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Chapter 4 Growth of a New Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Growth of a New Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Growth of a New Nation

2 Land Acquisitions and Explorations
Treaty of Paris (1783) Land Ordinance of (1785) Northwest Ordinance (1787) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Reservations Lewis and Clark expedition (1804 – 1806) Sacajawea Alabama was declared a state in 1819

3 Treaty of Paris In the treaty, Britain recognized independence of the U.S. and the border of the new nation The border extended to Canada in the north, to the Mississippi River in the West ,and the northern border of Spanish Florida in the South

4 Land Ordinance of 1785 This act was accomplished under the Articles of Confederation Stated that the land area from the Ohio River to the Mississippi River would be made into new states, each with the same rights as the original 13 states

5 Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Allowed for the creation of 3 to 5 states in the Northwest Territory which included all lands west of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi The law prohibited slavery in the territory and guaranteed inhabitants freedom of religion, trial by jury, and access to free public education Later, the states of Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Indiana were formed from this territory

6 The Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson sent representatives to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. Initially, Napoleon was not interested in selling New Orleans because he hoped to revitalize the French colonial empire in the western hemisphere, including the island of Haiti. After Toussaint L’Ouverture led the people of Haiti to resist French control and Britain resumed its war with France, Napoleon surprised Jefferson by offering to sell not only New Orleans but the entire 900,000 square miles of the Louisiana region for the relatively small price of $15 million. The Louisiana Purchase was the U.S.’ largest land purchase, nearly doubling the country’s size

7 Louisiana Purchase

8 Louisiana Purchase

9 Louisiana Purchase

10 Reservations Tiny parcels of land where Native Americans were forced to when the settlers wanted their land

11 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was sent to lead an expedition to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean This exploration led to the rapid migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest


13 Sacajawea Native American Shoshone woman who became Lewis and Clark’s translator and guide

14 Alabama Alabama was declared a state in 1819

15 President James Monroe
Era of Good Feelings Monroe Doctrine

16 James Monroe Democratic-Republican, who was the fifth president of the U.S.

17 Era of Good Feeling The national unity and optimistic mood during Monroe’s presidency

18 Monroe Doctrine Declared that the U.S. would not interfere in the internal affairs of European countries or the independent countries in the Americas It went on to say that the U.S. would oppose any European intervention and view any intervention as unfriendly


20 Important Inventions Eli Whitney Robert Fulton George Stephenson

21 Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin, a machine that separated the seeds from the cotton Also turned to the manufacture of muskets. In this industry, he introduced the idea of interchangeable parts, where each part of the musket was produced with such precision that it could fit with all other parts

22 Robert Fulton Used a steam-powered boat, the Clermont, to travel up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in record time.

23 George Stephenson Won a competition with his steam-powered locomotive, the Rocket. Although others had used steam engines to power locomotives, Stephenson’s Rocket could pull both freight and passengers faster than any other locomotive of its time

24 Henry Clay’s American System

25 Henry Clay A prominent senator from Kentucky, who proposed the American System

26 American System A Protective Tariff – tax on imports to keep American manufacturing growing. Tariff of 1816 – raised tariffs on imports by 20 percent International Improvements – To facilitate interstate commerce (better canals and roadways) A Strong National Bank – Clay encouraged Congress to charter the Second Bank of the United States (1816) in order to stabilize currency and hold government funds

27 Roads and Canals National Road Erie Canal Steamboats

28 National Road Stretched westward from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, Virginia.

29 Erie Canal Provided a new shipping route from Buffalo, New York, to Albany, New York Established New York City as the major commercial center of the U.S.

30 Steamboats Became widely used to get cargo down the Mississippi River

31 President Andrew Jackson
Jacksonian Democracy Spoils System Doctrine of Nullification

32 Jacksonian Democracy People elected Andrew Jackson because they felt he represented the common man His presidency became known as Jacksonian Democracy because property qualifications for voting white males were dropped during his administration

33 Spoils System When Jackson openly allowed his friends and supporters to have high positions in government office

34 Doctrine of Nullification
States: “If Congress passes a bill that is very harmful to a particular state, that state is not obligated to enforce the federal law. In addition, if ¾ of the states believe such a law to be unconstitutional, the law will be null and void.”

