Presentation on theme: "Impacting Design Quality through Key Parameter Development & Management Using KPD&M during Technology & Product Development Processes to Prevent."— Presentation transcript:
1Impacting Design Quality through Key Parameter Development & Management Using KPD&M during Technology & Product Development Processes to Prevent Design Problems
2Key parameters control financial consequences… through Y & s Physical Law…Y= f(X)DY= f[DX + D(X*N)] + errorXYXsCp = (USL-LSL )/6ssCpkl = (Y-LSL)/3sXY&sXNoiseCpku = (USL-Y)/3sYT$L(Y) = k[s2 + (Y-T)2]…Financial ConsequencesIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
3What does the word “Key” mean? Something that is…NewTotally new to you & all your competitors, no one has fulfilled the requirement(s) or controlled the parameter(s) before – no experience!UniqueThe requirement(s) or parameter(s) have been fulfilled or controlled by others but not by you!DifficultThe requirement(s) or parameter(s) are extreme & their fulfillment or control is very high in riskIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
4Things that are NOT “Key”… Something that is…EasyCommonOldThese are functions, part specifications & mfg. functions that we place under normal Q.C. metrics- Little or no SPC investment (low need to detect & prevent)- Cp & Cpk checked periodically- Use Six Sigma to react to problems in this areaIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
5Refining the term - KeyA function, part or material characteristic can be designated as Key = Under Watch!Functions occur in the product or process as it is transforming mass & / or energy… it is what the product or process does.Inherent in the design of the product or mfg. processCharacteristics are static dimensions, shape factors, surface finishes or bulk material propertiesKey doesn’t just mean it is important!It means there is high risk because…unproven – we lack facts, little or no data - we don’t know!unstable & must be “watched”!dependent on different Design or Supplier’s capabilitiesIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
6Key Parameters are like slippery bars of soap Key Parameters are like slippery bars of soap! – risk of “getting out of hand”!Risk!Cannot afford to call everything that is merely important a Key Parameter$$$Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
7The road to being designated Key… 1. Vary an X & measure the effect on Y…. DY/DX2. Do so repeatedly & measure the variation around DY caused by each DXi = random error = e3. Define the ratio between the Signal (DY/DXi) & the Noise e… this is called the F Ratio = Strength of each DXi on DY when compared to random noise in the replicated data4. Establish if each Xi’s effect on Y is statistically significant… calculate the p value5. Establish the Capability Index for Ys & Xs… calculate the Cp & Cpk values for Y & X under nominal (Cp) & stressful (Cpk) conditions!Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
8Stability, F Ratio, p Value, Robustness, Tunability & Capability tell the Story! If Xs & Ys are:statistically significant…. Low p values (< 0.05)have high F Ratios (>> 4) from Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)possess unstable behavior (SPC trend & control issues)have low Cp under nominal conditions… then they are extremely risky & are designated as Keys!These are our highest priority Keys to work on.If these same Xs & Yspossess high sensitivity to stressful noises after Robust Designdifficult to tune onto the desired target after Robust Designhave low Cpk under stressful conditions… then they are still very risky & are designated as Keys!Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
9Key >>> NUD! Guilty until proven Innocent! Key parameters are under suspicion – we don’t trust them!measured & watched for drift in meanmeasured & watched for changes in sA parameter or characteristic can come off our list of Keys…. Re-designated as ECO!Proven stability over time (SPC Charting)Ease of control under nominal & stressful conditions (Robust & Tunable performance)Sustained capability (Cp/Cpk) as cost is reducedX & R ChartsIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
10What is Key Parameter Development & Management? A proactive process for:IdentifyingConnectingTrackingRefiningPreventing problemsDocumenting a hierarchy of:Key requirements & the integrated set of measured functions, specifications & set points- down through a product architecture and its production & support processes.Intro to KPD&MM, Copyright 2010 PDSS Inc.
