Presentation on theme: "Lee Ngan Hoe School of Education, College of Health and Human Services, St. Ambrose University, USA Mathematics & Mathematics Education,"— Presentation transcript:
Lee Ngan Hoe School of Education, College of Health and Human Services, St. Ambrose University, USA Mathematics & Mathematics Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Singapore – A Brief Introduction The Singapore Mathematics Curriculum Reflections Concluding Comments Questions and Discussion
Source: Singapore Department of Statistics -
Founded in : 1819 Gained independence in : 1965 People : Mainly migrants National Language : Malay Official /Working Language : English
A small country – island, city, state, country Warm and humid Generally safe from natural disasters and crime Known for shopping and eating Common use of English
TIMSS – the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study or as previously known Third International Mathematics and Science Study PISA – Programme for International Student Assessment TEDS-M – Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics
The Singapore Mathematics Curriculum – Basically a national curriculum: Textbooks must be approved before being adopted in schools. Context
The Ministry of Education Primary Mathematics Syllabus Document (Year of implementation – 2007) (http://www.moe.edu.sg/education/syllabuses/sciences /files/maths-primary-2007.pdf)http://www.moe.edu.sg/education/syllabuses/sciences /files/maths-primary-2007.pdf The Ministry of Education Primary Mathematics Syllabus Document (Year of implementation – 2013) (http://www.moe.edu.sg/education/syllabuses/sciences /files/maths-primary-2013.pdf)http://www.moe.edu.sg/education/syllabuses/sciences /files/maths-primary-2013.pdf
Framework – What to address? Approaches – How to address?
Lee, N.H. (2008). Nation Building Initiative: Impact on Singapore Mathematics Curriculum. In Niss, M. (Ed.) 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education Proceedings (CD). Copenhagen: Roskilde University. The Framework for the Singapore Mathematics Curriculum, developed in 1990, for example, survived, with minor modification, the major curriculum review for the 2000 syllabuses which took into account the three new Initiatives. One of the key reasons for the Framework’s survival is its rigour and robustness in presenting the philosophy and principles underlying decisions made about what mathematics education should equip our students with.
Problem Solving Teaching for Problem Solving Teaching of Problem Solving Teaching through Problem Solving
Promotion Of Effectiveness Efficiency Elegance
Unit Square Unit Length = 1
Lead to problem posing – rather than consumers of mathematics, students are encouraged to be creators of mathematics.
Each topic is revisited and introduced in increasing depth from one level to the next to enable students to consolidate the concepts and skills learned and to develop these concept and skills further.
It is not just about representing an idea in different forms, it is about connecting the various representation to make sense of the mathematics to be learnt
Eclectic approach towards teaching and learning of mathematics in a centralised system Consistency-based and integrated approach towards curriculum changes
Value on education and mathematics Exposure to eclecticism, striking for balance, strive for unity
Size East or West?
Every school is a good school concept: Raising the average National examinations Emphasise on strategic use of Information and Communication Technology
One way to help Americans excel at math is to copy the approach of the Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans. In Intelligence and How to Get It, Nisbett describes how the educational systems of East Asian countries focus more on hard work than on inborn talent:Intelligence and How to Get It, 1.“Children in Japan go to school about 240 days a year, whereas children in the United States go to school about 180 days a year.” 2.“Japanese high school students of the 1980s studied 3 ½ hours a day, and that number is likely to be, if anything, higher today.” 3.“[The inhabitants of Japan and Korea] do not need to read this book to find out that intelligence and intellectual accomplishment are highly malleable. Confucius set that matter straight twenty-five hundred years ago.” 4.“When they do badly at something, [Japanese, Koreans, etc.] respond by working harder at it.” 5.“Persistence in the face of failure is very much part of the Asian tradition of self- improvement. And [people in those countries] are accustomed to criticism in the service of self-improvement in situations where Westerners avoid it or resent it.” We certainly don’t want America’s education system to copy everything Japan does (and we remain agnostic regarding the wisdom of Confucius). But it seems to us that an emphasis on hard work is a hallmark not just of modern East Asia, but of America’s past as well. In returning to an emphasis on effort, America would be returning to its roots, not just copying from successful foreigners. Source: The Atlantic – The Myth of ‘I’m Bad at Math (2013) at-math/280914/http://www.theatlantic.com/education/print/2013/10/the-myth-of-im-bad- at-math/280914/
Education is embedded in a sociocultural context. Curriculum development should be approached from a integrative rather than additive manner, reflecting and refining the aspiration of the people. International benchmark studies is but just one way to better understand the gaps that exist in curriculum, teaching and learning. A balanced and holistic approach is needed for curriculum development.
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Let AB be the 2-digit number. So, A = 1, 2, 3, 4,..., 7, 8, 9 and B = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,..., 7, 8, 9 The value of AB is: 10 × A + B. The value of sum of the two digits is: A + B. So, your answer is: 10 × A + B – (A + B) = 9 × A In other words, your answer is 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81.