Describe various strategies for improving memory Understand how such strategies are related to memory research
Memory theories can be used to help us improve our memories NOTE THAT ‘MNEMONIC’ IS A GENERAL TERM FOR ANY STRATEGY – DO NOT REFER TO IT AS A SPECIFIC STRATEGY. Organisation is a key factor Several techniques have been devised (mnemonics) and include the peg-word system, method of loci and the keyword system. Effective retrieval can depend on how information was encoded Active processing seems to be more effective than rote learning i.e. understanding is better than rehearsal
Deese (1959) Which of the following lists is likely to have better recall? Butterfly, moth, insect, wing, bird, fly, yellow, net, pretty, flower, bug, cocoon, colour, stomach, blues, bees Table, basket, grass, paper, tiger, kettle, boat, sound, tent, lorry, cupboard, ball, clock, leaf, phone, shirt
If we have organised information or if there is a schema attached. You should take advice because more expensive is not always better. It is important to try out different types before making a decision as individuals have preferences and it has to feel right. Posture is also important as this can cause back problems so it is a good idea to have the right chair or stool. Once you have decided it is important to protect it from extreme temperature as this can have an effect. It is also good to keep it dust-free.
If given the title It may be easier to recall the information rather than learning it all by rote.
Think of a familiar route (around your house or the walk to school) Link each of the images with something on the route
How many times can you use the same route or loci for different things? Can you recall each item straightaway or do you have to trace out the whole route? It takes time to perfect this method.
Godden and Baddeley (1975) The place where material is learnt can affect recall. Underwater divers learnt wordlists either on dry land or under water. Recall was better in the same context. This is the encoding specificity principle. Things are recalled better if the retrieval context is the same as the encoding context.
One bun Two shoe Three tree Four door Five hive Six sticks Seven heaven Eight gate Nine line Ten hen
Learn the peg words Visualise the items to be remembered and imagine them interacting with the item of the appropriate number, e.g. fish in a bun, apples in a shoe etc. Try the following list
Eggs Bread Biscuits Tomatoes Potatoes Cheese Jam Pasta Juice cornflakes Try to recall these in about an hour
Initial rhyme has to be learnt by rote This involves more effort than when using loci because the route is already known Interference will occur if used for more than one list Fairly slow as the list has to be repeated Abstract words are difficult to use e.g. hope in a tree? Needs extensive practice.
ACRONYM Take the first letter of the items you are trying to remember and make a new word out of them. E.g. BRASS is used to remember how to shoot a rifle: Breathe, Relax, Aim, Sight, Squeeze ACROSTIC Similar to acronym, but instead of making a word out of the first letters, you make a sentence. E.g. My Very Educated Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas to learn the order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
Devise an experiment to test any of these strategies. What is the: aim hypothesis? design independent variable dependent variable?
1. What is meant by mnemonics? 1 mark 2. Give an example of a mnemonic? 2 marks 3. What is visual imagery? 1 mark 4. why is it important for us to understand the material we are trying to learn? 2 marks 5. Explain how the encoding specificity principle can help us to improve memory? 2 marks