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Impacting Design Quality through Key Parameter Development & Management Using KPD&M during Technology & Product Development Processes to Prevent Design.

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Presentation on theme: "Impacting Design Quality through Key Parameter Development & Management Using KPD&M during Technology & Product Development Processes to Prevent Design."— Presentation transcript:

1 Impacting Design Quality through Key Parameter Development & Management Using KPD&M during Technology & Product Development Processes to Prevent Design Problems

2 Key parameters control financial consequences… through Y &  Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 2 T Y  Y= f(X) $L(Y) = k[  2 + (Y-T) 2 ]  Y= f[  X +  X*N)] + error …Financial Consequences Physical Law… XYXY XX X Noise X Y&  C p = (USL-LSL )/6  C pkl = (Y-LSL)/3  C pku = (USL-Y)/3 

3 What does the word “ Key ” mean? Something that is…  New  Totally new to you & all your competitors, no one has fulfilled the requirement(s) or controlled the parameter(s) before – no experience!  Unique  The requirement(s) or parameter(s) have been fulfilled or controlled by others but not by you!  Difficult  The requirement(s) or parameter(s) are extreme & their fulfillment or control is very high in risk Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 3

4 Things that are NOT “ Key ”… Something that is…  Easy  Common  Old These are functions, part specifications & mfg. functions that we place under normal Q.C. metrics - Little or no SPC investment (low need to detect & prevent) - Cp & Cpk checked periodically - Use Six Sigma to react to problems in this area Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 4

5 Refining the term - Key  A function, part or material characteristic can be designated as Key = Under Watch!  Functions occur in the product or process as it is transforming mass & / or energy… it is what the product or process does. Inherent in the design of the product or mfg. process  Characteristics are static dimensions, shape factors, surface finishes or bulk material properties  Key doesn’t just mean it is important!  It means there is high risk because… unproven – we lack facts, little or no data - we don’t know! unstable & must be “watched”! dependent on different Design or Supplier’s capabilities Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 5

6 Key Parameters are like slippery bars of soap! – risk of “getting out of hand”! Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 6 Risk! Cannot afford to call everything that is merely important a Key Parameter $$$

7 The road to being designated Key … Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc Vary an X & measure the effect on Y….  Y/  X 2. Do so repeatedly & measure the variation around  Y caused by each  X i = random error = e 3. Define the ratio between the Signal (  Y/  X i ) & the Noise e … this is called the F Ratio = Strength of each  Xi on  Y when compared to random noise in the replicated data 4. Establish if each Xi’s effect on Y is statistically significant… calculate the p value 5. Establish the Capability Index for Ys & Xs… calculate the Cp & Cpk values for Y & X under nominal (Cp) & stressful (Cpk) conditions!

8 Stability, F Ratio, p Value, Robustness, Tunability & Capability tell the Story!  If Xs & Ys are:  statistically significant…. Low p values (< 0.05)  have high F Ratios (>> 4) from Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)  possess unstable behavior (SPC trend & control issues)  have low Cp under nominal conditions… then they are extremely risky & are designated as Keys!  These are our highest priority Keys to work on.  If these same Xs & Ys  possess high sensitivity to stressful noises after Robust Design  difficult to tune onto the desired target after Robust Design  have low Cpk under stressful conditions… then they are still very risky & are designated as Keys! Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 8

9 Key >>> NUD! Guilty until proven Innocent!  Key parameters are under suspicion – we don’t trust them!  measured & watched for drift in mean  measured & watched for changes in   A parameter or characteristic can come off our list of Keys…. Re-designated as ECO!  Proven stability over time (SPC Charting)  Ease of control under nominal & stressful conditions (Robust & Tunable performance)  Sustained capability (Cp/Cpk) as cost is reduced Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 9 X & R Charts

10 Intro to KPD&MM, Copyright 2010 PDSS Inc. 10 What is Key Parameter Development & Management? A proactive process for: Identifying Connecting Tracking Refining Preventing problems Documenting a hierarchy of: Key requirements & the integrated set of measured functions, specifications & set points - down through a product architecture and its production & support processes.

