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Grammar Book 3 Wilfredo Summers.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Book 3 Wilfredo Summers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Book 3 Wilfredo Summers

2 Tabla de contenidos Preterite vs Imperfect
Por and para Possessive adjectives and pronouns Commands El Modo Subjunctivo Verbs of will and influence Verbs of emotion Doubt, disbelief and denial Conjunctions Subjunctive in adjective clauses Tu commands Nosotros commands Past participles used as adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future tense Conditional tense Past subjenctuve

3 Preterite vs Imperfect
Definite Indefinite hablar comer vivir hablé comí viví hablaste comiste viviste habló comió vivió hablamos comimos vivimos hablasteis comisteis vivisteis hablaron comieron vivieron hablar comer vivir hablaba comía vivía hablabas comías vivías hablábamos comíamos vivíamos hablabais comíais vivíais hablaban comían vivían

4 Por and Para Por Motion or a general location Duration of an action
Object of a search Means by which something is done Exchange or substitution Unit of measure Para Destination Deadline or a specific time in the future Purpose or goal + infinitive Purpose + infinitive The recipient of something Comparison or opinions Employment

5 Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
Short Form Mi(s) Nuestro(a/os/aas) Tu(s) Vuestro(a/os/as) Su(s) Long Form Singular Mio(a) Nuestro(a) Tuyo(a) Vuestro(a) Suyo(a) Long Form Plural Mios(as) Nuestros(as) Tuyos(as) Vuestros(as) Suyos(as) To form a possessive pronoun: Use the long form of the possessive adjective. Add el, la, los, las based on the gender and number of the noun. Attach the pronouns to a reflexive when using a reflexive in the infinitive form

6 Commands Tu Ud./Uds. DOP + IOP + “se” Affirmative Simply drop the s
Irregulars- di, haz, ve pon, sal, sé, ten, ven Put it in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel Can attach to an affirmative Negative Put in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel, add an ‘s’ Irregulars-TV DISHES Same as above Must go before the negative command

7 El Modo Subjunctivo For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps: Start with the yo form of the present indicative. Then drop the -o ending. Finally, add the following endings: -ar verbs: -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en -er and -ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an dar - to give dé des dé demos deis den estar - to be esté estés esté estemos estéis estén haber - to have (auxiliary verb) haya hayas haya hayamos hayáis hayan ir - to go vaya vayas vaya vayamos vayáis vayan saber - to know sepa sepas sepa sepamos sepáis sepan ser - to be sea seas sea seamos seáis sean

8 Verbs of will and influnce
Verbs of will and influence Aconsejar- to advise Importar- to be important: to matter Insistir (en)- to insist (on) Mandar- to order Prohibir- to prohibit Recomendar (e>ie)- to recommend Rogar (o>ue)- to beg, to plead Sugerir (e>ie)- to suggest

9 I hope (that); I wish (that)
Verbs of Emotion Alegrarse (de) To be happy Esperar To hope, to wish Sentir (e-ie) To be sorry, to regret Sorprender To surprise Temer To be afraid; to fear Es triste It’s sad Ojála (que) I hope (that); I wish (that)

10 Doubt, disbelief and denial
Dudar To doubt Negar (e-ie) To deny Es imposible It’s impossible Es improbable It’s improbable No es cierto It’s not true/certain No es seguro It’s not certain No es verdad It’s not true

11 Conjunctions A menos que Antes (de) que Con tal (de) que
Unless Antes (de) que Before Con tal (de) que Provided that En caso (de) que In case (that) Para que So that Sin que without

12 Subjunctive in adjective clauses
The subjunctive can be used in adjective clauses to indicate that the existence of someone or something is uncertain or indefinite. The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that either does not exist or whose existence is uncertain or indefinite. The indicative is used when the adjective clause refers to a person, place , thing, or idea that is clearly known, certain, or definite.

13 Tu commands Tu Simply drop the s Affirmative
Irregulars- di, haz, ve pon, sal, sé, ten, ven Negative Put in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel, add an ‘s’ Irregulars-TV DISHES

14 Nosotros Commands Put in first person form
Add amos/emos and change the vowel If IOP or DOP, add them on the end if affirmative and before the verb for negative; add accent If reflexive, add nos or se at the end and take away the s on amos/emos Ex. Comámonos; add accent Also called monkey verbs

15 Past participles used as adjectives
Ar-ado Ir/Er-ido Use this when writing an english adjective endind in –ed His car is washed. Su coche está lavado.

16 Present Perfect He Has Ha Hemos Han
Use when writing someone has done something. The second verb looks like a past participle He has ran. El ha corrido.

17 Past Perfect había habías había habíamos habíais habían
To say that something in the past has done something Use infinitive + past participle

18 Future Tense I will Infinitive + -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án
Los Irregulares Decir Dir- Hacer Har- Poner Pondr- Salir Saldr- Tener Tendr- Venir Vendr- Poder Podr Querer Querr- Saber Sabr- Haber Habr- I will Infinitive + -emos -ás -éis -án

19 Conditional Tense Would/should/could Infinitive+ -iá -iámos -iás -iáis
All endings are the same for er, ir, and ar berbs. The irregulars are the same as the future tense -iá -iámos -iás -iáis -ián

20 Past subjective Drop the ending –ron ending from the preterite -ra, -ras, -ra, -ramos, -ran The IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE NOTE: Used in same context and situations as the present subjunctive. It generally describes actions, events and conditions that have already happened.

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