35 The Indian Removal Act Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears

36 Indian Removal Act Because he sympathized with white settlers in the Southeast who were hungry for land and gold, Jackson, with the help of Congress, ordered the forced removal of 5 Native American Nations: Creeks – located in Alabama; Choctaws – located in Mississippi; Chicasaws – located in Mississippi; Seminoles – located in Florida; and Cherokees – located in Georgia. These peoples were forced onto reservations in present-day Oklohoma Native Americans appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that the Native Americans could not be forcibly removed from their land. Jackson, however, disregarded the ruling of the Supreme court, and sent troops to remove the Native Americans from their land. Jackson was especially harsh toward the Cherokee nation who had helped him defeat the Creeks of Alabama in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend

37 Trail of Tears Refers to the forced removal of the 5 Native American Nations: Creeks, Choctaws, Chicasaws, Seminoles, and Cherokees These Native American Nations were forced to march 800 miles to the lands of Oklahoma. Over ¼ of the people died on this trail of tears from disease, starvation, and exposure to bitter cold


39 Trail of Tears

40 The Trails The Oregon Trail The Mormon Trail The California Trail
The Santa Fe Trail

41 Oregon Trial Started by Nathaniel Wyeth, who led an expedition to colonize the coast of Oregon by the Columbia River. Provided new settlers with a way to reach the Pacific Coast

42 The Mormon Trail Trial followed by the Mormons, who belied in polygamy (marriage to more than one wife) They moved from town to town in the U.S. Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Mormons left Navoo, Illinois, and traveled to the Salt Lake area of present day Utah

43 The California Trail After gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill near Sacramento, tens of thousands of people in search of riches trekked to California. This migration of people was known as the Gold Rush of 1849. The trail westward began in Independence, Missouri

44 The Santa Fe Trail Also began in Independence, Missouri
Was a wagon route that President Monroe ordered established to increase trading with Mexico in Santa Fe The trail increased desire for later U.S. expansion in the Southwest

45 Texas Independence Stephen Austin General Antonio Santa Anna
Sam Houston Alamo Battle of San Jacinto

46 Stephen Austin Brought a group of settlers to Texas, a part of Mexico that was sparsely populated by Spanish and native Mexicans. By 1830, there were more than 20,000 settlers in Texas. They began talking of breaking away from Mexico. After an unsuccessful revolt by a small number of Texans in 1826, the Mexican government restricted further immigration

47 General Santa Anna In 1834, he assumed dictatorial power over the Mexican government, dispensed with the Mexican constitution, and tightened his control over U.S. settlers in Texas. In response, Sam Houston led settlers to fight and take over cities. Santa Anna answered with military force, killing all of the Texans in an old mission near San Antonio called the Alamo (March 6, 1836)

48 Alamo Old mission near San Antonio, where Santa Anna killed all of the Texans that were fighting with Sam Houston to take over cities Just 4 days earlier, a convention of 59 Anglo-American Texan delegates had declared the Republic of Texas independent from Mexico

49 Battle of San Jacinto After a series of battles, the Texans defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836) and took him hostage In exchange for his freedom, Santa Anna promised to recognize the Republic of Texas, however, he still laid claim to the land north of the Rio Grande to the Nueces River The Mexican congress rejected Santa Anna’s agreement with the Texans, and hoped to regain Texas

50 The Mexican – American War
Manifest Destiny New Mexico Mexican – American War

51 Manifest Destiny Belief that it was God’s will for the U.S. to expand and eventually posses the entire continent

52 New Mexico In June 1845, President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate the purchase of California and New Mexico (area between Texas and California). After the Mexican president refused to meet with Slidell, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to move his troops into the disputed territory between the Nueces River and Rio Grande Rivers (March 8, 1845). In response, the Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked Taylor’s forces. Immediately, Polk demanded that Congress declare war on Mexico, which it did on May, 13, One month later, settlers from California, unaware of the war, declared their independence from Mexico and formed the Bear Flag Republic.

53 Mexican – American War (1846 – 1848)
U.S. forces overpowered Mexican troops. When U.S. troops marched into Mexico City, the Mexicans surrendered. In a peace treaty, Mexico gave up half of its land, selling the territories of California and New Mexico to the U.S. for the equivalent of $18 million. This immense land purchase added 1,200,000 square miles to the U.S., nearly fulfilling the country’s Manifest Destiny

54 Literature of the U.S. Noah Webster Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau Walt Whitman Nathaniel Hawthorne Washington Irving Edgar Allen Poe James Fenimore Cooper Emily Dickenson Herman Melville Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

