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WORKING WITH WATERMILLS Harnessing the Energy of the River Institute Of Electrical And Electronic Engineers, Phoenix Section Teacher In Service Program.

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Presentation on theme: "WORKING WITH WATERMILLS Harnessing the Energy of the River Institute Of Electrical And Electronic Engineers, Phoenix Section Teacher In Service Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORKING WITH WATERMILLS Harnessing the Energy of the River Institute Of Electrical And Electronic Engineers, Phoenix Section Teacher In Service Program / Engineers In The Classroom (TISP/EIC) “Helping Students Transfer What Is Learned In The Classroom To The World Beyond” Arizona Science Lab:

2 COPYRIGHT NOTICE This Presentation Includes Material Copied From The Web Sites: Youtube - Cooper's Mill Waterwheel In Action, Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=y_yeyaewvrk&feature=related Youtube – Water Wheel 2, Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=p7a_4vp6v80&feature=related Youtube - Fun In Alasr Rever Hama-syria 2, Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=og7-zzjt5by&feature=player_embedded Wikipedia – Water Wheel, Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Water_wheel Wikipedia – Noria, Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Noria Wikipedia – Wheel And Axle, Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Wheel_and_axle Encyclopedia Britannica – Wheel and Axle, Http://Www.Britannica.Com/Ebchecked/Topic/641655/Wheel-and-axle This Presentation May Only Be Used Free Of Charge And Only For Educational Purposes, And May Not Be Sold Or Otherwise Used For Commercial Purposes Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=y_yeyaewvrk&feature=related Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=p7a_4vp6v80&feature=related Http://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=og7-zzjt5by&feature=player_embeddedHttp://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Water_wheelHttp://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/NoriaHttp://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Wheel_and_axle Http://Www.Britannica.Com/Ebchecked/Topic/641655/Wheel-and-axle Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/20112AZ Science Lab

3 Noria Siria: An Ancient Undershot Syrian Waterwheel Video of Ancient Waterwheel here! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab3

4 The Science and Engineering of Waterwheels & Watermills History – Watermills date back to 400 BC! Energy – Rivers: Kinetic and Potential Energy Waterwheel Design – Capture the Energy Simple Machines – The Power of Leverage Build a Waterwheel! Today: Capturing the River – Hydroelectric Power Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/20114AZ Science Lab

5 What is Energy? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab5

6 What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work During the day, the sun gives out light and heat energy. At night, street lamps use electrical energy to light our way. When a car drives by, it is being powered by gasoline, a type of stored energy. The food we eat contains energy. We use that energy to work and play. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab6

7 What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work During the day, the sun gives out light and heat energy. At night, street lamps use electrical energy to light our way. When a car drives by, it is being powered by gasoline, a type of stored energy. The food we eat contains energy. We use that energy to work and play. Energy can be found in a number of different forms. It can be chemical energy, electrical energy, heat (thermal energy), light (radiant energy), mechanical energy, and nuclear energy. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab7

8 What is work? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab8

9 What is work? Work is a Force applied over a Distance So, it takes energy to do work and, Work = Force * Distance Work is moving something! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab9

10 What is a Force? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab10

11 What is a Force? A Force is a push or a pull that changes the state of motion of an object. Energy is transferred by a force. Windmill A windmill has a wheel that rotates by the force of the movement of wind. Waterwheel A waterwheel has a wheel that rotates by the force of the movement and weight of water. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201111AZ Science Lab

12 The Power of Wind A common scene in some parts of the countryside is a wind farm. High speed wind is used to exert a force on the blades of a windmill. As the blades spin, their mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Clean power – renewable energy! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201112AZ Science Lab

13 Watermills A watermill is a structure that uses a waterwheel or turbine, a wheel with blades or buckets around the outer edge, to capture the energy of the river. The rotary energy then drives a mechanical process: grinding flour, sawing lumber, or shaping metal. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201113AZ Science Lab

14 Watermills Were Used In Many Applications Gristmills, or corn mills, grind grains into flour. These were the most common kind of mill. Sawmills cut timber into lumber. Textile mills for spinning yarn or weaving cloth. Stamp mills for crushing ore, usually from non- ferrous mines. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201114AZ Science Lab

15 Gristmill (Or Corn Mill) A grist mill grinds grain into flour: Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201115AZ Science Lab

16 Stamp Mills: Crush Metallic Ore Stamp Mill: Geever Tin Mine, Cornwall, England A Stamp Mill uses the cam system on the left to lift large, heavy hammers for crushing rock ore Transformation: rotary motion into linear motion Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201116AZ Science Lab

17 A Stamp Mill – Crushing Ore Video of a Stamp Mill Crushing Ore here Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab17

18 A Sawmill A sawmill cuts tree trunks into lumber: Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201118AZ Science Lab

19 Waterwheel Driven Saw Mill, Sherbrooke, N.S. Video of a sawmill here Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab19

20 What Makes Watermills Work So Well? Waterwheels capture the energy of the river. The water exerts a force on the buckets at the rim of the water wheel. The size of the force is multiplied at the axle. The axle force is converted and used to do work. What does all this mean and how does it work?