11 A bit of history….  From Dogma & Faith…  Dogma = Cheaper & Faster – We must Hurry!!!  Faith = We You will make it!  To Doubt & Experimentation…  Doubt = We have risk & uncertainty – we need facts!  Experimentation = We can & will take the time to learn! Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 11 X Learning generates facts which reduce uncertainty & lower risk… …but not by rushing & cutting corners.

12 Some personal history…  Dogma & Faith results circa compared to Doubt & Experimentation results from at Kodak…  A focused effort was implemented in Kodak’s digital printing business unit on the DigiMaster Project:  Our 1 st ever Commercial Systems Engineering Org., Center of Excellence & SE Process  Comprehensive integration of Key Parameter Development & Mgt. approach into Phase-Gate PDP Clear definition of “Key” Customer needs Heavy emphasis on Reliability Development using Robust Design Detailed “Design for X” focus on produceability & serviceability  Strong Project Manager, rigorous PM methods & dedicated, accountable PDT (functional Centers of Excellence supported it) Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 12

13 The DigiMaster 9100 digital printing system Over 10,000 parts < 30 major subsystems (chemo-opto-mechatronics) Req’d 6  image quality across 15 measurable attributes Req’d 150K MIBSC within 95% Confidence Limits

14 14 Historic example of Prod. Dev. Team performance before the use of SE & KP enabled work flow… MTBF Time Targets Pre-SE, KPD, DFSS, etc % of Target Gate 2 Gate 3 Gate 4Gate 5 Change over to supplier mtl.s & parts Independent SS Changes to improve System Performance Late integration of tweeked SSs & purchased accessories System integration too early…

15 15 Development Teams can improve results with SE, Key Parameter Development & select DFSS tools… MTBF Time +2  UCL -2  LCL SE/KPD/DFSS Actual Target Pre-SE, KPD, DFSS, etc % of Target >95% of Target Gate 2 Gate 3 Gate 4Gate 5

16 16 Duane plot from an actual project

17 17 What made the difference? Macro-effects  Created a formal systems engineering organization - clear SE roles, with SE tools, tasks & deliverables tied to Gate Requirements measured with performance score cards – not checklists  Enhanced the SE team to actively use specific KP tasks with DFSS tools to complete the tasks, directly assisting sub-teams – producing the right SE Gate deliverables Micro-effects  Key Parameter Mgt.: clear definition of Key reqts. flow down & rigorous measurement of capability flow-up (Cp & Cpk trace-ability)  System Integration, system sensitivity analysis & reliability testing only AFTER subsystem & subassy. robustness optimization was completed reliability development vs. assessment Complete story is in Ch. 7: Systems Architecting, Engineering & Integration using DFSS & Key Parameter Development

18 18 What does System Development look like as a flow of work over time? Internal & External Needs System Reqts. System Functions System Architecture Subsystem Interface Development & Robustness Optimization System Integration & Stress Testing System Performance Balancing System KPM Database Transfer to Production, Service & Tech. Support System Internal & External Validation Flow of System Architecting, Engineering, Integration & Assessment Tasks The Super-set of System Engineering Macro- Functions: ArchitectingEngineeringIntegration Assessment & Validation System Modeling

19 19 Process Map of Major System Architecting, Engineering, Integration & Assessment Tasks Define System Reqts Define System Functions Define System Architecture Partition System into Subsystems Create & build KPM Database Generate System FMEA Lead System Integration Meetings Balance Interface Sensitivities – create latitude Develop System Noise Map Define System Integration DOEs &Test Plans Integrate System Test Rigs & Data Acq. System Conduct System Integration Stress Tests Balance System Performance Conduct Reliability Assessments Validate System Performance Transfer KPM Database to Mfg. & Support