55 Noah Webster Produced the American Dictionary of the English Language

56 Ralph Waldo Emerson Leader of the transcendental movement
Transcendentalists believed truth could be found beyond the physical world and that all humans share in the spiritual unity of creation They believed in individualism and self reliance and had a reverence for nature

57 Henry David Thoreau Writer, philosopher, and naturalist
Wrote about his motivation for living apart from society, his simple life style, and his observance of nature Most famous works are Walden and “Civil Disobedience”

58 Walt Whitman Emphasized the great worth of each individual
Believed in a oneness of all humanity, and he captured the idealistic spirit of his time in his poetry

59 Nathaniel Hawthorne Novelist who wrote about sin, punishment, and atonement Most famous works include the Scarlet Letter and the House of Seven Gables

60 Washington Irving First American writer to gain international fame
Most famous works include Rip Van Winkle and the Legend of Sleepy Hollow

61 Edgar Allen Poe Poet and master of the short story
Most famous works include The Tell – Tale Heart and The Raven

62 James Fenimore Cooper Novelists who became known as the first great American writer Most famous work was The Last of the Mohicans

63 Emily Dickenson Wrote more than 1800 poems while living in seclusion
Wrote about love, death, and immortality Today, she is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential poets of the U.S.

64 Herman Melville Based his novels on his experiences in the U.S. Navy
Greatest work was Moby Dick

65 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Popular poet of the 1800s Wrote Paul Rever’s Ride

66 Utopia Communities that would be harmonious and provide the best example of how to live

67 Amish, the Mennonites, the Shakers, and the Quakers
Both the Amish and the Mennonites established themselves in parts of Pennsylvania, the Midwest, and Canada. Their objective was to keep religious purity by living a life of simplicity and hard work Shakers followed the spiritual leadership of Ann Lee. All shakers believed in renouncing marriage in favor of celibacy (single life without sex). This movement produced a simple furniture style called “Shaker Style,” which is well known for its plainness and high quality Founded by George Fox, the Quakers started as a group of individuals who believed that each person was gifted with “inner light.” This group is noted for their belief in personal divine revelation, usually accompanied by a worshiper shaking or “quaking,” as well as their objection to war, slavery, and mistreatment of Native Americans

68 Social Reform Movements
Horace Mann Dorothea Dix Temperance Movement Abolition Movement 1. Harriet Tubman 2. Frederick Douglas 3. Harriet Beecher Stowe 4. Sojourner Truth 5. William Lloyd Garrison Women’s Rights Movement 1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 2. Susan B. Anthony

69 Horace Mann Influential American educator who advocated the education of both men and women through public funding He opposed corporal punishment in schools, and helped to create the state board of education in Massachusettes, the first in the U.S. Also helped establish state hospitals for the insane and spoke against the sale of alcoholic beverages and lottery tickets

70 Dorothea Dix Impacted society by promoting legislation to improve mental institutions and prisons

71 Temperance Movement Members of this movement wanted to moderate the use of alcohol. Later, they advocated total abstinence from alcohol In the 1850s, they supported the Maine Laws which regulated or prohibited the sale of alcohol

72 Abolition Movement Abolitionists believed slavery was wrong, and they advocated laws to abolish it (put an end to it)

73 Harriet Tubman Escaped slavery by running away to the North
Later, she returned to the South secretly 19 times to lead other slave to freedom using the Underground Railroad The underground railroad was not actually a railroad but a network of people who helped slaves escape to the northern U.S. or Canada

74 Frederick Douglas After escaping to Maryland, he educated himself and became the most prominent African American speaker for the abolition of slavery

75 Harriet Beecher Stowe Furthered the abolitionist cause through her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin Though she was white, and was never a slave, her fictional account of the horrible experiences of a slave family motivated many people to support the abolition of slavery

76 Sojourner Truth Born into slavery, but was freed when New York emancipated slaves in 1828 She supported the equality of people of all colors Also supported the equality of men and women by speaking for women’s rights

77 William Lloyd Garrison
Founded the influential, anti-slavery newspaper called the Liberator and helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society

78 Women’s Rights Movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony

79 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organized the first women’s rights convention known as the Seneca Falls Convention. She believed men and women were created equal and fought for women’s right to vote. Also advocated the abolition of slavery

80 Susan B. Anthony Supported the temperance movement to ban alcohol, the abolition movement to free slaves, and the women’s rights movement. Best known for joining with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to fight for women’s rights and, in particular, women’s right to vote. Women who supported the right to vote were known as suffragettes It was their efforts that changed the constitution with the 19th amendment in 1920

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