11…but not by rushing & cutting corners. A bit of history….From Dogma & Faith…Dogma = Cheaper & Faster – We must Hurry!!!Faith = We You will make it!To Doubt & Experimentation…Doubt = We have risk & uncertainty – we need facts!Experimentation = We can & will take the time to learn!XLearning generates facts which reduce uncertainty & lower risk……but not by rushing & cutting corners.Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
12Some personal history… Dogma & Faith results circa compared to Doubt & Experimentation results from at Kodak…A focused effort was implemented in Kodak’s digital printing business unit on the DigiMaster Project:Our 1st ever Commercial Systems Engineering Org., Center of Excellence & SE ProcessComprehensive integration of Key Parameter Development & Mgt. approach into Phase-Gate PDPClear definition of “Key” Customer needsHeavy emphasis on Reliability Development using Robust DesignDetailed “Design for X” focus on produceability & serviceabilityStrong Project Manager, rigorous PM methods & dedicated, accountable PDT (functional Centers of Excellence supported it)Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
13The DigiMaster 9100 digital printing system Over 10,000 parts< 30 major subsystems (chemo-opto-mechatronics)Req’d 6s image quality across 15 measurable attributesReq’d 150K MIBSC within 95% Confidence Limits
14Historic example of Prod. Dev Historic example of Prod. Dev. Team performance before the use of SE & KP enabled work flow…Pre-SE, KPD, DFSS, etc.TargetsChange over to supplier mtl.s & partsIndependent SS Changes to improve System PerformanceLate integration of tweeked SSs & purchased accessoriesSystem integration too early…MTBF50-60% of TargetGate 2Gate 3Gate 4Gate 5TimeDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
15Development Teams can improve results with SE, Key Parameter Development & select DFSS tools… SE/KPD/DFSS Actual+2s UCLPre-SE, KPD, DFSS, etc.Target>95% of Target-2s LCLMTBF50-60% of TargetGate 2Gate 3Gate 4Gate 5TimeDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
16Duane plot from an actual project Defining Lean in the Context of DFSS
17What made the difference? Macro-effectsCreated a formal systems engineering organization- clear SE roles, with SE tools, tasks & deliverables tied to Gate Requirements measured with performance score cards – not checklistsEnhanced the SE team to actively use specific KP tasks with DFSS tools to complete the tasks,directly assisting sub-teams – producing the right SE Gate deliverablesMicro-effectsKey Parameter Mgt.: clear definition of Key reqts. flow down & rigorous measurement of capability flow-up (Cp & Cpk trace-ability)System Integration, system sensitivity analysis & reliability testing only AFTER subsystem & subassy. robustness optimization was completedreliability development vs. assessmentComplete story is in Ch. 7:Systems Architecting, Engineering & Integration using DFSS & Key Parameter DevelopmentDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
18What does System Development look like as a flow of work over time? The Super-set of System Engineering Macro- Functions:ArchitectingEngineeringIntegrationAssessment & ValidationSystem Performance BalancingInternal & External NeedsSubsystem Interface Development & Robustness OptimizationSystem FunctionsSystem ModelingSystem KPM Database Transfer to Production, Service & Tech. SupportSystem Integration & Stress TestingSystem Internal & External ValidationSystem ArchitectureSystem Reqts.Flow of System Architecting, Engineering, Integration & Assessment TasksDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
19Process Map of Major System Architecting, Engineering, Integration & Assessment Tasks Define System ReqtsDefine System FunctionsDefine System ArchitecturePartition System into SubsystemsCreate & build KPM DatabaseGenerate System FMEALead System Integration MeetingsDevelop System Noise MapBalance Interface Sensitivities – create latitudeDefine System Integration DOEs &Test PlansIntegrate System Test Rigs & Data Acq. SystemConduct System Integration Stress TestsBalance System PerformanceConduct Reliability AssessmentsValidate System PerformanceTransfer KPM Database to Mfg. & SupportDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
20Key Parameter Management Process Key Parameter Enabled Systems & Design Engineering: Key Parameter Dev. process & enabling DFSS toolsConceptDesignOptimizeVerifyKey Parameter Management ProcessRequirements Development ProcessFull KPD&M details: Ch.s 8-13 of DFSS textConcept Design ProcessSequential Design of Experiments ProcessReliability Definition, Modeling, Development & Assessment ProcessDesign for “X” Process- Manufacturing, Assembly & Cost; Service Maint. & Support- Environment, Health, Safety, Legal & RegulatoryDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