21 Water Flows Downhill Rivers start high in mountains and flow down to the oceans. Gravity pulls the water down so it flows. This flowing water has a lot of energy! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201121AZ Science Lab

22 The Energy of Flowing Rivers But – How does the water get to the top of the mountains? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201122AZ Science Lab

23 River Flow Cycle The energy of the sun!!! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201123AZ Science Lab

24 Hydrological Cycle This is Renewable Energy! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201124AZ Science Lab

25 Renewable Energy All energy on the earth* comes from the sun! Wind energy can be used when available – not always reliable. Solar energy also can be used when available River energy can be diverted, stored and used later: Hoover Dam: Colorado River Lake Mead Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201125AZ Science Lab *Except Nuclear Energy

26 Two Basic Forms Of Energy Kinetic Energy is energy of motion: the flowing river. Potential Energy is energy of position: a high lake. Water has potential energy due to its height (position). As gravity pulls the water down to a lower position the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. So, water has both kinetic energy (flow) and potential energy (height). Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201126AZ Science Lab

27 Roller Coaster - Example Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201127AZ Science Lab

28 Conservation of Energy The law of conservation of energy: the total energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another form. Potential kinetic heat light … Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201128AZ Science Lab

29 Rivers, Energy, and Force Some rivers have mostly just kinetic energy – a slow flowing river. OR some rivers have both potential and kinetic energy – a lake and a waterfall. Waterwheels can capture both forms of energy: potential (height) and kinetic (flow) Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201129AZ Science Lab

30 Waterwheel Design Based on Water Flow Undershot WheelOvershot WheelBreastshot Wheel Engineer the Waterwheel to Capture All of the Energy of the River Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201130AZ Science Lab

31 An Undershot Water Wheel Generally used in flat areas without hills or mountains The oldest and least efficient design Cheap and simple to build Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201131AZ Science Lab

32 The “Noria” Undershot Water Wheel The oldest waterwheel, dating from at least the 1st century B.C. This picture: Norias in Hama on the Orontes River in Syria “Noria” is a Spanish word and finds its origin in the Arabic word “naurah” — which means “the wailer”! Norias can be up to 65 ft high! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201132AZ Science Lab

33 An Overshot Water Wheel Used in hilly and mountainous areas More efficient design and more expensive than an undershot wheel The falling water collects in the buckets Both the weight of the water and the flow turns the wheel Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201133AZ Science Lab

34 The “Old Mill” Overshot Wheel This picture: Waterwheel which powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia It is 42’ high! Why is the wheel so large? Where does the water come from and how does it get to the wheel? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201134AZ Science Lab

35 Cooper's Mill Overshot Waterwheel Video of Overshot waterwheel here Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab35

36 A Breastshot Water Wheel Works best for steady high volume flows A compromise between the overshot and undershot designs Most recent, developed in the 16 th century Used extensively in North America Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201136AZ Science Lab

37 The “Chalgrove” Breastshot Water Wheel This photo: Waterwheel at Chalgrove, England Breastshot wheels were frequently made very wide to increase their power output. The early industrial revolution was powered by breastshot waterwheels as much as 22 ft wide! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201137AZ Science Lab

38 A Small Breastshot Water Wheel Driving An Electric Generator Video of Waterwheel Driving Generator here Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab38

39 Characteristics Of Water Wheels A large diameter wheel Buckets or paddles spaced equidistant around the edge An axle that connects to whatever the wheel is driving A water supply: – Underneath (undershot) – Over the top (overshot) – Mid-way (breastshot) Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201139AZ Science Lab

40 What Have We Learned So Far? Waterwheels capture the energy of the river Watermills transfer that energy to do work Where does the energy come from? Energy can be potential or kinetic and is always conserved Waterwheel design maximizes efficiency based on river flow Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201140AZ Science Lab

41 What Makes Waterwheels Work So Well? Energy flow: river->wheel->axel->tool Need to multiply the force at the tool: To power saw blade To turn grinding stone Force is multiplied by leverage! The Waterwheel is a Simple Machine!

42 Simple Machines A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. They use mechanical advantage (also called leverage) to multiply force. The six classical simple machines: LeverInclined plane Wheel and axleWedge PulleyScrew We are most interested in the lever and the wheel and axle machines for the watermill. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201142AZ Science Lab

43 The Six Simple Machines These machines make it possible to apply a small force over a large distance to get a large force over a small distance. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201143AZ Science Lab

44 axe Loading ramp crowbar hammer bottle opener wheel barrow knife scissors can opener lid screw clamp shopping cart wheel chair pulley Some Everyday Examples of Simple Machines Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201144AZ Science Lab

45 How can we multiply Force? Work = Force * Distance Change the distance over which the force is applied – That is what Simple Machines do! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab45

46 The Lever: A Simple Machine The lever is the oldest simple machine – Ancient Egyptians used them to move the stone blocks for the pyramids – The original Native Americans used them to move rocks – The American pioneers used them to remove trees and rocks, lift logs onto cabin walls, and to jack up a wagon to change a broken wheel Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201146AZ Science Lab

