Presentation on theme: "Measuring Abuse Sequelae: Validating and Extending the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring Abuse Sequelae: Validating and Extending the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle Tess M.S. Neal & Jacklyn E. Nagle The University of Alabama Negative sequelae associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) is related to significant and negative impairments in adulthood Symptoms include: depression, dissociation, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, sexual problems, and somatization The Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40; Elliot & Briere, 1992) has been established: As a measure of long-term effects of CSA In adult clinical populations Adequate levels of reliability and validity The current study seeks to extend the use of the TSC-40: As a measure of long-term effects of CSA and CPA In a non-clinical, college student sample With male evaluees as well as the typical female evaluees The current study also anticipates that: Those reporting both CSA and CPA will report more trauma-related symptoms Abuse severity will be positively related to experiencing trauma-related symptoms in adulthood Victim typology may influence subsequent dysfunction INTRODUCTION: METHOD: Participants: 442 undergraduate students Mean age = 18.98 years (SD = 3.03 years) 66% Female, 34% Male 80% Caucasian, 10% African American, 4% Latino/a, and 6% from a different racial background RESULTS: Abuse History Questionnaire Frequency of abuse Time abuse was experienced If they sought help because of abuse If they knew a perpetrator of abuse If they knew someone in legal trouble as a perpetrator of abuse If the known perpetrator was punished or treated Demographic Questionnaire Age and Sex Race Religious Orientation Socioeconomic Status Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) Total Score and 6 Subscale Scores: 1)Dissociation2)Anxiety 3)Depression4) Post-Sexual Abuse Trauma 5) Sleep Disturbance6) Sexual Problems 40 Items of Adult Symptoms: 4-point scale (0 = never, 3 = often) Frequency of symptoms in previous 2 months Higher scores = more abuse Measures: Model 1: MANOVA with IV = Type of Abuse (no abuse vs. CPA vs. CSA vs. CPA and CSA) 7 DVs = TSC-40 total score and 6 subscale scores Significant effect for type of abuse (beyond gender)Wilks’ Lambda = 0.85, F(21, 1184) = 3.26, p < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.05 Univariate ANOVAs on each DV: Significant effect for type of abuse on TSC-40F(3, 418)= 13.93, p= < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.09 Significant effect for type of abuse on 6 subscalesFs (3, 418) ≥ 5.35, ps ≤ 0.001, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.04 LSD pairwise comparisons: CPA, CSA, and CPA/CSA higher TSC-40 total scores than no abuse (ps ≤ 0.006) CPA/CSA higher TSC-40 total scores and 4 subscales (#1-4 as previously listed) than no abuse (ps ≤ 0.006) Model 2: MANCOVA with Covariates = severity of CPA and severity of CSA 7 DVs = TSC-40 total score and 6 subscale scores Significant effect for severity of physical abuse and for severity of sexual abuse Wilks’ Lambda = 0.90, F(7, 411) = 6.77, p < 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.10 Wilks’ Lambda = 0.94, F(7, 411) = 3.78, p = 0.001, ɳ p 2 = 0.06 Univariate ANOVAs on each DV: Significant effect for severity of CPA on TSC-40 and 6 subscalesβs ≥ 0.43, ts ≥ 4.14, ps < 0.001, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.04 Significant effect for severity of CSA on TSC-40 and 6 subscalesβs ≥ 0.96, ts ≥ 2.12, ps ≤ 0.034, ɳ p 2 ≥ 0.01 **Severity of CPA and CSA related to experiencing more trauma-related symptoms in adulthood Regression = severity of CPA and CSA as predictors of TSC-40 total scores Model with Step 1 = CSA severity and Step 2 = CPA SeverityR 2 = 0.105 (10.5% of explained varaince) CPA and CSA severity explains variability in TSC-40F(2, 431) = 25.32, p < 0.001 Step 1 = CSA SeverityR 2 = 0.031 F(1, 432) = 13.58, p < 0.001 Step 2 = addition of CPA SeverityR 2 = 0.075 FΔ (1, 432) = 35.97, p < 0.001 **Severity of CSA and CPA account for variability in TSC-40 total scores, with CPA Severity adding the most explanation The TSC-40 is an appropriate measure for the traumatic sequelae of both CPA and CSA in a non-clinical sample Because we controlled for gender, our findings help to support the validity of the TSC-40 Traumatic legacy of either CPA or CSA may be just as strong as CPA and CSA together Severity of CPA and CSA leads to greater residual trauma-related symptoms Limitations: Is a college sample equivalent to a community sample? Our rate of CPA was consistent with other studies, but our rate of CSA was lower than other studies, even those looking at college samples Strengths: 1) large sample size and adequate statistical power; 2) reduced alpha inflation and Type II error; 3) contributions to literature of the negative sequelae of CPA and CSA in a nonclinical sample Future Directions: Examine TSC-40 in a broader way than typically used (CSA and CPA; nonclinical samples; college samples) DISCUSSION:
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