21Allocated Reqt.s Flow-down & Measured Capability Roll-up VOC NeedsCustomer SatisfactionVerification &Preventive / ContingentActionProcessProduct Reqts.Product CFR Cp & CpkSubsystem Reqts.Subsystem CFR Cp & CpkSubassembly Reqts.Subassembly CFR Cp & CpkComponent Reqts.Component Spec. Cp & CpkFlow down of the reqts to be fulfilled through the measurement of KFRs & KPsRoll-up of Cp & Cpk through the measurement of KFRs & KPsMfg. Process Reqts.Mfg. Process Cp & CpkDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
22Requirements Development Process …Flow-down of NUD / Kano requirements to be fulfilledVOC NeedsEnabling Tools. Methods & Best Practices:Customer InterviewingKJ AnalysisNUD Screening & Kano AnalysisQFDRequirements Trace-ability & Documentation (DOORS, etc.)Product Reqts.Subsystem Reqts.Subassembly Reqts.Component Reqts.Mfg. Process Reqts.Defining Lean in the Context of DFSS
23System Concept Design Process Step 1: External NeedsGathering, Processing & Validating the Voices of the Customer, Marketing, Technology & BusinessStep 2: Internal Requirements & ConstraintsGenerating & documenting a system of NUD / Kano requirements in a Key Parameter Mgt. data baseStep 3: Innovation, Architecting & SolutionsConcept Generation, Feasibility Evaluations & final Concept SelectionDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
24Metrics for Requirements Can be Compared to Measures of Sample Data What is Required?Customer Level (USL – LSL)System Level (USL – LSL)Subsystem Level (USL – LSL)Subassembly Level (USL – LSL)Component Level (USL – LSL)Mfg. Process Level (USL – LSL)What is Measured?Customer Level (Avg & σ)System Level (Avg & σ)Subsystem Level (Avg & σ)Subassembly Level (Avg & σ)Component Level (Avg & σ)Mfg. Process Level (Avg & σ)From this comparison we can document performance CapabilityIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
25Reqt. Allocation & KP Measuring down through the System to Subsystems, Sub Assemblies, Parts & Mfg. Processes!Key Reqt.s Allocation & LinkageProduct or System LevelSub System LevelSub Assy LevelPart LevelCapability Assessment & TraceabilityMfg. LevelIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
26Product Functional Capability (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KFR response within the product (Sys/SSys/SAys)(USL-LSL): as stated in the Reqts. Document6s = six times the sample std. dev of a Key Functional Response KFR in the design“s” measures functional variation“s” is composed of both mfg. and customer-base variation in product usage and environmentssKFRIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
27Part Specification Capability (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KTF spec. on a component / assembly(USL-LSL): directly traceable to both Product & Manufacturing KFRs6s = six times the sample std. dev of a KTF Part specification“s” measures dimensional, surface finish, bulk material property or material variation“s” is composed only of unit-to-unit Part variationsKTFIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
28Manufacturing Process Capability (USL-LSL): tolerance range for a KFR spec. on a production machine(USL-LSL): directly traceable up to Part KTF Spec.6s = six times the sample std. dev of a KFR specification“s” measures Process functional variation“s” is composed only of functional mfg. variationsKFRIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
29Required KP Mgt. Data for any form of Capability Assessment Gage R&RAll KFRs, KPs or KTF Spec.s must have a capable metrology process documented & in useEach KFR, KP or KTF Spec. is placed under SPC so the Cp can be routinely quantified for Phase-by-Phase growth & Life Cycle stability characterizationAll KFRs typically have a target of Cp = 2 & Cpk of 1.5I & MR ChartCapability StudyIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
30KPD&M Flow-Down Map System Reqt. Y=System KFR Su bsystem Reqt. 1=SSKFRSubsystem Reqt.23Subsystem-to-System Level Transfer Functions Y = f(x1, x2, …xn)Subassy. Reqt.X=SAssy.=SAssy.Subassy-to-Subsystem Level Transfer Functions: Y = f(x1, x2, … xn)Component Reqt.sn=Comp.KTF Spec.sMfg. Process Reqt.s=Mfg..NUD VOC Need #1NUD VOC Need #2Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