47 Law Of The Lever And Mechanical Advantage FULCRUM Trade Force for Distance Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201147AZ Science Lab

48 Law Of The Lever And Mechanical Advantage The Law of the Lever is: Load arm X load force = effort arm X effort force That is:D1 x F1 = D2 x F2 = Work done! The Mechanical Advantage (MA) of the lever is defined as: Effort arm / Load arm = D2 / D1 FULCRUM Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201148AZ Science Lab

49 First Class Lever The fulcrum is located between the effort force and the load force Use this type of lever to change the direction and size of a force Example of a First Class Lever: – A crowbar or pry bar pulling a nail – A tire iron removing a car tire Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201149AZ Science Lab

50 Second Class Lever The load force is located between the effort force and the fulcrum Use this type of lever if you need a greater load force in the same direction as the effort force Example of a Second Class Lever: – A wheel barrow Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201150AZ Science Lab

51 Third Class Lever The effort force is located between the load force and the fulcrum Use this type of lever to reduce the distance over which you apply the effort force or to increase the speed of the end of the lever Example of a Third Class Lever: – A hammer driving a nail – A baseball bat hitting the ball Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201151AZ Science Lab

52 Double Crane Compound levers are used for more mechanical advantage How many levers in this crane? Examples of Compound Levers: – A bolt cutter is an example of a common tool that uses compound levers to increase the mechanical advantage Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201152AZ Science Lab

53 Simple Machine: Wheel And Axle The wheel and axle is a simple machine A wheel and axle is a lever that rotates in a circle around a center point or fulcrum — a “continuous lever” The larger wheel (or outside) rotates around the smaller wheel (axle) Bicycle wheels, waterwheels, windmills and gears are all examples of a wheel and axle Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201153AZ Science Lab

54 Simple Machine: Wheel And Axle (cont’d) The ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle is calculated with the following formula: Example of a Wheel And Axle: – A socket wrench tightening or loosening a bolt – A can opener opening a can Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201154AZ Science Lab

55 The Water Wheel Is A “Wheel And Axle” Simple Machine R = Radius of wheel A = Radius of Axle The mechanical advantage is: R/A a Demonstration wheel: R = 30 cms A = 1.25 cms Mechanical Advantage = 30/1.25 = 24 Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201155AZ Science Lab

56 The Water Wheel Is A “Continuous Lever” One bucket=236 mL of water Weight of the water is 0.236 kg (1 liter of water weighs 1 kg!) Mechanical Advantage of the wheel is 24: 0.236 kg can balance a milk container weight of 24 x 0.236 kg = 5.664 kg at the axle! Now multiply that load weight / force for one bucket by the number of full and partially full buckets! Hence the power of a watermill! Milk container of water on rope around wheel axle is upward Bucket lever arm force is downwards Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201156AZ Science Lab

57 Let’s Build A Watermill! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201157AZ Science Lab

58 The Engineering Process: How We Work Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201158AZ Science Lab

59 Designing a Water Wheel Constraints and Variables Make Engineering Tradeoffs: – Size of axle – fixed – Size of hub – fixed – Size of cups/paddles – variable – Number of cups/paddles – variable – Distance of cups/paddles from center (size of the wheel) – variable – Shape of the cups/paddles - variable Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201159AZ Science Lab

60 What Is Most Important? Engineering and Reengineering are the key! You need to engineer, test, measure, reengineer, test, measure, … Through this process you can build the best watermill you can!! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201160AZ Science Lab

61 The Rules! You will work in teams of two. You can use any of the materials laid out on the tables in the lab. Keep in mind that all your parts will be exposed to water. Your design has to operate in a water stream for three minutes without falling apart. It has to lift a load of steel washers by winding up a string on the axle. Be sure to watch the tests of the other teams and observe how their different designs worked. After testing your first design, see if you can improve the design to overcome the deficiencies you noted. Make and test as many different wheel designs as you have time for! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201161AZ Science Lab

62 Wrap up What have we learned? – Energy of the river – where does it come from? – Potential and kinetic energy – what is the difference? – Waterwheel designs – how are they different? – Simple machines – what do they do? – Engineering a waterwheel/watermill – what is best? Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201162AZ Science Lab

63 A Modern Watermill: Hydroelectric Power Today, hydroelectric power plants harness the power of water to provide electricity throughout the world. A hydroelectric plant uses the power of passing water to turn a propeller or wheel-like device called a turbine — the turbine in turn rotates a shaft in an electric generator to produce electricity. The turbine is a modern, more efficient form of the ancient waterwheel. Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201163AZ Science Lab

64 Hydroelectric Power Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201164AZ Science Lab

65 VIDEO:Hoover Dam Video of Hoover Dam operation here Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/2011AZ Science Lab65

66 Renewable Energy! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201166AZ Science Lab

67 Science & Engineering Is science and engineering fun? You must each find your passion. Many great careers in science & engineering! Do what you really enjoy and earn a great living! Watermills V2.0 - 12/12/201167AZ Science Lab


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