# United Nations Statistics Division ISIC Rev.4 – Some concepts and changes.

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United Nations Statistics Division ISIC Rev.4 – Some concepts and changes

2 ISIC – concepts Top-down methodTop-down method Vertical integrationVertical integration OutsourcingOutsourcing

3 Top-down method Method has not changed from previous versions of ISICMethod has not changed from previous versions of ISIC Exception for trade activities have been made explicitException for trade activities have been made explicit Applies to units carrying out multiple activitiesApplies to units carrying out multiple activities -> selection of unit is important ! (but this is not an ISIC issue)

4 Top-down method The top-down method follows a hierarchical principle: the classification of a unit at the lowest level of the classification must be consistent with the classification of the unit at the higher levels of the structure. To satisfy this condition the process starts with the identification of the relevant position at the highest level and progresses down through the levels of the classification in the following way:The top-down method follows a hierarchical principle: the classification of a unit at the lowest level of the classification must be consistent with the classification of the unit at the higher levels of the structure. To satisfy this condition the process starts with the identification of the relevant position at the highest level and progresses down through the levels of the classification in the following way:

5 Top-down method 1.Identify the section which has the highest share of the value added. 2.Within this section identify the division which has the highest share of the value added within this section. 3.Within this division identify the group which has the highest share of the valued added within this division. 4.Within this group identify the class which has the highest share of value added within this group. (Box 1)

6 Top-down method For wholesale and retail trade, step 3 has to be refinedFor wholesale and retail trade, step 3 has to be refined Why?Why? Additional levels exist that are not part of the ISIC structure itself, e.g.Additional levels exist that are not part of the ISIC structure itself, e.g. Own-account vs. fee-basedOwn-account vs. fee-based Specialized vs. non-specializedSpecialized vs. non-specialized In-store vs. not-in-storeIn-store vs. not-in-store (Box 2)

7 Top-down method The rules may sound complicated, but: Reflect more complex composition of trade activities in ISICReflect more complex composition of trade activities in ISIC Driven by the desire for more detail in this areaDriven by the desire for more detail in this area Provide definitions for specialized vs. non- specialized trade activitiesProvide definitions for specialized vs. non- specialized trade activities “the line has to be drawn somewhere”“the line has to be drawn somewhere”

8 Treatment of vertically integrated activities Vertical integration of activities occurs where the different stages of production are carried out in succession by the same unit and where the output of one process serves as input to the next.Vertical integration of activities occurs where the different stages of production are carried out in succession by the same unit and where the output of one process serves as input to the next. Examples of common vertical integration:Examples of common vertical integration: tree felling and subsequent sawmillingtree felling and subsequent sawmilling production of wearing apparel in a textile millproduction of wearing apparel in a textile mill

9 Treatment of vertically integrated activities Vertical integration should be treated like any other form of multiple activities, i.e. the principal activity of the unit is the activity accounting for the largest share of value added, as determined by the top-down method.Vertical integration should be treated like any other form of multiple activities, i.e. the principal activity of the unit is the activity accounting for the largest share of value added, as determined by the top-down method. This treatment has changed from previous versions of ISIC.This treatment has changed from previous versions of ISIC. If value added or substitutes cannot be determined for the individual steps in a vertically integrated process directly from accounts compiled by the unit itself, comparisons with similar units could be used. Alternatively, valuation of intermediate or final products could be based on market prices.If value added or substitutes cannot be determined for the individual steps in a vertically integrated process directly from accounts compiled by the unit itself, comparisons with similar units could be used. Alternatively, valuation of intermediate or final products could be based on market prices.

10 Stability rule Units may change their principal activity, either at once or gradually over a period of time, either because of seasonal factors or because of a management decision to vary the pattern of output. While all these cases call for the classification of the unit to be changed, too frequent changes could result in inconsistencies between short term (monthly and quarterly) and longer term statistics, making their interpretation extremely difficult.Units may change their principal activity, either at once or gradually over a period of time, either because of seasonal factors or because of a management decision to vary the pattern of output. While all these cases call for the classification of the unit to be changed, too frequent changes could result in inconsistencies between short term (monthly and quarterly) and longer term statistics, making their interpretation extremely difficult.

11 Stability rule Whenever a unit performs two activities both contributing to around 50% of the value added, a stability rule has been established in order to avoid frequent changes not reflecting a substantial change in the economic reality. According to this rule, the change of the principal activity should be made when the current one had been accounting less than 50% of the value added for at least two years.Whenever a unit performs two activities both contributing to around 50% of the value added, a stability rule has been established in order to avoid frequent changes not reflecting a substantial change in the economic reality. According to this rule, the change of the principal activity should be made when the current one had been accounting less than 50% of the value added for at least two years.

12 Outsourcing Can take many forms: Outsourcing of labourOutsourcing of labour Outsourcing of support functionsOutsourcing of support functions Outsourcing of parts of a production processOutsourcing of parts of a production process Outsourcing of the complete production processOutsourcing of the complete production process

13 Outsourcing - Terminology: Principal = unit that enters in a contractual relationship with another unit (here called contractor) to carry out some part of the whole production process. Sometimes, the terms "converter" or "contractor" had also been used.Principal = unit that enters in a contractual relationship with another unit (here called contractor) to carry out some part of the whole production process. Sometimes, the terms "converter" or "contractor" had also been used. Contractor = unit that carries out a specific production process based on a contractual relationship with a Principal. The term "subcontractor" had been used too. In NACE, the activities performed by the contractor are denominated "on a fee or contract basis".Contractor = unit that carries out a specific production process based on a contractual relationship with a Principal. The term "subcontractor" had been used too. In NACE, the activities performed by the contractor are denominated "on a fee or contract basis". Outsourcing = contractual agreement according to which the principal requires the contractor to carry out a specific production process. Sometimes, the term "subcontracting" is used as well.Outsourcing = contractual agreement according to which the principal requires the contractor to carry out a specific production process. Sometimes, the term "subcontracting" is used as well.