31Modeling & SimulationM&S was in place & was pretty good - but it left KP knowledge gaps - & not just a few!!!Could not predict physics-based interactions between controllable engineering parameters very well…Xi * Xj = ???Could not predict physics-based interactions between controllable engineering parameters AND NOISE PARAMETERS = unwanted sources of variation…Xi * Noise = ???From variation in production parts, assembly & materialsFrom variation in disruptive sources external to the systemFrom variation in deteriorative sources internal to the systemWeibull, Exponential, Gamma, Rayliegh, Lognormal, Normal, etc.????Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
322 Major Matrices dominate the KP Dev. Process! On the Requirements Side:The Houses of Quality from NUD-based QFDTranslated, Ranked, Prioritized & Allocated Key Customer NeedsOn the Parameters Side:The Designed Experiment (DOE)NUD Transfer Functions (Key Y = f(Xs)) measured, Ranked & PrioritizedIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
33Sequential Designed Experiments Process ConceptDesignOptimizeVerifyTolerance Balancing DOEsMulti-vari StudiesScreening DOEsSystem Stress Test DOEsModeling DOEsRobust Design DOEs…Iterate…Optimization DOEsBuilding your knowledge of statistically significant Key Parameters using a sequential DOE strategyDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
34DOE choices in Product Commercialization There are 7 major types of Designed Experiments1. Multi-vari studies- (correlation & hypothesis forming studies)2. Screening Experiments- (sorting controllable factors & noise factors for significance)3. Modeling Experiments- (quantifying Y = f(x) relationships)4. Mean Optimization Experiments- (adjust mean performance to hit a desired target)5. Robustness-to-Noise Experiments- (reduce s in the presence of noise)6. System Stress Testing Experiments- (identify sensitivity across interfaces & system boundaries)7. Tolerance Balancing Experiments- (refine cost vs. quality in subsystems, subassemblies & parts)“Everything should be as simple as possible – but not simpler…”Defining Lean in the Context of DFSS
36Robust against Variation Mean Adjusted to VOC Target Key Functional Robustness Parameters: KAPs & KFRPs: How they affect a KFR - Robust & Tunable Performance!KFRPs are KFR Variance ReducersKAPs are KFR Mean ShiftersRobust against VariationMean Adjusted to VOC TargetIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
37Reliability Development Process ConceptDesignOptimizeVerifyReliability Requirements Definition-System-Subsystem / Subassembly- ComponentReliability Modeling – Probabilistic SimulationsReliability Development Tasks- FMEAs, CAE/CARD, DOE, Robust Design, Tolerance DesignReliability Assessment TasksLife Tests, Accelerated Life TestsHALT, HASS, HAST, Destructive TestsDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
38Design for “X” Process Concept Design Optimize Verify DfX Requirements -System (Product & Production Processes)-Subsystem / Subassembly- Component / MaterialsDesign for X Tasks- Benchmarking, DFMA, Design for Cost, VA/VE…DfX Assessment TasksHSER DOEs & Related TestsDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
39KPD enhanced Team Performance Score Cards Preventive Peer ReviewsContingent Design ReviewsReactive Gate ReviewsMeasuring the use of tools, completion of tasks and the fulfillment of Gate Deliverable requirements…Defining Lean in the Context of DFSS
40Gate Deliverable Scoring linkage from Tool & Task Scorecards Tool Scoring ItemsQuality of Tool UseData IntegrityTool Results vs. Task ReqtsTask Scoring ItemsAvg. Tool Score% Task FulfillmentTask Results vs. Gate ReqtsGate Deliverable Scoring ItemsRisk Accrual against Gate Reqts.Confidence in Data ScoreDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
41Summary – building KP Dev. capability & maturity Companies who have deployed KPD&M are slowly realizing they can’t use it right if they don’t have SE functional excellence & governance in their Phase-Gate process…With KPD&M integrated into SE the results are much betterAd hoc systems work in product commercialization processes keeps you from being great…SE capability maturityKP enhanced SE Process, Roles, tool-task-deliverables…Formal SE Process & RolesAd hoc SEDefining Lean in the Context of DFSS
42The ARDEC Story: Defining a process for Pro-active KPD&M What approaches are available for conducting KP Development & Management?Are the steps during Development different from those conducted when defining KPs after Launch?Technology & Product Development?Post-launch Production & Ongoing Life cycle Management out to Discontinuance?Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
