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BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum Edisi : 1Revisi : 5Sept - 2005 MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN DAN INOVASI SERTA PENGAWASAN Pertemuan 13 MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN.

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Presentation on theme: "BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum Edisi : 1Revisi : 5Sept - 2005 MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN DAN INOVASI SERTA PENGAWASAN Pertemuan 13 MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum Edisi : 1Revisi : 5Sept MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN DAN INOVASI SERTA PENGAWASAN Pertemuan 13 MENGELOLA PERUBAHAN DAN INOVASI SERTA PENGAWASAN Matakuliah: F0542/Manajemen Umum Tahun: 2005 Versi: 5

2 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Mahasiswa dapat Menunjukkan hubungan antara pentingnya pengendalian dan implikasi pengendalian pada kinerja organisasi secara umum Mahasiswa dapat Menyesuaikan dan mengelola keanekaragaman, perubahan dan inovasi

3 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum Outline Materi Apakah pengawasan itu? Mengapa pengawasan itu penting? Proses pengawasan Tipe-tipe pengawasan Apakah perubahan itu? Faktor-faktor penyebab perubahan: - Kekuatan eksternal - Teknologi - Perubahan ekonomi - Kekuatan internal Manajer sebagai agen perubahan Mengelola perubahan Inovasi

4 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / What Is Change?  Change -alterations in people, structure, or technology -change is an organizational reality -managing change is an integral part of every manager’s job  complicates the jobs of managers

5 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Forces For Change  External Forces -marketplace - adapt to changing consumer desires -governmental laws and regulations - frequent impetus for change -technology - source of change in almost all industries -labor markets - HRM activities must change to attract and retain skilled employees in the areas of greatest need -economic - uncertainties about interest rates, budget deficits, and currency exchange rates

6 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Forces For Change (cont.)  Internal Forces -originate from the operations of the organization -forces may include strategy, workforce, new equipment, or employee attitudes  Manager as Change Agent -change agents - act as catalysts and assume responsibility for change  manager may serve as change agent  outside consultant - used for systemwide changes

7 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Three Categories Of Change Work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, formalization, job redesign, or actual design Structure Attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior People Work processes, methods, and equipment Technology

8 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Managing Change  Initiating Change: -identifying what organizational areas might need to be changed -putting the change process in motion -managing employee resistance to change  Types of Change -changing structure - organization’s formal design, centralization, degree of formalization, and work specialization  structural components and structural design

9 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Types of Change (cont.) -changing technology - modifications in the way work is performed  alterations in the methods and equipment used -consequence of competitive factors or innovations within an industry -automation - replaces tasks done by people with machines -computerization - recent visible changes in information systems Managing Change (cont.)

10 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Type of Change (cont.) -changing people - changes in employee attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior  organizational development (OD) - techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships -intended to help individuals and groups work together more effectively Managing Change (cont.)

11 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Organizational Development Techniques More Effective Interpersonal Work Environment Process Consultation Intergroup Development Sensitivity Training Survey Feedback Team Building

12 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Dealing with Resistance to Change -Why people resist change  change replaces the known with ambiguity and uncertainty  change threatens investments in the status quo  belief that change is incompatible with the goals and interests of the organization -Techniques for reducing resistance  a variety of actions available to managers to deal with dysfunctional resistance Managing Change (cont.)

13 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Stimulating Innovation  Creativity versus Innovation -creativity - ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas -innovation - process of transforming creative ideas into a useful product, service, or method of operation

14 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Systems View Of Innovation Creative individuals, groups, organizations Creative process Creative situation Creative product(s) InputsTransformationOutputs

15 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Stimulating and Nurturing Innovation -must focus on inputs  creative people and groups within the organization -requires appropriate environment  structural variables -organic design -plentiful resources -frequent inter-unit communication Stimulating Innovation (cont.)

16 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Stimulating and Nurturing Innovation (cont.) -requires appropriate environment (cont.)  cultural variables -encourage experimentation -reward success and failures -celebrate mistakes  human resource variables -promote training and development of employees -offer high job security -encourage individuals to become idea champions  self-confident, persistent, risk taking  energize others with visions of innovation Stimulating Innovation (cont.)