14 Outsourcing The principal and the contractor may be located in the same economic territory or in different economic territories: the actual location does not affect the classification of either one of these units.The principal and the contractor may be located in the same economic territory or in different economic territories: the actual location does not affect the classification of either one of these units.

15 Outsourcing Contractors, i.e. units carrying out an activity on a fee or contract basis, are usually classified with units producing the same goods or services for their own accountContractors, i.e. units carrying out an activity on a fee or contract basis, are usually classified with units producing the same goods or services for their own account Exceptions:Exceptions: TradeTrade ConstructionConstruction

16 Outsourcing - manufacturing In manufacturing, the principal provides the contractor the technical specifications of the manufacturing activity to be carried out on the input material.In manufacturing, the principal provides the contractor the technical specifications of the manufacturing activity to be carried out on the input material. The input material (raw or intermediate good) can either be provided (owned) by the principal or not.The input material (raw or intermediate good) can either be provided (owned) by the principal or not.

17 Outsourcing - manufacturing A principal who outsources only part of the transformation process is to be classified into manufacturing.A principal who outsources only part of the transformation process is to be classified into manufacturing. A principal who completely outsources the transformation process should be classified into manufacturing only if he owns the raw material used as input to the production process (and therefore owns the final output).A principal who completely outsources the transformation process should be classified into manufacturing only if he owns the raw material used as input to the production process (and therefore owns the final output).

18 Outsourcing - manufacturing In all other cases, the principals should be classified according to the value added principle: it might be in Section G "Wholesale and retail trade" (according to the activity and the specific good sold), or in other Sections such as M "Professional, Scientific and technical activities“ (e.g. designers).In all other cases, the principals should be classified according to the value added principle: it might be in Section G "Wholesale and retail trade" (according to the activity and the specific good sold), or in other Sections such as M "Professional, Scientific and technical activities“ (e.g. designers).

19 Outsourcing - manufacturing Output of outsourced activities:Output of outsourced activities: If principal owns the input materials:If principal owns the input materials: PrincipalContractor Service Good

20 Outsourcing - manufacturing Output of outsourced activities:Output of outsourced activities: If principal does not own the input materials:If principal does not own the input materials: PrincipalContractor Good Re-sale of good = trade service

21 Issues in individual ISIC sections

22 New classes in ISIC section K In section K, two classes have been introduced that go beyond the traditional scope of ISIC in covering economic production:In section K, two classes have been introduced that go beyond the traditional scope of ISIC in covering economic production: 6420 "Activities of holding companies"6420 "Activities of holding companies" 6430 "Trusts, funds and similar financial entities"6430 "Trusts, funds and similar financial entities" (Holding companies existed before in ISIC, but terminology was not clear – conflicting with SNA)

23 New classes in ISIC section K Units classified in these two classes do not have any revenue from the sale of products, and usually do not employ staff (except possibly one or a few persons acting as legal representatives).Units classified in these two classes do not have any revenue from the sale of products, and usually do not employ staff (except possibly one or a few persons acting as legal representatives). Such units are sometimes also known as:Such units are sometimes also known as: "brass plates", or "postal boxes" or "empty boxes", or "special purpose entities - SPEs" They are numerous in some countries because of tax advantages.They are numerous in some countries because of tax advantages.

24 New classes in ISIC section K When classifying a unit according to these two classes, attention should be paid also to other classes (two of them in section M, division 70) namely classes 7010 "Activities of head offices" and 7020 "Management consultancy activities".When classifying a unit according to these two classes, attention should be paid also to other classes (two of them in section M, division 70) namely classes 7010 "Activities of head offices" and 7020 "Management consultancy activities".

25 New classes in ISIC section K Specifically: 6420 "Activities of holding companies" refers to activities of holding companies, whose principal activity is owning the group, and that do not administer or manage the group;6420 "Activities of holding companies" refers to activities of holding companies, whose principal activity is owning the group, and that do not administer or manage the group; 6430 "Trusts, funds and similar financial entities" is very particular in ISIC, as it does not refer to an economic activity, but to units;6430 "Trusts, funds and similar financial entities" is very particular in ISIC, as it does not refer to an economic activity, but to units; 6630 "Fund management activities" includes activities carried out on a fee or contract basis;6630 "Fund management activities" includes activities carried out on a fee or contract basis;

26 New classes in ISIC section K And (in section M): 7010 "Activities of head offices" includes the overseeing and managing of the related units, exercising the operational control and day-to-day managing;7010 "Activities of head offices" includes the overseeing and managing of the related units, exercising the operational control and day-to-day managing; 7020 “Management consultancy activities" includes the consultancy activities related to issues like corporate strategic and organisational planning, marketing objectives and policies, human resources policies etc.7020 “Management consultancy activities" includes the consultancy activities related to issues like corporate strategic and organisational planning, marketing objectives and policies, human resources policies etc.

27 New classes in ISIC section K The identification of the principal activity of a unit performing several activities among those just mentioned should be made, as usual, on the basis of the value added principle. It should be taken into account that capital gains do not constitute value added, and therefore they should not be considered.The identification of the principal activity of a unit performing several activities among those just mentioned should be made, as usual, on the basis of the value added principle. It should be taken into account that capital gains do not constitute value added, and therefore they should not be considered.

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