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Georeferencing: Collaboration and Automation

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Presentation on theme: "Georeferencing: Collaboration and Automation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Georeferencing: Collaboration and Automation
John Wieczorek1 Reed Beaman2 testing slide 1 1Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California, Berkeley 2Center for Biodiversity Research University of Kansas

2 Caveat: I’m going to over-simplify everything.
Warning: Apertem os Cintos testing slide 2 Fasten your seat belts

3 What is georeferencing?
testing slide 2

4 Georeferencing is the expression of a terrestrial spatial description in coordinates within a frame of reference testing slide 2

5 Terrestrial Spatial Descriptions:
Bakersfield 10 mi E (by air) Bakersfield 5 mi from Bakersfield 2 mi E and 1.5 mi N of Bakersfield 13 mi E (by road) Bakersfield 10.2 mi E of Bakersfield E of Bakersfield T29S R29E Sec.34 testing slide 2

6 Coordinates Points (have no spatial footprint)
Shapes (have bounded footprint) Polygons Multipolygons testing slide 2

7 Coordinate Systems decimal degrees degrees minutes seconds
degrees minutes seconds N, W degrees, decimal minutes N, W UTM Zone 11S E N Innumerable other grid-based systems testing slide 2

8 Frames of Reference Australian Geodetic 1984
Geodetic Datums Australian Geodetic 1984 Japanese Geodetic Datum 2000 North American Datum 1983 South American 1969 World Geodetic System 1984 testing slide 2 … over 100 others

9 Why is the datum important?



12 What is an ideal georeference?
The answer depends on the questions you want to address. I propose that it is a shape, with a frame of reference, which exactly describes the spatial extent of a terrestrial location. testing slide 2 “The Shape Method”

13 “Davis, Yolo County, California”
testing slide 2

14 “Davis, Yolo County, California”
testing slide 2

15 Is this method currently practical?
Requires sophisticated software to capture these data. Requires database capabilities beyond the scope of many collections Requires baseline digital data that are neither freely, nor globally available. testing slide 2 The remedy is costly.

16 What is practical? Describe spatial extent using elements that can be captured and stored by anyone using current technology. testing slide 2

17 “The Point-Radius Method”
One possible solution Describe the locality using one set of coordinates, the datum, and a bounding radius. testing slide 2 “The Point-Radius Method”

18 “Davis, Yolo County, California”
testing slide 2

19 “Davis, Yolo County, California”
testing slide 2 Coordinates: Horizontal Geodetic Datum: NAD27 Maximum Error Distance: 8325 m

20 This remedy is relatively inexpensive.
Advantages Describes the locality in a minimal element set. Obviates the need for investment in new technology. Establishes a maximum spatial scale of the locality. Does enable spatial visualization and a broad range of analytical applications testing slide 2 This remedy is relatively inexpensive.

21 The remedy will remain just as costly as before.
Disadvantages This solution does not contribute toward the ideal solution. There may be future applications for spatial footprints that cannot be met by the data produced by the Point-Radius Method. testing slide 2 The remedy will remain just as costly as before.

22 Who is georeferencing? Who isn’t, and why not? testing slide 2

23 Who is georeferencing? MaNIS – 17 mammal collections; institutions in Canada, Mexico and the United States; global holdings; 1.4M specimens; 284k localities; 3 years; started Sep 2001. HerpNet – 37 North American herpetological collections; global holdings; ca. 3M specimens; 5 years; first georeferencing North and Central American localities; starts 2003. testing slide 2

24 How are we georeferencing?
testing slide 2

25 How are we georeferencing?
Collaboration testing slide 2

26 Advantages Reduces overall cost of supplies – no duplication
Expands the pool of resources – geographic expertise and reference material Increases georeferencing rates – economy of scale Promotes standardization – methods Increases skills in a community Increases exposure and awareness inside and outside of a community testing slide 2

27 Disadvantages Vulnerable to procrastinators, cheaters, and numbskulls.
Can distance georeferencing process from useful primary resources (e.g., field notes). Introduces time sensitivity to the georeferencing process Requires project-level management testing slide 2

28 One way to improve upon the georeferencing process will be to collaborate with a distributed query mechanism already in place. testing slide 2

29 Reed will talk about another way we hope to improve the georeferencing process.
testing slide 2

30 1University of Kansas Natural History Museum
Special Thanks CONABIO Bell Museum Kansas State University San Diego Natural History Museum A. Townsend Peterson1 testing slide 2 1University of Kansas Natural History Museum

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