amount of earnings to distribute over its “lifetime” If distribute now, leaves less for future PV of dividends doesn’t change Assumes firm selects projects with positive NPVs Therefore, dividend policy doesn’t impact firm value
Dividend Policy 3 Signaling theory Raising dividends is a favorable sign Few companies would do this if can’t sustain new dividend A “surprise” increase will increase price of stock Dividends increased from $1.30 to $1.40; market anticipated $1.45
Dividend Policy 4 Signaling theory High dividend yield (D / P) Mature company? Dividend yield averages 2% In the 1970s, over 5% Foreign companies higher Or is it risk of dividend cut?
Dividend Policy 5 Signaling theory Cutting dividends is generally greeted with big drop in price of stock February 2011: Barnes and Noble eliminates dividend to preserve cash BUSE has EPS of -$5.41 in Can it pay dividends in that year? Borrow to maintain dividend?
Dividend Policy 6 Clientele effect Investors who need income: dividends are great Utilities, banks Investors who want growth: no dividends Technology stocks
Dividend Policy 7 Payment of dividends In U.S., quarterly dividends Foreign companies, often twice per year McDonalds: changed to annual dividends Will others follow this change? Company must have Retained earnings Cash Permission of debt holders (covenants)
Dividend Policy 8 Dividend dates Declaration date Ex-dividend date Own stock at end of this day, get dividend What happens to stock price next day? Payment date
Dividend Policy 9 Tax Implications Dividends Income taxed at corporate level Dividends taxed to recipient Second taxation of this income Now taxed at capital gains tax rate
Dividend Policy 10 Tax implications Retain earnings Reinvest in positive NPV projects Required return: at least as high as shareholders could earn Apple had over $50 billion in cash in 2011 and still paid no dividends Increase wealth of firm, stock price No tax on increase in stock price until it is sold
Dividend Policy 12 Residual Fund all positive NPV projects Distribute remaining earnings Dividends fluctuate Not as highly valued? Implications under signaling theory
Dividend Policy 13 Constant payout ratio Payout constant percent of earnings Foreign companies U.S: 22% payout ratio Taiwan: 69% payout ratio Again, dividends fluctuate
Dividend Policy 14 Stable dividend Maintain stable annual dividends Only increase if can sustain Borrow to maintain for short-term
Dividend Policy 15 Stock repurchase March 2012: Apple (with $100 billion in cash): announces initial dividend of $2.65 per quarter (1.8% yield) Authorizes $10 billion in stock repurchase Treasury stock Open market versus auction If investor wants cash, can sell stock If not, generally price of stock should increase Supply and demand Earnings per share impact
Dividend Policy 16 Stock Splits 2 for 1 stock split Mechanics: Own 100 shares at $80 per share before split Own 200 shares at $40 per share after split???
Dividend Policy 17 Stock Splits Why? Maintain price range for stock Remember stocks trade in 100 share lots Small investors Institutional investors Reverse split Signal?? Indication of future prospects
Dividend Policy 18 Stock dividends Distribute stock instead of cash Steak-N-Shake: 20% stock dividend each year Keep stock in tighter trading range