43A New Technology & Product Development Process was constructed: Vector Similar to the definition of a Vector, the ARDEC T&PDP will serve as a course or compass direction for navigating ARDEC IPTs through technology and product development projects doing the right things at the right time.Webster - Vector: a quantity that has magnitude and direction and that is commonly represented by a directed line segment whose length represents the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction; b: a course or compass direction c: a course to be taken by an aircraft.ARDEC ‘s Technology & Product Development Process (T&PDP) = VectorIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
44Foundations of Vector Ford Vector is built upon a wide variety of benchmarks that were “value-mined”…8 major Corporations:6 texts from product development consulting firms:NASA / DoD TRL modelsLatest version of the DoDFordIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
45Best elements integrated to design the T&PDP process…. BenchmarksVOCNUD Reqts.Benchmarks, Hybridization and Pugh Concept Selection Process used to document Value Selection - led to the design of Vector Block DiagramsIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
46Block Diagrams: Defining What to do…. 1. Entrance CriteriaReadiness3. Major ActivitiesTasksResults5. DeliverablesCompleteness6. Exit CriteriaIntent2. ObjectivesEnablers4. Enabling Best PracticesIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
47And when to do it….The Vector Process is constructed of Blocks of Major Activities..Block of Major ActivitiesVector Technology Dev. Process…9 Blocks of Major Activity Groups defined & documented:TD1TD2TD3TD4TD5TD6TD7TD8TD9Vector EMD Process…10 Blocks of Major Activity Groups defined & documented:EMD1EMD2EMD3EMD4EMD5EMD6EMD7EMD8EMD9EMD10Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
48Including linkage between the Actions & their enabling Tool sets. Each Block contains a designed Work Flow… adaptable to the type of ProjectBlock of Major ActivitiesBlock of Major ActivitiesActivity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Block of Major ActivitiesActivity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Block of Major ActivitiesActivity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Block of Major ActivitiesActivity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6Activity 1Activity 2Activity 4Activity 5Activity 3Activity 6MS Project Network Diagrams will illustrate serial / parallel flow paths of Major Activities within each Block…Including linkage between the Actions & their enabling Tool sets.Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
49Aligning the Blocks to TRLs & MRLs – Vector added KP depth-of -rigor & clarity of the TRL / MRL definitions & detailed deliverablesTD3-4TD5-6TD 7TD 8EMD 10TD3-4TD5TD6-7TD 8EMD 9EMD 10EMD 10Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
50Technology Dev. Phases & Gates were defined from the 9 TD Block Diagrams…. Phase 1: Technology Project Plan & Requirements Dev.Phase 2: Technology Concept Dev.Tech Dev. Project Definition & Plan1Tech Reqts Dev2Tech Concept Dev3Tech Functional & Analytical M&S4Phase 3: Technology Sub-level Dev. & OptimizationPhase 4: Technology Integration & Final OptimizationSubsys Tech Prototype & measmnt System Design & Dev5Tech Prototype perf Stability & Tunability Dev6Tech Robustness Dev (Dynamic)7Tech System Integration, Nominal & Stress Testing8Tech Transfer9Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
51Product Dev. Phases & Gates were defined from the 10 EMD Block Diagrams…. Phase 1: Product Project Plan & Requirements Dev.Phase 2: Product Concept DevelopmentEMD Program definition and plan1Technical reqmnts Definition, documentation, and prioritization2Product & production process Concept development and selection, system architecture3Preliminary Subsys concepts, modeling, simulations, virtual designs4Subsys design and prototyping, test planning and measmnt systems capability readiness5Phase 3: Product Sub-level Dev. & OptimizationPhase 5: Product & Mfg. Process Verification & ValidationSubsys design testing and capability perf characterization6Subsys design robustness testing, optimization, DOEs under stress7System Integration, nominal & stress testing, desensitization8Final Product Design9Product design verification / Mfg Process verification and validation10Phase 4: Product System Integration & OptimizationIntro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
52Example of Vector Technology Development Process Swim lanes loaded with major KPD&M Tasks Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.
