Full service CPA firm specializing in assisting clients that work with the WIP Schedule. Over 95% of our clients are in construction and/or are government contractors. We believe in educating our clients and working with them to help them get to the next level.
I. General Accounting Basics and How to Save Money on your CPA II. Accrual vs. Cash Basis III. Percentage of Completion Method of Accounting IV. -- Break Time -- V. What is the WIP Schedule? VI. Detailed WIP example
Make sure to have the following in place: Have a dedicated Accountant/Bookkeeper. Use a CPA or tax preparer that you not only trust, but someone who understands your business and your industry. Understand the requirements of your financial institution (bank) and insurance company.
What do banks/insurance companies generally look at: 1. Overall Profitability 2. Balance Sheet including Working Capital 3. Cash Flow 4. Distributions to Owners 5. Timely Financial Reporting 6. Underbillings/Overbillings (WIP) 7. Poor Fade (WIP)
Even if you trust your CPA completely, it is important to have a basic understanding of the financial statements: Balance Sheet Income Statement Statement of Cash Flows Statement of Retained Earnings Work-in-Progress Schedule
Taking the following steps should enable you to start saving money on your CPA bill!
1. Make sure to enter your adjusting journal entries (AJEs) promptly! 2. Don’t make any changes to prior years’ transactions! 3. Make sure to reconcile all bank and credit card accounts monthly!
4. Keep account coding simple! 5. Don’t commingle accounts with your personal accounts! 6. Job costing 101 – All job costs should be coded to a job!
What is the cash basis of accounting? What is the accrual basis of accounting? Why is it important?
Common accounts on an accrual basis financial statement that you won’t see on a cash basis financial statement Accounts Receivable Prepaid Expenses Accounts Payable Accrued Expenses Bad Debt Expense
What is it? 1.Investopedia definition: An accounting method in which the revenues and expenses of long-term contracts are recognized yearly as a percentage of the work completed during that year. 2.It is a revenue recognition method recognized by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
What is a long-term contract? IRC Section 460(f)(1): In general, the term "long- term contract" means any contract for the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property if such contract is not completed within the taxable year in which such contract is entered into.
Why is it important? 1.It is the most accurate way to measure revenues on uncompleted contracts. 2.More importantly, it is probably required by the bank, surety company, and even your friends at the SBA!
The most important schedule in financial statements using the percentage-of- completion method is the work-in- progress schedule!
It is a supplementary schedule within the financial statements of a construction contractor (using the percentage-of- completion method) that shows a financial snapshot of a contractor’s uncompleted contracts at a specified time period. The WIP schedule may be required by your surety/banks on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, or annual basis.
Current contract price (including change orders) Total estimated contract cost Cost incurred to date (from inception) Billings to date
Estimated gross profit on completed contract Gross profit percentage Percentage complete Revenues earned to date Gross profit to date
Formula: Current contract price minus total estimated contract cost. Example: If you sign a contract for $600,000 and you estimate that your total costs will be $400,000, what is your estimated gross profit?
Formula: Current contract price minus total estimated contract cost. $600,000 $400,000 Answer: $200,000
Formula: Estimated gross profit divided by current contract price Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, total estimated costs of $400,000, estimated gross profit of $200,000), what is your gross profit percentage?
Formula: Estimated gross profit divided by current contract price $200,000 / $600,000 Answer: 33 1/3%
Formula: Cost incurred to date divided by total estimated contract cost Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, total estimated costs of $400,000, estimated gross profit of $200,000), if your cost incurred to date is $40,000 on this job, what is your percent complete on this job?
Formula: Cost incurred to date divided by total estimated contract cost $40,000 / $400,000 Answer: 10%
Formula: Percent complete times current contract price Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, cost incurred to date of $40,000, percent complete of 10%), how much of your revenues have you earned to date?
Formula: Percent complete times current contract price $600,000 x 10% Answer: $60,000
Formula: Revenues earned to date minus cost incurred to date Example: Using previous example (percent complete of 10%, revenues earned to date of $60,000, cost incurred to date of $40,000), what is your gross profit to date?
Formula: Revenues earned to date minus cost incurred to date $60,000 $40,000 Answer: $20,000
Ono & Chen Builders secures a job with Hawaii DOT on 10/1/13 with the following values: ◦ Contract signed for $500,000 ◦ Project manager expects job will cost $250,000 ◦ As of 12/31/13, $50,000 of materials have been purchased for the job
Estimated Gross Profit Gross Profit Percentage Percent Complete as of 12/31/13 Revenues Earned to Date as of 12/31/13 Gross Profit to Date as of 12/31/13
Estimated Gross Profit = $250,000 Gross Profit Percentage = 50% Percent Complete as of 12/31/13 = 20% Revenues Earned to Date as of 12/31/13 = $100,000 Gross Profit to Date as of 12/31/13 = $50,000
Job costing is extremely important as revenues earned to date are driven by costs. Therefore, it is important that you properly code all your job costs!
Sometimes referred to as overbillings and underbillings, it is the difference between revenues earned to date and amount billed to date to the customer. These accounts are balance sheet accounts and are an offset against revenues. ◦ Cost in Excess of Billings is an asset ◦ Billings in Excess of Cost is a liability
Ono & Chen Builders has earned $100,000 of revenues as of 12/31/13 on a sole source contract with Hawaii DOT and has billed Hawaii DOT $50,000 as of 12/31/13. Ono & Chen Builders has underbilled Hawaii DOT and must record the following journal entry on 12/31/13: ◦ DEBIT: Cost in Excess of Billings $50,000 ◦ CREDIT: Revenues $50,000
Ono & Chen Builders has earned $100,000 of revenues as of 12/31/13 on a sole source contract with Hawaii DOT but has billed Hawaii DOT $130,000 as of 12/31/13. Ono & Chen has overbilled Hawaii DOT and must record the following journal entry: ◦ DEBIT: Revenues $30,000 ◦ CREDIT: Billings in Excess of Cost $30,000
Note: The journal entries for ‘Cost in Excess of Billings’ and ‘Billings in Excess of Costs’ are very important. These entries directly offset revenues.