20 20 Key Parameter Enabled Systems & Design Engineering: Key Parameter Dev. process & enabling DFSS tools Concept DesignOptimize Verify Requirements Development Process Concept Design Process Sequential Design of Experiments Process Reliability Definition, Modeling, Development & Assessment Process Design for “X” Process - Manufacturing, Assembly & Cost; Service Maint. & Support - Environment, Health, Safety, Legal & Regulatory Key Parameter Management Process Full KPD&M details: Ch.s 8-13 of DFSS text

21 21 Allocated Reqt.s Flow-down & Measured Capability Roll-up VOC Needs Product Reqts. Subsystem Reqts. Subassembly Reqts. Component Reqts. Mfg. Process Reqts. Mfg. Process Cp & Cpk Component Spec. Cp & Cpk Subassembly CFR Cp & Cpk Subsystem CFR Cp & Cpk Product CFR Cp & Cpk Customer Satisfaction Flow down of the reqts to be fulfilled through the measurement of KFRs & KPs Roll-up of Cp & Cpk through the measurement of KFRs & KPs Verification & Preventive / Contingent Action Process

22 22 Requirements Development Process VOC Needs Product Reqts. Subsystem Reqts. Subassembly Reqts. Component Reqts. Mfg. Process Reqts. …Flow-down of NUD / Kano requirements to be fulfilled Enabling Tools. Methods & Best Practices: -Customer Interviewing -KJ Analysis -NUD Screening & Kano Analysis -QFD -Requirements Trace-ability & Documentation (DOORS, etc.)

23 23 System Concept Design Process Step 1: External Needs Gathering, Processing & Validating the Voices of the Customer, Marketing, Technology & Business Step 2: Internal Requirements & Constraints Generating & documenting a system of NUD / Kano requirements in a Key Parameter Mgt. data base Step 3: Innovation, Architecting & Solutions Concept Generation, Feasibility Evaluations & final Concept Selection

24 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 24 Metrics for Requirements Can be Compared to Measures of Sample Data What is Required? Customer Level (USL – LSL) System Level (USL – LSL) Subsystem Level (USL – LSL) Subassembly Level (USL – LSL) Component Level (USL – LSL) Mfg. Process Level (USL – LSL) What is Measured? Customer Level (Avg & σ) System Level (Avg & σ) Subsystem Level (Avg & σ) Subassembly Level (Avg & σ) Component Level (Avg & σ) Mfg. Process Level (Avg & σ) From this comparison we can document performance Capability

25 Reqt. Allocation & KP Measuring down through the System to Subsystems, Sub Assemblies, Parts & Mfg. Processes! 25 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. Product or System Level Sub System Level Sub Assy Level Part Level Mfg. Level Key Reqt.s Allocation & Linkage Capability Assessment & Traceability

26 Product Functional Capability 26 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.  (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KFR response within the product (Sys/SSys/SAys)  (USL-LSL): as stated in the Reqts. Document  6s = six times the sample std. dev. of a Key Functional Response KFR in the design  “s” measures functional variation  “s” is composed of both mfg. and customer-base variation in product usage and environments s KFR

27 Part Specification Capability Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 27  (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KTF spec. on a component / assembly  (USL-LSL): directly traceable to both Product & Manufacturing KFRs  6s = six times the sample std. dev. of a KTF Part specification  “s” measures dimensional, surface finish, bulk material property or material variation  “s” is composed only of unit-to-unit Part variation s KTF

28 Manufacturing Process Capability Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 28  (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KFR spec. on a production machine  (USL-LSL): directly traceable up to Part KTF Spec.  6s = six times the sample std. dev. of a KFR specification  “s” measures Process functional variation  “s” is composed only of functional mfg. variation s KFR