53Enabling Tools & Methods 11 General Steps in KPD after you are in Production – if you did NOT do KPD during Technology or Product Development…KPD&M Process StepEnabling Tools & MethodsProject Planning & Mgt., Monte Carlo Sim., Cost Estimation, SMART reqts. & goal ID, Intro to KPD&M ModuleStep 1: Create a KPD&M Project CharterSpecific, in-depth experience; Technical expertise & judgment, DFLSS training, JIT training & mentoring in KP tool setsStep 2: Create a cross-functional team of experts to help ID a thorough set of KPsCustomer/Stakeholder ID, Interviewing Methods, KJ Analysis, NUD vs. ECO classification, Kano Analysis, QFD & HOQs, Doors, Relational data baseStep 3: Generate / Assess requirement clarity, classification & flow-downI-O-C Diagramming, P-Diagm’g, Noise Diagm’g, System Noise Mapping, Boundary & Interface Diagm’g, 1st Principles Modeling & SimulationStep 4: Generate I-O-C-Diagrams, P-Diagrams, Noise & Boundary DiagramsFunctional Diagm’g, Flow Diagm’g, Cockpit SW, KP Data base dev., KP Scorecards, KP Reqts. & Measured Y worksheetsStep 5: Structure a Key Parameter Flow-down Tree & Relational Data baseNUD vs. ECO classification, Kano Analysis, Pareto process, QFD ranking, Function Trees & Flow Diagm’g., Noise Diagm’g, FMEAsStep 6: ID unique sub-areas of focus; lean out, rank & prioritize the areas to work onMeasurement Systems Analysis, Gage R&R StudiesStep 7: Prove measurement systems are capableHypothesis formation, SPC & Cp/Cpk studies, DOEs, t-Tests, ALT, HALT, HAST, Duane PlottingStep 8: Design & conduct experiments on candidate Key Parameters & NoisesANOVA, Descriptive & Inferential Statistical methods, Regression Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Confidence Intervals, Main effects & interaction plottingStep 9: Analyze data using ANOVA & other statistical methods to ID sensitivities & CpkScreening DOEs, ANOVA, Taguchi’s Loss Function, Additive Variance Modeling, SPC & Cp/Cpk Studies, F RatiosStep 10: Establish & verify tolerance ranges & % contribution to variation of Key YsControl Planning, SPC & Cp/Cpk Studies, KP documentation, KP relational data base & Score cardsStep 11: Create a Mfg. & Production implementation & control plan for KPs
54Summary of KPD&M Concepts REQUIREMENT FLOW-DOWN & ALLOCATIONCAPABILITY FLOW-UP of Cp & CpkSYSTEM REQUIREMENTSSYSTEM KFR PERFORMANCETRANSFER FUNCTION LINKAGE IS USED TO TRACK KEY RELATIONSIPS & TRANSMISSION OF VARIATION….SUBSYSTEM REQUIREMENTSSUBSYSTEM KFR PERFORMANCESUBASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTSSUBASSY. KFR PERFORMANCECOMPONENT REQUIREMENTSCOMPONENT KTF PERFORMANCEMFG. PROCESS REQUIREMENTSMFG. PROCESS KFR PERFORMANCEWhy do we take the time to do it properly? Problem Prevention.Intro to KPD&M, Copyright 2010, PDSS Inc.