17 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Innovation Variables

18 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / CHAPTER 18 FOUNDATIONS OF CONTROL

19 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / What Is Control?  Control -the process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting significant deviations -control systems are judged in terms of how well they facilitate goal achievement -market control - emphasizes the use of external market mechanisms to establish standards of performance  useful where products and services are distinct  useful where marketplace competition is considerable  divisions turned into profit centers and judged by the percentage of total corporate profits each contributes

20 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / What Is Control? (cont.)  Control -bureaucratic control - emphasizes organizational authority  relies on administrative rules, procedures, and policies  depends on standardization of activities, well- defined job descriptions, and other administrative mechanisms -clan control - behavior regulated by shared values, traditions, and other aspects of organizational culture  dependent on individual and group to identify expected behaviors and performance measures  found where teams are common and technology changes often

21 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Why Is Control Important?  Control is the Final Link in the Management Process -provides the critical link back to planning -only way managers know whether organizational goals are being met  Permits Delegation of Authority -fear that employees will do something wrong for which the manager will be held responsible -provides information and feedback on employee performance

22 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / The Planning-Controlling Link Structure Human Resource Management Organizing Standards Measurements Comparisons Actions Controlling Goals Objectives Strategies Plans Planning Motivation Leadership Communication Individual and Group Behavior Leading

23 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / The Control Process

24 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Background -controlling is a three-step process -assumes that performance standards already exist  specific goals are created in the planning process  Measuring -How We Measure  personal observation - permits intensive coverage -Management By Walking Around (MBWA) -drawbacks - subject to personal biases  consumes a great deal of time  suffers from obtrusiveness The Control Process

25 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / The Control Process (cont.)  Measuring (cont.) -How We Measure (cont.)  statistical reports - numerical data are easy to visualize and effective for showing relationships -drawbacks - not all operations can be measured  important subjective factors may be ignored  oral reports - includes meetings, telephone calls -may be best way to control work in a virtual environment -technology permits creation of written record from oral report -drawbacks - filtering of information

26 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  How We Measure (cont.) -written reports - often more comprehensive and concise than oral reports  usually easy to file and retrieve -comprehensive control efforts should use all four approaches The Control Process (cont.)

27 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  What We Measure -what we measure more critical than how we measure -control criteria applicable to any management situation:  employee satisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover  keeping costs within budgets -control system needs to recognize the diversity of activities -some activities difficult to measure in quantifiable terms  most activities can be grouped into some objective segments that can be measured  when objective measures are not available, should rely on subjective measures The Control Process (cont.)

28 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Comparing -determines the degree of variation between actual performance and standard -acceptable range of variation - deviations that exceed this range become significant The Control Process (cont.)

29 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Taking Managerial Action -Correct Actual Performance - action taken when the performance variation is unsatisfactory  immediate corrective action - corrects problems at once to get performance back on track  basic corrective action - identifies reason for performance variation -corrects the source of variation -Revise the Standard - variance results from an unrealistic standard  standard, not performance, needs correction  troublesome to revise the standard downward The Control Process (cont.)

30 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Managerial Decisions in the Control Process

31 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Types Of Control InputOutputProcesses Anticipates problems Feedforward Control Corrects problems after they occur Feedback Control Corrects problems as they happen Concurrent Control

32 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Feedforward Control -prevents anticipated problems -most desirable type of control -requires timely and accurate information that often is difficult to get  Concurrent Control -takes place while activity is in progress -corrects problem before it becomes too costly -best-known form is direct supervision Types Of Control

33 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 /  Feedback Control -takes place after the activity is done -problems may already have caused damage or waste -the most popular type of control  feedback may be only viable form of control available -feedback has two advantages  provides meaningful information on the effectiveness of planning  can enhance employee motivation Types of Control (cont.)

34 BINA NUSANTARA F0542 – Manajemen Umum 13 / Qualities Of An Effective Control System Flexibility Strategic Placement Understandability Reasonable Criteria EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM Timeliness Multiple Criteria Corrective Action Accuracy Economy Emphasis on Exceptions


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