29 Required KP Mgt. Data for any form of Capability Assessment Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 29  All KFRs, KPs or KTF Spec.s must have a capable metrology process documented & in use  Each KFR, KP or KTF Spec. is placed under SPC so the Cp can be routinely quantified for Phase-by-Phase growth & Life Cycle stability characterization  All KFRs typically have a target of Cp = 2 & Cpk of 1.5 Gage R&R I & MR Chart Capability Study

30 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 30 KPD&M Flow-Down Map

31 Modeling & Simulation  M&S was in place & was pretty good - but it left KP knowledge gaps - & not just a few!!!  Could not predict physics-based interactions between controllable engineering parameters very well… Xi * Xj = ???  Could not predict physics-based interactions between controllable engineering parameters AND NOISE PARAMETERS = unwanted sources of variation… Xi * Noise = ??? From variation in production parts, assembly & materials From variation in disruptive sources external to the system From variation in deteriorative sources internal to the system Weibull, Exponential, Gamma, Rayliegh, Lognormal, Normal, etc.???? Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 31

32 2 Major Matrices dominate the KP Dev. Process! On the Requirements Side:  The Houses of Quality from NUD-based QFD  Translated, Ranked, Prioritized & Allocated Key Customer Needs Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 32 On the Parameters Side:  The Designed Experiment (DOE)  NUD Transfer Functions (Key Y = f(Xs)) measured, Ranked & Prioritized

33 33 Sequential Designed Experiments Process Concept DesignOptimizeVerify Multi-vari Studies Screening DOEs Modeling DOEs Optimization DOEs Robust Design DOEs System Stress Test DOEs Tolerance Balancing DOEs Building your knowledge of statistically significant Key Parameters using a sequential DOE strategy …Iterate…

34 34 DOE choices in Product Commercialization There are 7 major types of Designed Experiments 1. Multi-vari studies - (correlation & hypothesis forming studies) 2. Screening Experiments - (sorting controllable factors & noise factors for significance) 3. Modeling Experiments - (quantifying Y = f(x) relationships) 4. Mean Optimization Experiments - (adjust mean performance to hit a desired target) 5. Robustness-to-Noise Experiments - (reduce  in the presence of noise) 6. System Stress Testing Experiments - (identify sensitivity across interfaces & system boundaries) 7. Tolerance Balancing Experiments - (refine cost vs. quality in subsystems, subassemblies & parts) “Everything should be as simple as possible – but not simpler…”

35 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 35 Identifying Key Functional Response & Key Adjustment Parameter Relationships Key Functional Response (KFR) Key Adjustment Parameter (KAP) Ideal

36 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 36 Key Functional Robustness Parameters: KAPs & KFRPs: How they affect a KFR - Robust & Tunable Performance! KAPs are KFR Mean Shifters KFRPs are KFR Variance Reducers Mean Adjusted to VOC Target Robust against Variation

37 37 Reliability Development Process Concept DesignOptimize Verify Reliability Requirements Definition -System -Subsystem / Subassembly - Component Reliability Development Tasks - FMEAs, CAE/CARD, DOE, Robust Design, Tolerance Design Reliability Assessment Tasks -Life Tests, Accelerated Life Tests -HALT, HASS, HAST, Destructive Tests Reliability Modeling – Probabilistic Simulations

38 38 Design for “X” Process Concept DesignOptimize Verify DfX Requirements -System (Product & Production Processes) -Subsystem / Subassembly - Component / Materials Design for X Tasks - Benchmarking, DFMA, Design for Cost, VA/VE… DfX Assessment Tasks -HSER DOEs & Related Tests

39 39 KPD enhanced Team Performance Score Cards Measuring the use of tools, completion of tasks and the fulfillment of Gate Deliverable requirements… Preventive Peer Reviews Contingent Design Reviews Reactive Gate Reviews

40 40 Gate Deliverable Scoring linkage from Tool & Task Scorecards Quality of Tool Use Data Integrity Tool Results vs. Task Reqts Confidence in Data Score Risk Accrual against Gate Reqts. Gate Deliverable Scoring Items Tool Scoring Items Task Scoring Items Task Results vs. Gate Reqts % Task Fulfillment Avg. Tool Score

