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Measuring Abuse Sequelae: Validating and Extending the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring Abuse Sequelae: Validating and Extending the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring Abuse Sequelae: Validating and Extending the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle The University of Alabama  Negative sequelae associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) is related to significant and negative impairments in adulthood  Symptoms include: depression, dissociation, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, sexual problems, and somatization  The Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40; Elliot & Briere, 1992) has been established:  As a measure of long-term effects of CSA  In adult clinical populations  Adequate levels of reliability and validity  The current study seeks to extend the use of the TSC-40:  As a measure of long-term effects of CSA and CPA  In a non-clinical, college student sample  With male evaluees as well as the typical female evaluees  The current study also anticipates that:  Those reporting both CSA and CPA will report more trauma-related symptoms  Abuse severity will be positively related to experiencing trauma-related symptoms in adulthood  Victim typology may influence subsequent dysfunction INTRODUCTION: METHOD:  Participants:  442 undergraduate students  Mean age = years (SD = 3.03 years)  66% Female, 34% Male  80% Caucasian, 10% African American, 4% Latino/a, and 6% from a different racial background RESULTS: Abuse History Questionnaire  Frequency of abuse  Time abuse was experienced  If they sought help because of abuse  If they knew a perpetrator of abuse  If they knew someone in legal trouble as a perpetrator of abuse  If the known perpetrator was punished or treated Demographic Questionnaire  Age and Sex  Race  Religious Orientation  Socioeconomic Status Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) Total Score and 6 Subscale Scores: 1)Dissociation2)Anxiety 3)Depression4) Post-Sexual Abuse Trauma 5) Sleep Disturbance6) Sexual Problems 40 Items of Adult Symptoms:  4-point scale (0 = never, 3 = often)  Frequency of symptoms in previous 2 months  Higher scores = more abuse Measures: Model 1: MANOVA with IV = Type of Abuse (no abuse vs. CPA vs. CSA vs. CPA and CSA) 7 DVs = TSC-40 total score and 6 subscale scores  Significant effect for type of abuse (beyond gender)Wilks’ Lambda = 0.85, F(21, 1184) = 3.26, p < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.05 Univariate ANOVAs on each DV:  Significant effect for type of abuse on TSC-40F(3, 418)= 13.93, p= < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.09  Significant effect for type of abuse on 6 subscalesFs (3, 418) ≥ 5.35, ps ≤ 0.001, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.04 LSD pairwise comparisons: CPA, CSA, and CPA/CSA  higher TSC-40 total scores than no abuse (ps ≤ 0.006) CPA/CSA  higher TSC-40 total scores and 4 subscales (#1-4 as previously listed) than no abuse (ps ≤ 0.006) Model 2: MANCOVA with Covariates = severity of CPA and severity of CSA 7 DVs = TSC-40 total score and 6 subscale scores  Significant effect for severity of physical abuse and for severity of sexual abuse Wilks’ Lambda = 0.90, F(7, 411) = 6.77, p < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.10 Wilks’ Lambda = 0.94, F(7, 411) = 3.78, p = 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.06 Univariate ANOVAs on each DV:  Significant effect for severity of CPA on TSC-40 and 6 subscalesβs ≥ 0.43, ts ≥ 4.14, ps < 0.001, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.04  Significant effect for severity of CSA on TSC-40 and 6 subscalesβs ≥ 0.96, ts ≥ 2.12, ps ≤ 0.034, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.01 **Severity of CPA and CSA related to experiencing more trauma-related symptoms in adulthood Regression = severity of CPA and CSA as predictors of TSC-40 total scores  Model with Step 1 = CSA severity and Step 2 = CPA SeverityR 2 = (10.5% of explained varaince)  CPA and CSA severity explains variability in TSC-40F(2, 431) = 25.32, p <  Step 1 = CSA SeverityR 2 = F(1, 432) = 13.58, p <  Step 2 = addition of CPA SeverityR 2 = FΔ (1, 432) = 35.97, p < **Severity of CSA and CPA account for variability in TSC-40 total scores, with CPA Severity adding the most explanation  The TSC-40 is an appropriate measure for the traumatic sequelae of both CPA and CSA in a non-clinical sample  Because we controlled for gender, our findings help to support the validity of the TSC-40  Traumatic legacy of either CPA or CSA may be just as strong as CPA and CSA together  Severity of CPA and CSA leads to greater residual trauma-related symptoms  Limitations:  Is a college sample equivalent to a community sample? Our rate of CPA was consistent with other studies, but our rate of CSA was lower than other studies, even those looking at college samples  Strengths:  1) large sample size and adequate statistical power; 2) reduced alpha inflation and Type II error; 3) contributions to literature of the negative sequelae of CPA and CSA in a nonclinical sample  Future Directions:  Examine TSC-40 in a broader way than typically used (CSA and CPA; nonclinical samples; college samples) DISCUSSION:


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