Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byTianna Borders Modified over 2 years ago

1
Differentials Differentials are a powerful mathematical tool They require, however, precise introduction In particular we have to distinguish between exact inexact differentials Remember some important mathematical background Multi-Dimensional Spaces Point ( in D-dimensional space ) Line: parametric representationD functions depending on a single parameter

2
for Example in D=2 from classical mechanics x2x2 x1x1 where t 0 =0 and t f =2v y /g 0

3
Scalar field: a single function of D coordinates For example: the electrostatic potential of a charge or the gravitational potential of the mass M (earth for instance) r

4
Vector field: specified by the D components of a vector. Each component is a function of D coordinates Graphical example in D=3 Well-known vector fields in D=3 Force F(r) in a gravitational field Electric field: E(r) Magnetic field: B(r) x y z Each point in space 3 component entity

5
Line integral: scalar product If the line has the parameter representation:i=1,2,…,D for The line integral can be evaluated like an ordinary 1-dimensional definite Integral

6
Let’s explore an example: Consider the electric field created by a changing magnetic field x y z where t x y x y x y 0 f R Line of integration

7
Parameter representation of the line: Counter clockwise walk along the semicircle of radius R yx 1 Note: Result is independent of the parameterization

8
Let’s also calculate the integral around the full circle: x y R Line of integration Parameter representation of the line: Faraday’s law of electrodynamics Have a closer look to Differential form or

9
Meaning of an equation that relates one differential form to another Equation valid for all lines Must be true for all sets of coordinate differentials Example: Particular set of differentials Relationships valid for vector fields are also valid for differentials

10
A differential form is an exact differential. Exact and Inexact Differentials if for all i and j it is true that An equivalent condition reads: also written as Let’s do these Exactness tests in the case of our example Is the differential form x y z t exact

11
Check of the cross-derivatives but Not exact Alternatively we can also show: = - + = = 0

12
T, V are the coordinates of the space Example from thermodynamics Exactness of 1 Transfer of notation: Functions corresponding to the vector components: Check of the cross-derivatives 2 = exact

13
Differential of a function Scalar field: a single function of D coordinates or in compact notation where Differentials of functions are exact Proof: Or alternatively: Line integral of a differential of a function x1x1 x2x2 Independent of the path between and

14
We are familiar with this property from varies branches of physics: Conservative forces: Remember: A force which is given by the negative gradient of a scalar potential is known to be conservative Example: Gravitational force derived from hh Pot. energy depends on h, not how to get there.

15
Exact differential theorem 1 The following 4 statements imply each other dA is the differential of a function 2 dA is exact 3 for all closed contours 4 Independent of the line connecting and x1x1 x2x2

16
How to find the function underlying an exact differential Consider:Since dA exact Aim:Find A(x,y) by integration Unknown function depending on y only constant Unknown function depending on x only constant C o m p a r i s o n A(x,y) Apart from one const.

17
Example: where a,b and c are constants First we check exactness Comparison Check:

18
Quantities of infinitesimal short sub-processes Inexact Differentials of Thermodynamics Equilibrium processes can be represented by lines in state spaceWe know: Consider infinitesimal short sub-process Values of W,Q and are Since U is a state function we can expressU=U(T,V) dU differential form of a functiondU exact However: inexact With first law for all lines L

19
How can we see that inexact Compare with the general differential form for coordinates P and V and = inexact Example: Line dependence of W and line independence of U P0P0 PfPf V0V0 VfVf Work: isothermal

20
Coordinates on common isotherm = Internal energy: 1 Isothermal process from Ideal gas U=U(T) 2 P V Across constant volume and constant pressure path P0P0 PfPf V0V0 VfVf 1 2

21
Sinceinexact How can we see that is inexact Consider U=U(P,V)where P and V are the coordinates with T 0 = T f -R+R Alternatively inspection of exact inexact

22
Coordinate transformations Example: Changing coordinates of state space from (P,V)(T,P) V=V(T,P) If U=U(T,P) With +

23
Let’s collect terms of common differentials Remember: EnthalpyH=U+PVwith Similar for changing coordinates of state space from (P,V)(T,V)

24
Heat capacities expressed in terms of differentials From and P=const. V=const. Note:and are alternate notation for the components and ( of the above vector fields which correspond to the differential forms ) Do not confuse with partial derivatives, since there is no function Q(T,P) whose differential is. is inexact

Similar presentations

Presentation is loading. Please wait....

OK

Review of Vector Analysis

Review of Vector Analysis

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Numeric display ppt online Ppt on layer 3 switching configuration Download ppt on folk dances of india Ppt on road accidents in south Ppt on viruses and antivirus-shop Authority of the bible ppt on how to treat Ppt on retail management information system Ppt on data handling for class 7th results Ppt on swami vivekananda Ppt on ready to serve beverages and more store