41 41 Summary – building KP Dev. capability & maturity  Companies who have deployed KPD&M are slowly realizing they can’t use it right if they don’t have SE functional excellence & governance in their Phase-Gate process…  With KPD&M integrated into SE the results are much better  Ad hoc systems work in product commercialization processes keeps you from being great… Ad hoc SE Formal SE Process & Roles KP enhanced SE Process, Roles, tool- task-deliverables… SE capability maturity

42 The ARDEC Story: Defining a process for Pro-active KPD&M  What approaches are available for conducting KP Development & Management?  Are the steps during Development different from those conducted when defining KPs after Launch?  Technology & Product Development?  Post-launch Production & Ongoing Life cycle Management out to Discontinuance? Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 42

43 A New Technology & Product Development Process was constructed: Vector Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 43 Webster - Vector: a quantity that has magnitude and direction and that is commonly represented by a directed line segment whose length represents the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction; b: a course or compass direction c: a course to be taken by an aircraft. ARDEC ‘s Technology & Product Development Process (T&PDP) = Vector Similar to the definition of a Vector, the ARDEC T&PDP will serve as a course or compass direction for navigating ARDEC IPTs through technology and product development projects doing the right things at the right time.

44 Foundations of Vector Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 44  Vector is built upon a wide variety of benchmarks that were “value-mined”…  8 major Corporations:  6 texts from product development consulting firms:  NASA / DoD TRL models  Latest version of the DoD Ford

45 Best elements integrated to design the T&PDP process…. Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 45 Benchmarks, Hybridization and Pugh Concept Selection Process used to document Value Selection - led to the design of Vector Block Diagrams NUD Reqts. VOC Benchmarks

46 Block Diagrams: Defining What to do…. Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc Entrance Criteria  Readiness  Intent 2. Objectives 3. Major Activities  Tasks  Enablers 4. Enabling Best Practices  Completeness 6. Exit Criteria 5. Deliverables  Results

47 And when to do it…. Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 47 TD1TD2TD3TD4TD5TD6TD7TD8TD9 EMD1EMD2EMD3EMD4EMD5EMD6EMD7EMD8EMD9EMD10 Vector Technology Dev. Process… 9 Blocks of Major Activity Groups defined & documented: Vector EMD Process… 10 Blocks of Major Activity Groups defined & documented: Block of Major Activities The Vector Process is constructed of Blocks of Major Activities..

48 Each Block contains a designed Work Flow… adaptable to the type of Project Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 48 Block of Major Activities Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6 MS Project Network Diagrams will illustrate serial / parallel flow paths of Major Activities within each Block… Including linkage between the Actions & their enabling Tool sets. Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6

49 Aligning the Blocks to TRLs & MRLs – Vector added KP depth-of - rigor & clarity of the TRL / MRL definitions & detailed deliverables Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 49 TD5-6TD3-4TD 7TD 8TD3-4TD5TD6-7TD 8EMD 10 EMD 9

50 Technology Dev. Phases & Gates were defined from the 9 TD Block Diagrams…. Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 50 Tech Dev. Project Definition & Plan 1 Tech Reqts Dev 2 Tech Concept Dev 3 Tech Functional & Analytical M&S 4 Subsys Tech Prototype & measmnt System Design & Dev 5 Tech Prototype perf Stability & Tunability Dev 6 Tech Robustness Dev (Dynamic) 7 Tech System Integration, Nominal & Stress Testing 8 Tech Transfer 9 Phase 1: Technology Project Plan & Requirements Dev. Phase 2: Technology Concept Dev. Phase 3: Technology Sub-level Dev. & Optimization Phase 4: Technology Integration & Final Optimization

51 Phase 5: Product & Mfg. Process Verification & Validation Phase 3: Product Sub-level Dev. & Optimization Phase 2: Product Concept Development Product Dev. Phases & Gates were defined from the 10 EMD Block Diagrams…. Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 51 EMD Program definition and plan 1 Technical reqmnts Definition, documentation, and prioritization 2 Product & production process Concept development and selection, system architecture 3 Preliminary Subsys concepts, modeling, simulations, virtual designs 4 Subsys design and prototyping, test planning and measmnt systems capability readiness 5 Subsys design testing and capability perf characterization 6 Subsys design robustness testing, optimization, DOEs under stress 7 System Integration, nominal & stress testing, desensitization 8 Final Product Design 9 Product design verification / Mfg Process verification and validation 10 Phase 1: Product Project Plan & Requirements Dev. Phase 4: Product System Integration & Optimization

52 Example of Vector Technology Development Process Swim lanes loaded with major KPD&M Tasks Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 52

53 11 General Steps in KPD after you are in Production – if you did NOT do KPD during Technology or Product Development…  Project Planning & Mgt., Monte Carlo Sim., Cost Estimation, SMART reqts. & goal ID, Intro to KPD&M Module Step 1: Create a KPD&M Project Charter  Specific, in-depth experience; Technical expertise & judgment, DFLSS training, JIT training & mentoring in KP tool sets Step 2: Create a cross-functional team of experts to help ID a thorough set of KPs  Customer/Stakeholder ID, Interviewing Methods, KJ Analysis, NUD vs. ECO classification, Kano Analysis, QFD & HOQs, Doors, Relational data base Step 3: Generate / Assess requirement clarity, classification & flow-down  I-O-C Diagramming, P-Diagm’g, Noise Diagm’g, System Noise Mapping, Boundary & Interface Diagm’g, 1 st Principles Modeling & Simulation Step 4: Generate I-O-C-Diagrams, P- Diagrams, Noise & Boundary Diagrams  Functional Diagm’g, Flow Diagm’g, Cockpit SW, KP Data base dev., KP Scorecards, KP Reqts. & Measured Y worksheets Step 5: Structure a Key Parameter Flow- down Tree & Relational Data base  NUD vs. ECO classification, Kano Analysis, Pareto process, QFD ranking, Function Trees & Flow Diagm’g., Noise Diagm’g, FMEAs Step 6: ID unique sub-areas of focus; lean out, rank & prioritize the areas to work on  Measurement Systems Analysis, Gage R&R Studies Step 7: Prove measurement systems are capable  Hypothesis formation, SPC & Cp/Cpk studies, DOEs, t-Tests, ALT, HALT, HAST, Duane Plotting Step 8: Design & conduct experiments on candidate Key Parameters & Noises  ANOVA, Descriptive & Inferential Statistical methods, Regression Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Confidence Intervals, Main effects & interaction plotting Step 9: Analyze data using ANOVA & other statistical methods to ID sensitivities & Cpk  Screening DOEs, ANOVA, Taguchi’s Loss Function, Additive Variance Modeling, SPC & Cp/Cpk Studies, F Ratios Step 10: Establish & verify tolerance ranges & % contribution to variation of Key Ys  Control Planning, SPC & Cp/Cpk Studies, KP documentation, KP relational data base & Score cards Step 11: Create a Mfg. & Production implementation & control plan for KPs KPD&M Process Step Enabling Tools & Methods

54 Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc. 54 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SUBSYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SUBASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS MFG. PROCESS REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENT FLOW- DOWN & ALLOCATION CAPABILITY FLOW-UP of Cp & Cpk SYSTEM KFR PERFORMANCE SUBSYSTEM KFR PERFORMANCE SUBASSY. KFR PERFORMANCE COMPONENT KTF PERFORMANCE MFG. PROCESS KFR PERFORMANCE TRANSFER FUNCTION LINKAGE IS USED TO TRACK KEY RELATIONSIPS & TRANSMISSION OF VARIATION…. Summary of KPD&M Concepts Why do we take the time to do it properly? Problem Prevention.


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